Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
John McKinlay, was a Scottish-born Australian explorer and cattle grazier, leader of the South Australian Burke Relief Expedition - one of the search parties for the Burke and Wills expedition. McKinlay was a member of Charles Sturt's Central Exploring Expedition from 1844-1845; the town of McKinlay in north western Queensland is named after him. On 16 August 1819, John McKinlay was born at Sandbank on the River Clyde, in county Argyle and Bute, Scotland, he was the third son of Dugald McKinlay, a merchant, Catherine née McKellar. John McKinlay was educated at Dalinlongart School and migrated to New South Wales, Australia with his brother Alexander in 1836; the brothers worked with a squatter uncle until 1840 and afterwards took up a property called "Yambro" on Lake Victoria between the Darling River and the South Australian border. John McKinlay was interested in the Indigenous Australians who inhabited the area, his knowledge of their ways was of great use when he became an explorer. In 1844, at the age of 25, John McKinlay was selected to be a part of Charles Sturt's Central Australian Exploring Expedition.
McKinlay participated in Sturt's expedition from 1844-1845, which gave him exploration experience of Australia, which at the time was a foreign country to him. McKinlay was chosen by the South Australian House of Assembly in August 1861 to lead an expedition to search for the Burke and Wills expedition party, whose fate was unknown. McKinlay left Adelaide on 16 August 1861 with nine other men, 70 sheep, two packhorses and four camels. On 20 October 1861 the grave of a European, supposed to be Charles Gray, was found near Cooper Creek. However, after John King, the sole survivor of the Burke and Wills expedition, had recounted the events it was discovered that Charles Gray died north of Cooper Creek, near what is today known as Coongie Lake; the remains. McKinlay reported this to the government, soon afterwards learned that the remains of Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills had been found. McKinlay decided to explore in the direction of Central Mount Stuart, but was driven back by heavy rains and floods.
McKinlay decided to make for the Gulf of Carpentaria, hoping to find HMVS Victoria, sent to meet Burke's party. By 20 May 1862 the shore of the Gulf was thought to be only around five miles away, but the intervening country was difficult, it was decided to turn east and make for Port Denison on the north Queensland coast. A station on the Bowen River near Port Denison was reached on 2 August 1862, after resting a few days the expedition reached Port Denison; the party returned by sea to Adelaide. McKinlay received a grant of £1000 from the government and a gold watch from the Royal Geographical Society of England. On 17 January 1863 McKinlay married Jane Pile, a daughter of James Pile an old friend and father of pastoralist and horse trainer John Pile, but was soon off exploring again. In September 1865 he was chosen to lead an expedition to explore the Northern Territory and to report on the best sites for settlement, it was an exceptionally rainy season and while on the East Alligator River the expedition was surrounded by flood waters.
With great resource McKinlay, having killed his horses, constructed a raft with their hides and saplings and made a perilous journey to the coast. McKinlay reported favourably on the country around Port Darwin and Anson Bay as being suitable for settlement. After his return to South Australia from the Northern Territory in 1866, McKinlay took up pastoral pursuits near the town of Gawler, South Australia. John McKinlay died in Gawler on 31 December 1872. McKinlay was buried in the Willaston General Cemetery, with his wife Jane Pile, who died in 1914. A monument to John McKinlay's memory was erected on the main street of Gawler, Murray Street, in 1875. Lockwood, Big John: The Extraordinary Adventures of John McKinlay, 1819–1872, State Library of Victoria, 1995. Harris, Charles Alexander. "McKinlay, John". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Works by John McKinlay at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John McKinlay at Internet Archive Davis, John. Tracks of McKinlay and party across Australia.
Sampson Low, Son & Co. – via Wikisource
Detroit Police Department
The Detroit Police Department is a municipal police force responsible for the U. S. city of Detroit, Michigan. Town constables were appointed starting in 1801. A Police Commission was established in 1861 but the first forty officers did not begin work until 1865. In 1921, the Detroit Police Department became the first police department in the country to utilize radio dispatch in their patrol cars. A historical marker at Belle Isle Park describes the new advancement in technology. In 1893, the department hired its first Black officer; the Detroit Police Department established a Women's Division in 1921, tasked with cases of "child abuse, sexual assaults, juvenile delinquency, checking establishments for illegal minors." Female officers were not allowed to work on criminal cases unless accompanied by male officers until 1973, after a series of discrimination lawsuits prompted changes in department policy. In February 1940, Mayor Richard Reading, the Superintendent of Police, the county sheriff and over a hundred more were indicted on corruption charges.
