Culture of Denmark
The culture of Denmark has a rich intellectual and artistic heritage. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe, Ludwig A, from the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars Von Trier. Denmark has had a tradition of movie making and Carl Theodor Dreyer has been recognised as one of the worlds greatest film directors. Culture and the arts thrive as a result of the high amount of government funding they receive. Thanks to a system of grants, Danish artists are able to devote themselves to their work while museums, similar to other Scandinavian cultures, a fundamental aspect of Danish culture is hygge. Hygge, meaning snug, is a concept that evokes coziness, particularly when relaxing with friends or loved ones. Christmas time, when loved ones sit close together on a rainy night, is a true moment of hygge, as is grilling a pølse. It is suspected the concept of Hygge is part of the reason Danes, the Danish word for the Christmas holiday is Jul, from the Old Norse jól, the term for midwinter, itself cognate with the English word, yule.
Midwinter celebrations were an important part of Scandinavian culture since prehistoric times, the morning can be spent in various ways but most often it is the time when preparations are made for the evening. Juleaften or Yule Eve starts around 6 p. m. when a dinner is served. The menu is, White and browned potatoes, red cabbage, White potatoes are ordinary boiled potatoes without their jackets and browned potatoes are caramelised white potatoes. Some families enjoy a special Danish version of roast pork, called flæskesteg complete with crackling or maybe a special sausage called medisterpølse, made out of rice, it is not to be confused with rice pudding. The chief difference is the whipped cream added to the rice, on serving, chopped almond and vanilla can be added, among other things. It is served cold, with hot cherry sauce, an unchopped almond can be added and hidden in the dessert. The person who finds it in his portion receives a small prize, the candles on the Christmas tree are lit and the family dance around it singing Christmas songs and carols and subsequently exchange presents.
Danish folklore is made up of folk tales, songs, dancing, popular beliefs and traditions, mostly communicated by the inhabitants of towns, many of these were passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth. As in neighbouring countries, interest in folklore grew with a feeling of national consciousness in 19th-century Denmark. Researchers travelled across the country collecting innumerable folktales and sayings while observing traditional dress in the various regions, folklore today is part of the national heritage, represented in particular by national and local traditions, folk dances and literature
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.
The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum
Frederick VIII of Denmark
Frederik VIII was King of Denmark from 1906 to 1912. Before his accession to the throne at age 62, he served as prince for 42 years. During the long reign of his father, King Christian IX, he was excluded from influence. Frederiks parents were Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Louise of Hesse-Kassel, in 1853, his father was chosen as the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, because Frederiks mother, Louise of Hesse-Kassel, was a close relative of the last Danish king of the Oldenburg main line. Accordingly, Frederik became a Prince of Denmark in 1853, after his confirmation in 1860, Frederik was given a military education. In 1863, Prince Frederik was sent to do studies at the University of Oxford but when his father ascended the throne in November that year, he became Crown Prince and returned to Denmark. As Crown Prince of Denmark, he was given a seat in the State Council, in 1864, he formally took part in the Second Schleswig War against Prussia. Louise of Hesse wanted her eldest son to marry as well as her two daughters and Dagmar, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom had two yet unmarried daughters, Princess Helena and Princess Louise, and Louise tried to marry Frederik to one of them.
However, the British Queen didnt want her daughters to marry the heirs to foreign crowns and she preferred German princes who could establish homes in the UK. In addition, Victoria had always been pro-German and another Danish alliance, in July 1868, Frederik became engaged to Princess Louise of Sweden, the 17-year-old only daughter of King Charles XV of Sweden and IV of Norway. Princess Louises family was related by marriage to Napoleon Bonaparte and he married Désirée Clary, who had once been engaged to the French Emperor. Charles XIVs son, Oscar I of Sweden, married Josephine of Leuchtenberg, granddaughter of Napoleons first wife, King Oscar I and Queen Josephine were Princess Louises paternal grandparents. The marriage was suggested as a way of creating friendship between Denmark and Sweden, the two countries were in a tense situation after Sweden had not assisted Denmark during the war with Prussia in 1864. Frederik and Louise had met for the first time in 1862, but in 1868 Frederik was invited to Sweden to get to know Louise and they became engaged the same year.
Crown Prince Frederik and Louise of Sweden married at the Royal Palace in Stockholm on 28 July 1869, the couple resided at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, spending the summers at Charlottenlund Palace north of the city. They had four sons and four daughters, the marriage was not a happy one, nor did it have any effect on the relationship between the two countries. Frederik became king of Denmark as Frederik VIII on Christian IXs death on 29 January 1906 and he was 62 years old at the time and had been Crown Prince for 43 years. In many ways Frederik VIII was a ruler who was much more favorable to the new parliamentarian system than his father had been
Gammel Kongevej is the principal shopping street of Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the opposite end, Jernbanegade connects it to Copenhagen City Hall Square, Gammel Kongevej is one of the oldest road sections in Frederiksberg, originally providing a direct connection between Copenhagens Western City Gate and the village of Solbjerg. From there the it continued past the Damhus Lake towards Roskilde, giving rise to the name Roskildegaden, the road was improved by Christian IV in the 1620s. The name Kongevejen emerged about a generation when it became the road to Ny Amager, as Frederiksberg was called. The name of the changed to Gammel Kongevej after a new Route de Roie, Frederiksberg Allé. A number of new houses were built along the rad. P. Andersen opened the Svanholm Brewery at No.64 in 1853 and it was merged with several other breweries to form The United Breweries in 1891 and most of its buildings were replaced by a machine factory and iron factory. Part of the site was cleared in 1904–05 to make way for the new street Prinsesse Maries Allé, the rest of the industrial plant was replaced by the cinema complex Kinopalæet in 1918.
