click links in text for more info


Detoxification or detoxication is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, carried out by the liver. Additionally, it can refer to the period of withdrawal during which an organism returns to homeostasis after long-term use of an addictive substance. In medicine, detoxification can be achieved by decontamination of poison ingestion and the use of antidotes as well as techniques such as dialysis and chelation therapy. Many alternative medicine practitioners promote various types of detoxification such as detoxification diets. Scientists have described these as a "waste of time and money". Sense About Science, a UK-based charitable trust, determined that most such dietary "detox" claims lack any supporting evidence; the liver and kidney are capable of detox. In cases of kidney failure, the action of the kidneys is mimicked by dialysis. Alcohol detoxification is a process by which a heavy drinker's system is brought back to normal after being habituated to having alcohol in the body continuously for an extended period of substance abuse.

Serious alcohol addiction results in a downregulation of GABA neurotransmitter receptors. Precipitous withdrawal from long-term alcohol addiction without medical management can cause severe health problems and can be fatal. Alcohol detox is not a treatment for alcoholism. After detoxification, other treatments must be undergone to deal with the underlying addiction that caused alcohol use. Clinicians use drug detoxification to reduce or relieve withdrawal symptoms while helping an addicted individual adjust to living without drug use. Detoxification may use medications as an aspect of treatment. Drug detoxification and treatment will occur in a community program that lasts several months and takes place in a residential setting rather than in a medical center. Drug detoxification varies depending on the location of treatment, but most detox centers provide treatment to avoid the symptoms of physical withdrawal from alcohol and from other drugs. Most incorporate counseling and therapy during detox to help with the consequences of withdrawal.

An animal's metabolism can produce harmful substances which it can make less toxic through reduction, oxidation and excretion of molecules from cells or tissues. This is called xenobiotic metabolism. Enzymes that are important in detoxification metabolism include cytochrome P450 oxidases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases; these processes are well-studied as part of drug metabolism, as they influence the pharmacokinetics of a drug in the body. Certain approaches in alternative medicine claim to remove "toxins" from the body through herbal, electrical or electromagnetic treatments; these toxins are undefined and have no scientific basis, making the validity of such techniques questionable. There is little evidence for toxic accumulation in these cases, as the liver and kidneys automatically detoxify and excrete many toxic materials including metabolic wastes. Under this theory if toxins are too released without being safely eliminated they can damage the body and cause malaise.

Therapies include contrast showers, detoxification foot pads, oil pulling, Gerson therapy, snake-stones, body cleansing, Scientology's Purification Rundown, water fasting, metabolic therapy. Chelation therapy New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project Organisms used in water purification Toxification Xenobiotic Drug Rehabilitation at Curlie

Terence de Vere White

Terence de Vere White was an Irish lawyer and editor. Born in Dublin, de Vere White studied at Dublin where he qualified as a solicitor, he became a partner in a leading Dublin law firm. He gave up law when he became the literary editor of The Irish Times, a post he held from 1961 to 1977, he retired from the newspaper in 1977. He wrote twelve novels, five biographies, two volumes of short stories and five other books of general interest. De Vere White married Mary O'Farrell in 1941 and they had two sons and a daughter, he was the father of Dervla Murphy's daughter, born in 1968. At the time of his death, he was married to Victoria Glendinning; the Road of Excess Kevin O'Higgins The Story of the Royal Dublin Society A Fretful Midge An Affair With the Moon Prenez Garde The Remainder Man Tara The Parents of Oscar Wilde Leinster Ireland The Lambert Mile, a New Novel The Lambert Revels The March Hare The Minister for Justice Mr. Stephen The Anglo-Irish After Sunset The Distance and the Dark The Radish Memoirs The Real Charlotte Chimes at Midnight and Other Stories Tom Moore: a Biography of the Irish Poet My Name is Norval Lucifer Falling Birds of Prey: Stories Johnnie Cross: a Novel Chat Show: a Novel

Matador (Kenny Dorham album)

