MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Destruction is a German thrash metal band, formed in 1982. They are credited as one of the "Big Four" of the German thrash metal scene, the others being Kreator and Tankard. In addition to helping pioneer black metal by containing several elements of what was to become the genre, Destruction was part of the second wave of thrash metal in the late 1980s, along with American bands Testament, Sacred Reich, Death Angel and Dark Angel. For most of the 1990s, the band was not signed to a record label and was forced to self-produce their albums until they signed a contract with Nuclear Blast in the early 2000s. Inspired by Iron Maiden, Mercyful Fate, Motörhead and Venom, Destruction were formed as Knight of Demon in 1982; the original line-up featured vocalist and bassist Schmier, drummer Tommy Sandmann, guitarist Mike Sifringer. They soon changed their name to Destruction and released a demo titled Bestial Invasion of Hell in 1984. After this the group signed with Steamhammer Records and released an EP titled Sentence of Death that year.
Destruction released their first full-length album titled Infernal Overkill in 1985, followed by Eternal Devastation in 1986. The trio added a second guitarist, Harry Wilkens, released the EP Mad Butcher, the full-length album Release from Agony in 1988 a live recording Live Without Sense in 1989, Cracked Brain in 1990. In 1989, during the initial recording sessions of Cracked Brain, Schmier was fired from the band, was replaced by Poltergeist frontman André Grieder. Mike Sifringer continued to release albums under the moniker of "Neo-Destruction". In 1999, Schmier rejoined, things began to look up for the band as they signed a record deal with Nuclear Blast, they released three more albums: All Hell Breaks Loose in 2000, The Antichrist in 2001, Metal Discharge in 2003. The band would sign with AFM Records and release Inventor of Evil in 2005; that album was followed two years by the compilation of re-recorded songs Thrash Anthems, a year by D. E. V. O. L. U. T. I. O. N.. In February 2011, Destruction released Day of Reckoning.
A European tour with Overkill was scheduled for March 2011. Headlining dates in South America and North America were being planned for May; the band's thirteenth studio album, Spiritual Genocide, was released in November 23, 2012. Their next album, Under Attack, was released on May 13, 2016. Through an exclusive PledgeMusic campaign, Destruction recorded a sequel to Thrash Anthems titled Thrash Anthems II. Like its predecessor, this album is a compilation of more re-recordings of classic songs by the band; the band released a full download of the album through PledgeMusic for free to accompany all purchases of the physical copies of the album on July 18, 2017. The exclusive CDs/Vinyls were shipped in August 2017 and once sold out, Nuclear Blast will release a more available version at the end of the year. On January 23, 2018, it was announced that Vaaver had left Destruction "for family reasons", according to Schmier, he took time off in 2015 to be with his family following the birth of his second child.
Drummer Randy Black would temporarily replace him until the band finds a "worthy successor". He was announced as the band's new drummer. On February 28, it was announced. Destruction is working on a new album, due for release on August 8, 2019. Current membersMike Sifringer – guitars Marcel "Schmier" Schirmer – lead vocals, bass Randy Black – drums Damir Eskic – guitars, backing vocals Former membersUlf – vocals Tommy Sandmann – drums Harry Wilkens – guitars André Grieder – vocals Oliver "Olly" Kaiser – drums Thomas Rosenmerkel – vocals Michael "Ano" Piranio – guitars Christian Engler – bass Sven Vormann – drums Marc Reign – drums, backing vocals Wawrzyniec "Vaaver" Dramowicz – drums, backing vocals Infernal Overkill Eternal Devastation Release from Agony Cracked Brain The Least Successful Human Cannonball All Hell Breaks Loose The Antichrist Metal Discharge Inventor of Evil D. E. V. O. L. U. T. I. O. N. Day of Reckoning Spiritual Genocide Under Attack Official website Destruction at Nuclear Blast Destruction at AllMusic
Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. It employs distorted and low-tuned guitars, played with techniques such as palm muting and tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, powerful drumming featuring double kick and blast beat techniques, minor keys or atonality, abrupt tempo and time signature changes, chromatic chord progressions; the lyrical themes of death metal may invoke slasher film-stylized violence, occultism, Lovecraftian horror, mysticism, philosophy, science fiction, politics, they may describe extreme acts, including mutilation, torture, rape and necrophilia. Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal, death metal emerged during the mid-1980s. Bands such as Venom, Celtic Frost and Kreator were important influences on the genre's creation. Possessed, Necrophagia, Obituary and Morbid Angel are considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre. Niche record labels like Combat and Roadrunner began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate.