Gammel Kongevej mainly catered to the upper middle classes. The area next to the foundry was home to a small working-class neighbourhood with an infamous reputation. In the 1950s, Jørn Utzon, architect of the Sydney Opera House and it consisted of tower blocks in a green space inspired by Japanese gardens. Dating from the 1850s, No.78 is one of the oldest apartment buildings along the street and it has a small front garden and a fence towards the street. The Catholic school Ansgarstiftelsen at No.15 is decorated with a mural byNiels Macholm mural, Just off Gammel Kongevej, Ørsteds Vej and Bülowsvej, is a small enclave which has been described as Denmarks first urban neighbourhood of single-family detached homes. It consists of the side streets Uraniavej and Lindevej, the area around Sankt Jørgens Sø is home to a cluster of modern buildings which include the Tycho Brahe Planetarium and two highrises, Copenhagen Scandic Hotel and the 18-storey Codan Building
Peter Adler Alberti
Peter Adler Alberti was a Danish politician and swindler, known for the Alberti scandal of 1908. On 6 October 1876 in the Church of Holmen the 25-year-old barrister Alberti married the five years younger Eugenia née Møller. They divorced and on 14 June 1906 in the Church of Our Lady he married the eleven years younger Anna Victoria Bendix née Sundberg, on 1 November 1906 Alberti moved from Ny Vestergade to Sankt Annæ Plads 9-1 where he resided until his arrest. On 20 August 1917 after his release from the State Prison in Vridsløselille he moved to Fælledvej 10 on Nørrebro. Six months he moved to Gammel Kongevej 141-2 and in 1921 he resided there as a lodger with a small family, Alberti notarized a will on 1 December 1925. In 1929 he resided again at Fælledvej 10-1, the year he resided there as a lodger sharing the apartment with four working class women. On 14 June 1932 while residing on the address, Alberti died on Rigshospitalets dept. C due to a traffic accident, on 20 June 1932 he was buried on Assistens Cemetery.
Alberti was a solicitor, the son of a liberal politician who had been a pioneer of the Danish savings bank system. Later on it has become clear that he had been guilty of embezzlement from a very early stage. Perhaps in order to further attacks he entered politics in 1892 representing the right wing of the liberal movement. However he joined the united Venstre Reform Party in 1895, making himself the right hand of J. C, from 1901 to 1908 Albert was the first Venstre Minister of Juridical Affairs, at which post he showed himself an able and efficient politician although often authoritarian and brash. During this period he was subjected to harder and harder accusations of dishonesty by radicals. Christensen ignored the critics as long as possible but in the end had to ask Alberti to resign, a few months later, on 8 September 1908, Alberti turned himself in to the police for embezzlement of 18 million DKK. He was sentenced 8 years in Tugthus and was imprisoned from 1912 to 1917, after his release he lived quietly as a clerk.
The affair was a scandal that echoed over all of Europe, in Denmark it led to the fall of the Christensen cabinet and for some years it poisoned the political atmosphere in Denmark. It is therefore considered one of the most serious swindles of modern Danish history. Svend Thorsen, De danske ministerier, vol
In architecture the capital or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column. It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus, joins the usually square abacus and the usually circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order, concave, as in the bell of the Corinthian order, or scrolling out. These form the three types on which all capitals are based. The Composite order, established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus, from the highly visible position it occupies in all colonnaded monumental buildings, the capital is often selected for ornamentation, and is often the clearest indicator of the architectural order. The treatment of its detail may be an indication of the buildings date, the decoration underneath the bracket capital comes from art and designs from the many cultures that the Persian Empire conquered and assimilated including Egypt and Lydia.
But of course these decorations below the bracket capital serve no purpose and are simply there for show. The earliest Aegean capital is shown in the frescoes at Knossos in Crete, it was of the convex type. The Doric capital is the simplest of the five Classical orders, it consists of the abacus above an ovolo molding, the sloping side of the echinus becomes flatter in the examples, and in the Colosseum at Rome forms a quarter round. In the Ionic capital, spirally coiled volutes are inserted between the abacus and the ovolo. In the Ionic capitals of the archaic Temple of Artemis at Ephesus the width of the abacus is twice that of its depth, a century later, in the temple on the Ilissus, the abacus has become square. It has been suggested that the foliage of the Greek Corinthian capital was based on the Acanthus spinosus, not all architectural foliage is as realistic as Isaac Wares however. The leaves are carved in two ranks or bands, like one leafy cup set within another. The various orders are discussed in Vitruvius books iii and iv, Vitruvius describes Roman practice in a practical fashion.
He gives some tales about the invention of each of the Orders, the increasing adoption of composite capitals signalled a trend towards freer, more inventive capitals in Late Antiquity. The top of an anta is often decorated, usually with bands of floral motifs. The designs often respond to an order of columns, but usually with a different set of design principles, in order not to protude excessively from the wall surface, these structures tend to have a rather flat surface, forming brick-shaped capitals, called anta capitals
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, the specific place of the performance is named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced.
More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelry
Ellen Sofie Kathrine Gottschalch, was a Danish stage and filmactress. She worked in the Arhus Theatre in 1911 the Det Ny Theater in Copenhagen from 1912 to 1928 and she was employed at the Royal Danish Theatre from 1941 to 1961 where she among roles played in Death of a Salesman and Mor Karen in Elverhøj by Johan Ludvig Heiberg. She was married to Christian Viggo Gottschalch 1915-1930 and lived with the composer Kai Normann Andersen from 1932 to 1967 and she died in 1981 and was buried at the Frederiksberg Ældre Kirkegård. Bodil Award for Best Supporting Actress,1948 Teaterpokalen,1949, -1946 Ta, hvad du vil ha -1947 Hvor er far
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51