Matador is an album by American jazz trumpeter Kenny Dorham featuring performances recorded in 1962 and released on the United Artists label. Down Beat magazine jazz critic Ira Gitler stated in his April 25, 1963 review: "Dorham and McLean, two of jazz' most passionate and lyrical players are in good form here. Helped by a varied set of material and an energized Timmons, they have fashioned an album of surpassing interest; the Allmusic review by Brandon Burke awarded the album 4½ stars and stated "Kenny Dorham's Matador can safely claim the all too common distinction of being a classic among jazz connoisseurs while unknown to the casual listener... A fantastic session by any standard". "El Matador" - 6:32 "Melanie Parts 1-3" - 11:34 "Smile" - 5:00 "Beautiful Love" - 5:13 "Prelude" - 4:47 "There Goes My Heart" - 5:12 Kenny Dorham - trumpet Jackie McLean - alto saxophone Bobby Timmons - piano Teddy Smith - bass J. C. Moses - drums

Gro├čer Finsterberg

The Großer Finsterberg is a mountain, 944.1 m above NHN, in the Thuringian Forest not far from the villages of Stützerbach and Schmiedefeld am Rennsteig. It is the third highest peak in the German state of Thuringia; the volcanic origin of the Großer Finsterberg may be seen from the conical shape of its summit, which tilts markedly towards the west. Apart from the summit plateau, the mountain is covered by a nearly natural cotton and reed grass spruce woodland and in most places there is no shrub layer. On the plateau a special mountain pasture vegetation has formed with baldmoney, veronica and St. John's wort. One kilometre away to the north-northeast is its smaller brother, the Kleiner Finsterberg or Finsterberger Köpfchen. Two less spectacular eastern subpeaks, 2 to 3 kilometres distant both bear the name Rosenkopf. To the west and north the Finsterberg is bounded by the Freibach and, to the southeast, by the Taubach, both headstreams of the Ilm. Two kilometres to the southwest and separated by the Rennsteig, is the Großer Eisenberg.

To the northwest, four to five kilometres away, are the two main summits of the range, the Schneekopf and the Großer Beerberg, both of which are higher than the Finsterberg. Since the middle of the 18th century at the Mordfleck and at the Blauer Stein, stone coal has been mined. Towards the end of the Second World War, soldiers' graves were dug on the mountainside. From 1954 to 1990 the summit of the Großer Finsterberg was used by the Soviet Union for military purposes and was thus out of bounds to the public. Between 1999 or 2001 and 2017 or 2018, a wooden observation platform stood at the summit of the Großer Finsterberg; as of June 2018, there are plans to reinstate the tower. The original tower gave views of the Kickelhahn, the Ringberg on the Adlersberg near Suhl, the Dolmar near Meiningen and the only two mountains in Thuringia that are higher — the Großer Beerberg and the Schneekopf — below whose summits the Schmücke may be seen. On the east side there is a small hut with another observation point

Vega (rocket)

Vega, is an expendable launch system in use by Arianespace jointly developed by the Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. Development began in 1998 and the first launch took place from the Guiana Space Centre on 13 February 2012, it is designed to launch small payloads — 300 to 2,500 kg satellites for scientific and Earth observation missions to polar and low Earth orbits. The reference Vega mission is a polar orbit bringing a spacecraft of 1,500 kilograms to an altitude of 700 kilometers; the rocket, named after Vega, the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, is a single-body launcher with three solid rocket stages: the P80 first stage, the Zefiro 23 second stage, the Zefiro 9 third stage. The upper module is a liquid rocket called AVUM; the improved version of the P80 stage, the P120C, will be used as the side boosters of the Ariane 6. Italy is the leading contributor to the Vega program, followed by France. Other participants include Spain, the Netherlands and Sweden. During the mid-1990s, French firms Aérospatiale and SEP, along with Italian firm Bombrini-Parodi-Delfino, commenced discussions on the development of a proposed Ariane Complementary Launcher.