Since death metal has diversified, spawning several subgenres. Melodic death metal combines death metal elements with those of the new wave of British heavy metal. Technical death metal is a complex style, with uncommon time signatures, atypical rhythms, unusual harmonies and melodies. Death-doom combines the deep growled vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal with the slow tempos and melancholic atmosphere of doom metal. Deathgrind and pornogrind mix the complexity of death metal with the intensity and brevity of grindcore. Deathcore combines death metal with metalcore traits. Death'n' roll combines death metal's growled vocals and distorted, detuned guitar riffs with elements of 1970s hard rock and heavy metal. English heavy metal band Venom, from Newcastle, crystallized the elements of what became known as thrash metal, death metal and black metal, with their 1981 album Welcome to Hell, their dark, blistering sound, harsh vocals, macabre, proudly Satanic imagery proved a major inspiration for extreme metal bands.
Another influential band, formed in 1981. Although the band was a thrash metal act, Slayer's music was more violent than their thrash contemporaries Metallica and Anthrax, their breakneck speed and instrumental prowess combined with lyrics about death, violence and Satanism won Slayer a rabid cult following. According to AllMusic, their third album Reign in Blood inspired the entire death metal genre, it had a big impact on genre leaders such as Death and Morbid Angel. Possessed, a band that formed in the San Francisco Bay Area during 1983, is described by Allmusic as "connecting the dots" between thrash metal and death metal with their 1985 debut album, Seven Churches. While attributed as having a Slayer influence and former members of the band had cited Venom and Motörhead, as well as early work by Exodus, as the main influences on their sound. Although the group had released only two studio albums and an EP in their formative years, they have been described by music journalists and musicians as either being "monumental" in developing the death metal style, or as being the first death metal band.
Earache Records noted that "the likes of Trey Azagthoth and Morbid Angel based what they were doing in their formative years on the Possessed blueprint laid down on the legendary Seven Churches recording. Possessed arguably did more to further the cause of'Death Metal' than any of the early acts on the scene back in the mid-late 80's." During the same period as the dawn of Possessed, a second influential metal band was formed in Orlando, Florida: Death. Called Mantas, Death was formed in 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner, Kam Lee, Rick Rozz. In 1984 they released their first demo entitled Death followed by several more; the tapes circulated through the tape trader world establishing the band's name. With Death guitarist Schuldiner adopting vocal duties, the band made a major impact on the scene; the fast minor-key riffs and solos were complemented with fast drumming, creating a style that would catch on in tape trading circles. Schuldiner has been credited by Allmusic's Eduardo Rivadavia for being recognized as the "Father of Death Metal".
Death's 1987 debut release, Scream Bloody Gore, has been described by About.com's Chad Bowar as being the "evolution from thrash metal to death metal", "the first true death metal record" by the San Francisco Chronicle. Along with Possessed and Death, other pioneers of death metal in the United States include Macabre, Massacre, Cannibal Corpse,Obituary, Post Mortem. By 1989, many bands had been signed by eager record labels wanting to cash in on the subgenre, including Florida's Obituary, Morbid Angel and Deicide; this collective of death metal bands hailing from Florida are labeled as "Florida death metal". Morbid Angel pushed the genre's limits both musically and lyrically, with the release of their debut album Altars of Madness in 1989; the album "redefined what it meant to be heavy while influencing an upcoming class of brutal death metal." Death metal spread to Sweden in the late 1980s, flourishing with pioneers such as Carnage, God Macabre, Entombed and Unleashed. In the early 1990s, the rise of melodic death metal was recognized, with bands such as Dark Tranquillity, At the Gates, In Flames.
Following the original death metal innovators, new subgenres began by the end of the decade. British band Napalm Death became associated with death metal, in particular, on their 1990 album Harmony Corruption; this alb
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic and visual transgression"; the term refers to a more abrasive, underground, non-commercialized style associated with the speed metal, thrash metal, black metal, death metal and doom metal genres. Hardcore punk has been considered an integral part of the development of extreme metal, in the case of song structure and speed, in every case other than doom metal. Extreme metal acts set themselves apart from traditional heavy metal acts, such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest and Motörhead, by incorporating more abrasive musical characteristics such as higher tempos, increased aggression and a harsher extremity. In the majority of the world, extreme metal does not receive much radio-play or achieve high chart positions. Extreme metal's sonic excess is characterized by high levels of distortion, less focus on guitar solos and melody, emphasis on technical control, fast tempos.
