Cuneiform or Sumerian cuneiform, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians. It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus; the name cuneiform itself means "wedge shaped". Emerging in Sumer in the late fourth millennium BC to convey the Sumerian language, a language isolate, cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms, stemming from an earlier system of shaped tokens used for accounting. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller; the system consists of a combination of consonantal alphabetic and syllabic signs. The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Semitic Akkadian and Amorite languages, the language isolates Elamite, Hattic and Urartian, as well as Indo-European languages Hittite and Luwian. Cuneiform writing was replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
By the second century AD, the script had become extinct, its last traces being found in Assyria and Babylonia, all knowledge of how to read it was lost until it began to be deciphered in the 19th century. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia". There are many instances of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations at the time of the invention of writing, standard reconstructions of the development of writing place the development of the Summerian proto-cuneiform script before the development of Egyptian hierogplyphs, with the suggestion the former influenced the latter. Between half a million and two million cuneiform tablets are estimated to have been excavated in modern times, of which only 30,000–100,000 have been read or published; the British Museum holds the largest collection, followed by the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin, the Louvre, the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, the National Museum of Iraq, the Yale Babylonian Collection and Penn Museum.
Most of these have "lain in these collections for a century without being translated, studied or published", as there are only a few hundred qualified cuneiformists in the world. An ancient Mesopotamian poem gives the first known story of the invention of writing: Because the messager's mouth was heavy and he couldn't repeat, the Lord of Kulaba pattes some clay and put words on it, like a tablet; until there had been no putting words on clay. The cuneiform writing system was in use for more than three millennia, through several stages of development, from the 31st century BC down to the second century AD, it was replaced by alphabetic writing in the course of the Roman era, there are no cuneiform systems in current use. It had to be deciphered as a unknown writing system in 19th-century Assyriology. Successful completion of its deciphering is dated to 1857; the cuneiform script was developed from pictographic proto-writing in the late 4th millennium BC, stemming from the near eastern token system used for accounting.
These tokens were in use from the 9th millennium BC and remained in occasional use late in the 2nd millennium BC. It has been suggested that the token shapes were the original basis for some of the Sumerian pictographs. Mesopotamia's "proto-literate" period spans the 35th to 32nd centuries; the first documents unequivocally written in Sumerian date to the 31st century BC at Jemdet Nasr. Pictographs were either drawn on clay tablets in vertical columns with a sharpened reed stylus or incised in stone; this early style lacked the characteristic wedge shape of the strokes. Certain signs to indicate names of gods, cities, birds, etc. are known as determinatives and were the Sumerian signs of the terms in question, added as a guide for the reader. Proper names continued to be written in purely "logographic" fashion; the earliest known Sumerian king whose name appears on contemporary cuneiform tablets is Enmebaragesi of Kish. Surviving records only gradually become less fragmentary and more complete for the following reigns, but by the end of the pre-Sargonic period, it had become standard practice for each major city-state to date documents by year-names commemorating the exploits of its lugal.
From about 2900 BC, many pictographs began to lose their original function, a given sign could have various meanings depending on context. The sign inventory was reduced from some 1,500 signs to some 600 signs, writing became phonological. Determinative signs were re-introduced to avoid ambiguity. Cuneiform writing proper thus arises from the more primitive system of pictographs at about that time. In the mid-3rd millennium BC, the direction of writing was changed to left-to-right in horizontal rows and a new wedge-tipped stylus was introduced, pushed into the clay, producing wedge-shaped signs. By adjusting the relative position of the tablet to the stylus, the writer could use a single tool to make a variety of impressions. Cuneiform tablets could be fired in kilns to bake them hard, so provide a permanent record, or they could be left moist and recycled, if permanence was not needed. Man
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs combined logographic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood; the hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Siniatic script that evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Through the Phoenician alphabet's major child systems, the Greek and Aramaic scripts, the Egyptian hieroglyphic script is ancestral to the majority of scripts in modern use, most prominently the Latin and Cyrillic scripts and the Arabic script and Brahmic family of scripts; the use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty. Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period.