The Mayor was accused of selling promotions in the department. Eighty officers were accused of protecting illegal gambling operations in the city. In the end, the Mayor served three years in jail, ending in 1947. In 2000, the Detroit Free Press published a series of articles after a four-month investigation into fatal shootings by Detroit police officers. At the time, Detroit had the highest rate of police-involved shootings of any large city in the United States, surpassing New York, Los Angeles, Houston; the city requested an investigation by the United States Department of Justice into the department's handling of deadly force incidents. By 2001, the Justice Department's investigation had uncovered issues with the department's arrest and detention practices as well. Between 2003 and 2014, the Detroit Police Department was placed under federal court oversight by the Justice Department as the result of allegations about excessive force, illegal arrests and improper detention; this process cost the city of Detroit more than $50 million.
By 2014, the department's use of force had been "seriously reduced" and the U. S. District Judge overseeing the case stated that the Detroit Police Department had "met its obligations" for reforms. In 2005, the department's thirteen precincts were consolidated into six larger districts as a cost-cutting measure; the department restored a number of precincts in 2009. In 2011, it was announced that the Detroit Police Department would be reverting to the original precinct structure, with officials citing "gap in services" and concerns over the new command structure. On June 11, 2010 it was reported that the City of Detroit would acquire the former MGM Grand Detroit temporary casino building on John C. Lodge Freeway for $6.23 million and convert it into a new police headquarters complex which would house a crime lab operated by the Michigan State Police. The renovated building houses the Detroit Fire Department headquarters; the former casino building has 400,000 square feet of space. The historic Detroit Police headquarters is in Greektown.
On June 28, 2013, the new public safety headquarters opened for business. The Detroit Police Department has lost eight officers between the years 2000 and 2011. During the 1970s, the department lost 26 officers in a span of ten years. Since 1878, The Detroit Police Department has lost 225 officers in the line of duty; the leading cause of death in the line of duty is gunfire, with a total of 149 officers slain. Year 2000 breakdown of sex and race in the D. P. D.: Male: 75% Female: 25% African-American/Black: 63% White: 34% Hispanic, any race: 3%The Detroit Police Department has one of the largest percentages of black officers of any major city police department, reflecting current overall city demographics. Lawsuits alleging discrimination stemming from the influence of affirmative action and allegations of race-based promotional bias for executive positions have surfaced repeatedly; as of 2008, the majority of upper command members in the Detroit PD were black. Detroit Public Safety Headquarters Crime in Detroit, Michigan Government of Detroit List of law enforcement agencies in Michigan Official website Detroit Police Department at the Wayback Machine Detroit Police Department at the Wayback Machine
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Detroit Yacht Club
The Detroit Yacht Club is a private yacht club in Detroit, located on its own island off of Belle Isle in the Detroit River between the MacArthur Bridge and the DTE generating plant. The DYC clubhouse is a restored 1920s Mediterranean-style villa, the largest yacht club clubhouse in the United States. DYC is a member of the Detroit Regional Yacht-racing Association; the club was founded by Detroit sailing enthusiasts in 1868. The first Yacht Club buildings, a small clubhouse and boatshed, were constructed in the late 1870s at the foot of McDougall Street, just south of Jefferson Avenue. In the early 1880s, the members were divided over the club's growing social activities, in 1882, one group broke away to form the Michigan Yacht Club; the remainder elected James Skiffington Commodore in 1884. The original Belle Isle clubhouse was built at a cost of $10,000 in 1891, but burned down in 1904. A new facility was built at the same site. In 1923, the present-day clubhouse was dedicated. By the end of the following year, membership had reached 3000.