Its thematic transgression can be found in more overt and/or serious references to Satanism and the darker aspects of human existence that are considered out of bounds or distasteful, such as death and war." "Visual transgression... medieval weaponry bloody/horrific artwork."According to ethnographer Keith Kahn-Harris, the defining characteristics of extreme metal can all be regarded as transgressive: the "extreme" traits noted above are all intended to violate or transgress given cultural, social or aesthetic boundaries. Kahn-Harris states that extreme metal can be "close to being... formless noise", at least to the uninitiated listener. He states that with extreme metal lyrics, they "offer no possibility of hope or redemption" and lyrics reference apocalyptic themes. Extreme metal lyrics describe Christianity as weak or submissive, many songs express misanthropic views such as "kill every thing". A small number of extreme metal bands and song lyrics make reference to far-right politics; the British band Venom are one of the first bands to venture into extreme metal territory, due to their ideological shift into themes of evil, the devil and hell.
Their first two albums, Welcome to Hell and Black Metal, are considered a major influence on thrash metal and extreme metal in general. This early work by Venom, in combination with bands like Discharge, The Exploited and Amebix as well as American hardcore punk brought integral elements into the budding extreme metal landscape at the time. In 1983, Metallica would release their debut album Kill'Em All, which fused elements of the new wave of British heavy metal with hardcore punk and the style of Motörhead, becoming the first thrash metal album, would be certified triple platinum. A few months Slayer would release their own thrash metal album Show No Mercy, influenced by the sounds of Venom, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Mercyful Fate; when extreme metal band Hellhammer first began making music, it was panned by critics, leading to the members forming Celtic Frost in its place, which proved influential on the progression of the genre. During this period, the line between extreme metal genres were blurred, as thrash metal bands such Slayer, Sodom and Kreator were integral to the first wave black metal scene.
The front cover of the Sarcófago's 1987 debut album, I. N. R. I. is regarded as a great influence on black metal's corpse paint style make-up. That record is considered one of the first wave black metal albums that helped shape the genre, their second album, The Laws of Scourge, was one of the first technical death metal records to be released. Black metal Death metal Doom metal Speed metal Thrash metal Subgenres of black metal Ambient black metal Folk black metal Industrial black metal Post-black metalBlackgaze Psychedelic black metal Symphonic black metal Subgenres of death metal Brutal death metal Industrial death metal Melodic death metal Slam death metal Symphonic death metal Technical death metal Subgenres of doom metal Epic doom Traditional doom Black-doomDepressive suicidal black metal Blackened death-doom Blackened death metalMelodic black-death War metal Blackened thrash metal Death-doomFuneral doom Deathrash Crossover thrash Crust punkBlackened crust GrindcoreBlackened grindcore Deathgrind Electrogrind Goregrind Noisegrind Pornogrind MetalcoreDeathcore Electronicore Mathcore Melodic metalcore Nu metalcore Progressive metalcore Sludge metal Black'n' roll Death'n' roll Gothic-doom Progressive doom Stoner metal Drone metal Pagan metal Viking metal Genres influenced by extreme metal but not considered extreme themselves: Avant-garde metal Funk metal, influenced by thrash metal Gothic metal, influenced by death-doom and doom metal Groove metal, influenced by thrash metal and death metal Neoclassical metal and power metal, influenced by speed metal and thrash metal Post-metal, influenced by doom metal and black metal Crocker, Chris.
Metallica: The Frayed Ends of Metal. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08635-0
Metal for the Brain
Metal for the Brain was Australia's largest heavy metal music festival. The event was held in Canberra annually towards the end of the year, featured Australian bands exclusively; the festival was established in November 1991 as a charity event for the National Brain Injury Foundation and continued as such until the final event in November 2006. In 1990, Canberra teenager Alec Hurley suffered severe and permanent brain damage and was rendered a quadriplegic after he attempted to stop a fight outside a night club. Hurley was left permanently disabled and, with little government assistance, his friend, Joel Green, of local death metal band Armoured Angel organised the first Metal for the Brain concert for 16 November 1991, to raise money for Hurley's benefit and the National Brain Injury Foundation; the first event featured six acts. Green and Armoured Angel organised the festival each year until 1996. After this, the event was put together by another Canberra band, the only act to have appeared at every Metal for the Brain.