The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. With the final closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost. Although attempts were made, the script remained undeciphered throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period; the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing would only be accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω; the glyphs themselves since the Ptolemaic period were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". Greek ἱερογλυφός meant "a carver of hieroglyphs". In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590 short for nominalised hieroglyphic, from adjectival use.
Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" recovered at Abydos in 1998 or the Narmer Palette; the first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia".
There are many instances of early Egypt-Mesopotamia relations, but given the lack of direct evidence for the transfer of writing, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". Instead, it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a credible argument can be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one, although Egyptian writing does make a sudden apparition at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionnary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts.
These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms in monumental and other formal writing; the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods, it appears that the misleading quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part, as a response to the changed political situation. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish'true Egyptians' from some of the foreign conquerors. Another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generally. Having learned that hieroglyphs were sacred writing, Greco-Roman authors imagined the complex but rational system as an allegorical magical, system transmitting secre
Hittite cuneiform is the implementation of cuneiform script used in writing the Hittite language. The surviving corpus of Hittite texts is preserved in cuneiform on clay tablets dating to the 2nd millennium BC. Hittite orthography was directly adapted from Old Assyrian cuneiform; the HZL of Rüster and Neu lists 375 cuneiform signs used in Hittite documents, compared to some 600 signs in use in Old Assyrian. About half of the signs have syllabic values, the remaining are used as ideograms or logograms to represent the entire word—much as the characters "$", "%" and "&" are used in contemporary English. Cuneiform signs can be employed in three functions: Akkadograms or Sumerograms. Syllabograms are characters. Akkadograms and Sumerograms are ideograms from the earlier Akkadian or Sumerian orthography but not intended to be pronounced as in the original language. Conventionally, Syllabograms are transcribed in italic lowercase Akkadograms in italic uppercase Sumerograms in roman uppercase. Thus, the sign GI can be used as the Hittite syllable gi.
The syllabary consists of single vowels, vowels preceded by a consonant, vowels followed by a consonant, or consonants in both locations. This system distinguishes the following consonants, b, p, d, t, g, k, ḫ, r, l, m, n, š, z,combined with the vowels a, e, i, u. Additional ya, wa and wi signs are introduced; the contrast of the Assyrian voiced/unvoiced series is not used to express the voiced/unvoiced contrast in Hittite. The contrast in these cases is not clear, several interpretations of the underlying phonology have been proposed; the purpose of inserting an additional vowel between syllabograms is not clear. Examples of this practice include the -a- in iš-ḫa-a-aš "master" or in la-a-man "name", ú-i-da-a-ar "waters". In some cases, it may indicate an inherited long vowel, but it may have other functions connected with'word accentuation'. Ḫ: ḫal. Sumerograms proper on the other hand are ideograms intended to be pronounced in Hittite. M, I, male personal names DIDLI, plural or collective DIDLI ḪI.
A, plural DINGIR "deity" DUG "vessel" É "house" GAD "linen, cloth" GI "tube. A, plural ḪUR. SAG "mountain" ÍD "river" IM "clay" ITU "month" KAM, numerals KI, in some placenames KU6 "fish" KUR "land" KUŠ "hide, fur" LÚ "man" MEŠ, plural MEŠ ḪI. A, plural MUL "star" MUNUS "woman", female personal name MUŠ "serpent" MUŠEN "bird" NA4 "stone" NINDA "bread" PÚ "source" SAR "plant" SI "horn" SÍG "wool" TU7 "soup" TÚG "garment" Ú "plant" URU "city" URUDU "copper" UZU "meat" E. Forrer, Die Keilschrift von Boghazköi, Leipzig J. Friedrich, Hethitisches Keilschrift-Lesebuch, Heidelberg Chr. Rüster, E. Neu, Hethitisches Zeichenlexikon, Wiesbaden Gillian R. Hart, Some Observations on Plene-Writing in Hittite, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Gordin, Shai. Hittite Scribal Circles: Scholarly Tradition and Writing Habits, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz FreeIdgSerif includes Unicode cuneiform for Hittite
Ancient Mesopotamian underworld
The ancient Mesopotamian underworld, most known in Sumerian as Kur, Kukku, Arali, or Kigal and in Akkadian as Erṣetu, although it had many names in both languages, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth". The only food or drink was dry dust, but family members of the deceased would pour libations for them to drink. Unlike many other afterlives of the ancient world, in the Sumerian underworld, there was no final judgement of the deceased and the dead were neither punished nor rewarded for their deeds in life. A person's quality of existence in the underworld was determined by her conditions of burial; the ruler of the underworld was the goddess Ereshkigal, who lived in the palace Ganzir, sometimes used as a name for the underworld itself. Her husband was either Gugalanna, the "canal-inspector of Anu", or in stories, the god of death. After the Akkadian Period, Nergal sometimes took over the role as ruler of the underworld.