Around the same time, Italy began to champion the concept of a new solid-propellant satellite launcher. This proposed launcher, dubbed Vega, was promoted as functioning to expand the range of European launch capabilities. From the onset, the first of three stages would be based on the solid booster of the existing Ariane 5 expendable launch system while the second and third stages would be make use of the in-development Zefiro rocket motor. However, it was recognised to be a costly project and thus difficult for Italy alone to finance. In April 1998, it was publicly stated that the Vega programme was dependent upon the securing of ECU70 million of industrial investment, as well as the availability of around ECU350 million of funding, requested from interested member states of the European Space Agency, led by France and Italy. During June 1998, it was announced that ministers from the ESA member states had agreed to proceed with the first phase of the development programme for Vega. By September 1998, it was projected that, if funded, Vega would perform its first launch during 2002.

However, by early 1998, France was publicly showing displeasure in the programme, leading to disputes in its funding. A new, higher- performance version of the Vega was proposed, but this failed to sufficiently satisfy France. In September 1999, France decided to withdraw from the Vega programme leading to fears for the future of the launcher. In November 1999, the ESA formally dropped Vega as an endorsed programme, a decision, attributed to France's withdrawal. Around 2000, an alternative use for the Vega was explored as a medium-class booster rocket to be used in conjunction with an improved, up-rated model of the Ariane 5 heavy launcher. In October 2000, it was announced that France and Italy had settled their year-long dispute over the Vega programme. In March 2001, FiatAvio and the Italian Space Agency formed a new company, European Launch Vehicle, to assume responsibility for the majority of development work on the Vega programme. By 2003, there was concerns that the ESA's recent adoption of the Russian Soyuz launcher would directly compete with the in-development Vega.

In March 2003, contracts for development of the Vega launcher were signed by the ESA and Centre national d'études spatiales, the French space agency. In May 2004, it was reported that a contract was signed between commercial operator Arianespace and prime contractor ELV to perform vehicle integration at Kourou, French Guiana. In November 2004, construction commenced upon a new dedicated launch pad for the Vega launcher at Kourou, this included a bunker and a self-propelled structure to assist assembly of the stages. In September 2005, the successful completion of key tests on the Vega's solid rocket motor igniters, a key milestone, was reported. In November 2005, the ESA declared its desire for the development and deployment of an electric propulsion-powered module to work in conjunction with the Vega launcher. During November 2005, it was reported that both Israel and India had shown formal interest in the Vega programme. In December 2005, the Vega launcher, along with the Ariane and Soyuz launchers, were endorsed as the recognised "first choice" platforms for ESA payloads.

On 19 December 2005, the first test firing of the Vega's third stage was completed successfully

Welcome to the Morbid Reich

Welcome to the Morbid Reich is the ninth studio album by the Polish death metal band Vader. The album was released on August 2011 by Nuclear Blast; the release was preceded by a digital download single for the song "Come And See My Sacrifice", released on July 26, 2011. The album has won a Fryderyk Award in the category'Heavy Metal Album of the Year', reached number 17 on the Billboard Top New Artist Albums, number 25 on the Hard Rock Albums. In Poland, Welcome to the Morbid Reich landed at number 6, dropped out four weeks later; the release charted in France, Japan and Germany. On April 5, 2011, Vader released the first part of their studio report for the album. Subsequently, the second part was released on April 14, the third part was released on April 30, the fourth part was released on May 11, the fifth part was released on May 24, the sixth part was released on June 7. Welcome to the Morbid Reich was recorded between March and April 2011 at Hertz Studio in Białystok and was produced by the Wiesławscy Brothers, features cover artwork by Zbigniew Bielak.

The album is the final Vader release to feature drummer Paweł "Paul" Jaroszewicz, the first to feature guitarist Marek "Spider" Pająk as band member. Piotr "Peter" Wiwczarek described work on the album, saying: Production and performance credits are adapted from the album liner notes. Come and See My Sacrifice is the eight single by the Polish death metal band Vader, it was released on July 26, 2011 by Nuclear Blast