From 1990 to 1996, the festival was held at the ANU Bar. It moved to Canberra University in 2000; the final Metal for the Brain festival was held on 4 November 2006. In a country where heavy metal bands are neglected or reviled by the alternative music press and industry, Metal for the Brain grew since its inception. By 2000, the show had grown so big that it necessitated a move to a new venue from its long-time home at the ANU. From a bill of only six bands in 1991, by 2006 Metal for the Brain featured more than 30 and extended for more than 14 hours across three stages. In 2000, an international act was added to the show for the first time when Canadian metal pioneers Voivod headlined the event. German thrash band Destruction and Japanese thrash band Sun's Owl were booked to play MFTB in 2002. However, due to insurance problems the show was cancelled for the first time ever. Over the years, the musical focus of the event moved from death and black metal bands to a variety of styles and in years nu metal, hard rock, progressive rock and hardcore bands took to the various stages.
This caused some discontent among some sections of the heavy metal fan base, but MFTB remained the single largest event on the calendar for Australian metal fans. Overseas touring commitments for Alchemist meant the festival was not held in 2004, but returned in February 2005; that year, smaller versions of the festival were held in Perth. Alchemist played at these shows. On 25 July 2006, an announcement was made on the heavy metal radio show Full Metal Racket on Triple J that the festival that year would be the last. US death metal band Skinless headlined the show. In 2014 a documentary film, Metal down under: a history of Australian heavy metal, included a section on Metal for the Brain. 16 November 1991 - Armoured Angel, Adrenalin, Precursor, Nemesis 14 November 1992 - Hard Ons, The Hammonds, Bladder Spasms, Armoured Angel, Percursor, Cyborium, Manticore 13 November 1993 - Christbait, Acheron, Armoured Angel, Manticore, Catharsis, Public Hanging November 1994 - Cruciform, Armoured Angel, Psychrist, Cod Peace, Black Earth, Dement Ensemble 2 December 1995 - Damaged, Bestial Warlust, Armoured Angel, Psychrist, Fracture, Dement Ensemble, Blathudah 14 December 1996 - Alchemist, Blood Duster, Abramelin, Manticore, In:Extremis, Cod Peace, Pod People 20 December 1997 - Alchemist, Blood Duster, Manticore, Mortal Sin, Armoured Angel, Psychrist, Cryptal Darkness 28 November 1998 - Segression, Damaged, Blood Duster, Deströyer 666, Misery, Armoured Angel, Manticore, Pod People, Deviant Plan, Lord Kaos, Engraved, Volatile 27 November 1999 - Cryogenic, Blood Duster, Nazxul, Deströyer 666, Armoured Angel, Pod People, Psi.
Kore, Order of Chaos, Lord Kaos, Psychrist, Dungeon, Kompost 28 October 2000 - Voivod, Blood Duster, Sadistik Exekution, Henry's Anger, Dreadnaught, Pod People, Deströyer 666, Psi. Kore, Frankenbok, Lord Kaos, Toe Cutter, Screwface:13, Dungeon, The Wolves, Post Life Disorder, Encabulos, Dezakrate, Third Symptom 20 October 2001 - Dungeon, Gospel of the Horns, Alchemist, Blood Duster, Psi. Kore, Pod People, Earth, Alarum, Hypercenter, Within Blood, Post Life Disorder, Resistica, Clone B, Dark Order, Hellspawn, Psychrist, Deadspawn, Hollow, Elysium, Tribal Clown, Truth Corroded, Enter VI, Contrive 9 November 2002 - EVENT CANCELLED. Proposed line-up: Destruction, Blood Duster, Earth, Cog, Pod People, Devolved, Alarum, Sakkuth, Psycroptic, Abortus, K. I. N. Enter Twilight, Black Steel, Suns Owl, Fuck... I'm Dead, Post Life Disorder, Infernal Method, Headmess, Hollow, LOG, Omnium Gatherum 20 December 2003 - Damaged, Hobbs' Angel of Death, Blood Duster, Virgin Black, Deströyer 666
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o