The seven gates of the underworld are guarded by a gatekeeper, named Neti in Sumerian. The god Namtar acts as Ereshkigal's divine attendant; the dying god Dumuzid spends half the year in the underworld, during the other half, his place is taken by his sister, the scribal goddess Geshtinanna, who records the names of the deceased. The underworld was the abode of various demons, including the hideous child-devourer Lamashtu, the fearsome wind demon and protector god Pazuzu, galla, who dragged mortals to the underworld; the Sumerians had a large number of different names which they applied to the underworld, including Arali, Kukku, Ekur and Ganzir. All of these terms were borrowed into Akkadian; the rest of the time, the underworld was known by words meaning "earth" or "ground", including the terms Kur and Ki in Sumerian and the word erṣetu in Akkadian. When used in reference to the underworld, the word Kur means "ground", but sometimes this meaning is conflated with another possible meaning of the word Kur as "mountain".
The cuneiform sign for Kur was written ideographically with the cuneiform sign, a pictograph of a mountain. Sometimes the underworld is called the "land of no return", the "desert", or the "lower world"; the most common name for the earth and the underworld in Akkadian is erṣetu, but other names for the underworld include: ammatu, arali / arallû, bīt ddumuzi, danninu, erṣetu la târi, ganzer / kanisurra, ḫaštu, irkalla, kiūru, kukkû, kurnugû, lammu, mātu šaplītu, qaqqaru. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come. Unlike in the ancient Egyptian afterlife, there was no process of judgement or evaluation for the deceased; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. For this reason, it was considered essential to have as many offspring as possible so that one's descendants could continue to provide libations for the dead person to drink for many years.
Those who had died without descendants would suffer the most in the underworld, because they would have nothing to drink at all. Sometimes the dead are described clothed in feathers like birds. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried; those who did not receive a proper burial, such as those who had died in fires and whose bodies had been burned or those who died alone in the desert, would have no existence in the underworld at all, but would cease to exist. The Sumerians believed that, for the privileged, music could alleviate the bleak conditions of the underworld; the entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. A staircase led down to the gates of the underworld; the underworld itself is located deeper below ground than the Abzu, the body of freshwater which the ancient Mesopotamians believed lay deep beneath the earth.
In other, conflicting traditions, however, it seems to be located at a remote and inaccessible location on earth somewhere in the far west. This alternate tradition is hinted at by the fact that the underworld is sometimes called "desert" and by the fact that actual rivers located far away from Sumer are sometimes referred to as the "river of the underworld"; the underworld was believed to have seven gates. All seven gates were protected by bolts; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar; the palace of Ereshkigal was known as Ganzir. At night, the sun-god Utu was believed to travel through the underworld as he journeyed to the east in preparation for the sunrise. One Sumerian literary work refers to Utu illuminating the underworld and dispensing judgement there and Shamash Hymn 31 states that Utu serves as a judge of the dead in the underworld alongside the malku and the Anunnaki. On his way through the underworld, Utu was believed to pass through the garden of the su
Lugal is the Sumerian term for "king, ruler". The term means "big man." In Sumerian, lu "" is "man" and gal "" is "great," or "big."It was one of several Sumerian titles that a ruler of a city-state could bear. The sign became the predominant logograph for "King" in general. In the Sumerian language, lugal is used to mean a head; as a cuneiform logograph LUGAL. The cuneiform sign LUGAL serves as a determinative in cuneiform texts, indicating that the following word is the name of a king. In Akkadian orthography, it may be a syllabogram šàr, acrophonically based on the Akkadian for "king", šarrum. There are different theories regarding the meaning of the title lugal in 3rd-millennium Sumer; some scholars believe that a ruler of an individual city-state was called ensi, a ruler who headed a confederacy or larger dominion composed of several cities even the whole of Sumer, was a lugal. The functions of such a lugal would include certain ceremonial and cultic activities, arbitration in border disputes, military defence against external enemies, once the lugal has died, the eldest son must take over.
The ensis of Lagash would sometimes refer to Ningirsu, as their lugal. All of the above is connected to the priestly or sacral character of the titles ensi and en. Other scholars consider ensi, en and lugal to have been three local designations for the sovereign, accepted in the city-states of Lagash, Uruk and Ur, although the various terms may have expressed different aspects of the Mesopotamian concept of kingship. A lugal at that time is assumed to have been "normally a young man of outstanding qualities from a rich landowning family." Thorkild Jacobsen theorized that he was an war leader, as opposed to the en, who dealt with internal issues. Among the earliest rulers whose inscriptions describe them as lugals are Enmebaragesi and Mesilim at Kish, Meskalamdug and several of their successors at Ur. At least from the Third Dynasty of Ur onwards, only lugal was used to designate a contemporary sovereign in Sumerian. Lugal is used extensively in the Amarna letters, for addressing the kings or pharaohs, elsewhere in speaking about the various kings.
One common address, in the introduction of many letters, from the vassals writing to the pharaoh was to use: Šàr-ri,.
An ideogram or ideograph is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, specific words or phrases. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention. In proto-writing, used for inventories and the like, physical objects are represented by stylized or conventionalized pictures, or pictograms. For example, the pictorial Dongba symbols without Geba annotation cannot represent the Naxi language, but are used as a mnemonic for reciting oral literature; some systems use ideograms, symbols denoting abstract concepts. The term "ideogram" is used to describe symbols of writing systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sumerian cuneiform and Chinese characters. However, these symbols are logograms, representing words or morphemes of a particular language rather than objects or concepts. In these writing systems, a variety of strategies were employed in the design of logographic symbols. Pictographic symbols depict the object referred to by the word, such as an icon of a bull denoting the Semitic word ʾālep "ox".
Some words denoting abstract concepts may be represented iconically, but most other words are represented using the rebus principle, borrowing a symbol for a similarly-sounding word. Systems used selected symbols to represent the sounds of the language, for example the adaptation of the logogram for ʾālep "ox" as the letter aleph representing the initial sound of the word, a glottal stop. Many signs in hieroglyphic as well as in cuneiform writing could be used either logographically or phonetically. For example, the Akkadian sign AN could be an ideograph for "deity", an ideogram for the god Anum in particular, a logograph for the Akkadian stem il- "deity", a logograph for the Akkadian word šamu "sky", or a syllabogram for either the syllable an or il. Although Chinese characters are logograms, two of the smaller classes in the traditional classification are ideographic in origin: Simple ideographs are abstract symbols such as 上 shàng "up" and 下 xià "down" or numerals such as 三 sān "three".
Semantic compounds are semantic combinations of characters, such as 明 míng "bright", composed of 日 rì "sun" and 月 yuè "moon", or 休 xiū "rest", composed of 人 rén "person" and 木 mù "tree". In the light of the modern understanding of Old Chinese phonology, researchers now believe that most of the characters classified as semantic compounds have an at least phonetic nature. An example of ideograms is the collection of 50 signs developed in the 1970s by the American Institute of Graphic Arts at the request of the US Department of Transportation; the system was used to mark airports and became more widespread. Mathematical symbols are a type of ideogram. Inspired by inaccurate early descriptions of Chinese and Japanese characters as ideograms, many Western thinkers have sought to design universal written languages, in which symbols denote concepts rather than words. An early proposal was An Essay towards a Real Character, a Philosophical Language by John Wilkins. A recent example is the system of Blissymbols, proposed by Charles K.
Bliss in 1949 and includes over 2,000 symbols. The Ideographic Myth Extract from DeFrancis' book. American Heritage Dictionary definition Merriam-Webster OnLine definition
In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separates written words. In languages which use the Latin and Arabic alphabets, as well as other scripts of Europe and West Asia, the word divider is a blank space, or whitespace, a convention, spreading, along with other aspects of European punctuation, to Asia and Africa. However, many languages of East Asia are written without word separation. In character encoding, word segmentation depends on. In Ancient Egyptian, determinatives may have been used as much to demarcate word boundaries as to disambiguate the semantics of words. In Assyrian cuneiform, but in the cuneiform Ugaritic alphabet, a vertical stroke was used to separate words. In Old Persian cuneiform, a diagonally sloping wedge was used; as the alphabet spread throughout the ancient world, words were run together without division, this practice remains or remained until in much of South and Southeast Asia. However, not infrequently in inscriptions a vertical line, in manuscripts a single, double, or triple interpunct was used to divide words.
This practice was found in Phoenician, Hebrew and Latin, continues today with Ethiopic, though there whitespace is gaining ground. The early alphabetic writing systems, such as the Phoenician alphabet, had only signs for consonants. Without some form of visible word dividers, parsing a text into its separate words would have been a puzzle. With the introduction of letters representing vowels in the Greek alphabet, the need for inter-word separation lessened; the earliest Greek inscriptions used interpuncts, as was common in the writing systems which preceded it, but soon the practice of scriptio continua, continuous writing in which all words ran together without separation became common. The interpunct died out in Latin only after the Classic period, sometime around the year 200 CE, as the Greek style of scriptio continua became fashionable. In the 7th century, Irish monks started using blank spaces, introduced their script to France. By the 8th or 9th century, spacing was being used consistently across Europe.
Alphabetic writing without inter-word separation, known as scriptio continua, was used in Ancient Egyptian. It appeared in Post-classical Latin after several centuries of the use of the interpunct. Traditionally, scriptio continua was used for the Indic alphabets of South and Southeast Asia and hangul of Korea, but spacing is now used with hangul and with the Indic alphabets. Today Chinese and Japanese are the main scripts written without punctuation to separate words. In Classical Chinese, a word and a character were the same thing, so that word dividers would have been superfluous. Although Modern Mandarin has numerous polysyllabic words, each syllable is written with a distinct character, the conceptual link between character and word or at least morpheme remains strong, no need is felt for word separation apart from what characters provide. Space is the most common word divider in Latin script. Ancient inscribed and cuneiform scripts such as Anatolian hieroglyphs used short vertical lines to separate words, as did Linear B.
In manuscripts, vertical lines were more used for larger breaks, equivalent to the Latin comma and period. This continues with many Indic scripts today; as noted above, the single and double interpunct were used in manuscripts throughout the ancient world. For example, Ethiopic inscriptions used a vertical line, whereas manuscripts used double dots resembling a colon; the latter practice continues today. Classical Latin used the interpunct in both paper manuscripts and stone inscriptions. Ancient Greek orthography used between two and five dots as word separators, as well as the hypodiastole. In the modern Hebrew and Arabic alphabets, some letters have distinct forms at the ends and/or beginnings of words; this demarcation is used in addition to spacing. The Nastaʿlīq form of Islamic calligraphy uses vertical arrangement to separate words; the beginning of each word is written higher than the end of the preceding word, so that a line of text takes on a sawtooth appearance. Nastaliq spread from Persia and today is used for Persian, Uyghur and Urdu.
In finger spelling and in Morse code, words are separated by a pause. Whitespace Sentence spacing Speech segmentation Zero-width non-joiner Zero-width space Substitute blank Underscore Daniels, Peter T.. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. Knight, Stan. "The Roman Alphabet". In Daniels, Peter T.. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. Ritner, Robert. "Egyptian Writing". In Daniels, Peter T.. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. Saenger, Paul. Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4016-X. Wingo, E. Otha. Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age. Mouton. P. 16