Prominent member and Commodore Gar Wood set world speed records in hydroplanes, with his Gold Cup victories brought the club to national and worldwide prominence. Beginning in 1921, the DYC started sponsoring the hydroplane races. Membership declined during the Great Depression, some services were suspended. In 1946, all bonds had been paid, the club was debt-free; the club's women formed the first women's sailing organization in the country and raced the club's catboats. During the next decade, dining facilities would be expanded, theater-quality projection equipment installed in the ballroom, where Sunday evening screenings became a regular feature of club life. There has been an effort to bring back Sunday night movies. During the 1960s, an outdoor, Olympic-size swimming pool was added, the West End docks were built, increasing the number of boat wells to over 350; the DYC has long been a symbol of exclusivity. Up until the 1970s, Black applicants were rejected, until psychiatrist Dr. Leonard Ellison filed a lawsuit, became the first Black member.
More the club added additional facilities like a fitness center and opened the Bitter End lounge area to allow for women to enter. Before the restoration, the Bitter End could only be accessed through the men's locker room; the newly restored Bitter End is used for hosting small parties. In 2018, the Detroit Yacht Club will be celebrating its sesquicentennial anniversary. Raymond W. Batt Jr. has been elected to serve as the Commodore of the Detroit Yacht Club during this year. The Detroit Yacht Club clubhouse was designed by architect George D. Mason in a Mediterranean Revival style; the building sits on a man-made island constructed from fill dirt excavated from other construction projects. The cornerstone of the building was laid in 1922 by Gar Wood and the building was completed in 1923; the clubhouse is a rambling, informal structure. Of particular note are the two grand staircases and the wood-panelled second-floor ballroom. Racquetball Courts Indoor and Outdoor Pools Outdoor Hot Tub Outdoor Tennis courts Bocce Ball Court Volleyball Court Indoor and outdoor restaurant Marina for over 300 boats Officer's Ball Vice Commodore's Ball Memorial Day Celebration Hydroplane Racing Weekend Venetian Weekend The Outriggers The Pelicans Metro Club The Flying Scots Ski Club Garden Club Sea Serpents Kayak Club Rod and Gun club The Voyagers The Seagulls DYC Business Networking group DYC Swim Team Gar Wood Edsel Ford Horace Dodge Charles Kettering Gus Schantz Fred Fisher Robert Oakman The Detroit Yacht Club
Media in Detroit
As the world's traditional automotive center, Michigan, is an important source for business news. The Detroit media are active in the community through such efforts as the Detroit Free Press high school journalism program and the Old Newsboys' Goodfellow Fund of Detroit. Wayne State University offers a respected journalism program; the daily newspapers serving Detroit are the Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News, both broadsheet publications that are published together under a joint operating agreement. The Detroit Free Press, owned by the Gannett Company, is the third largest circulating daily newspaper in the U. S. after USA Today and The Arizona Republic. The Detroit News is owned by MediaNews Group. Other publications include weekly and quarterly alternative media publications. Detroit Free Press The Detroit News Between the Lines Crain's Detroit Business The Detroit Jewish News Latino Detroit Metro Times Michigan Chronicle The Michigan Citizen Downtown Monitor DBusiness Detroit Home Hour Detroit Metro Detroit BrideTBD Magazine The HUB Detroit Ambassador INSPIREbride Fifth Estate The Furnace Clear Detroit Journal Detroit Mirror Detroit Sunday Journal Detroit Times Detroit Tribune Orbit Magazine StyleLine Suznanie Real Detroit Weekly The Detroit television market is the 12th largest in the United States, it has additional viewers in Ontario, Canada.
Detroit is home to owned-and-operated stations of CBS, The CW, Ion Television, TCT and Daystar and two station duopolies owned by CBS Corporation and E. W. Scripps Company. See Media in Windsor, Ontario for Canadian stations that are received in Detroit. Network owned-and-operated stations are highlighted in bold. Most of Metro Detroit receives stations from Windsor, most notably, CBC Television owned-and-operated station CBET-DT; as a result of the many Canadian viewers within broadcast range of the Detroit television signals, the stations within Detroit consider them as part of their primary audience. News-wise, WDIV-TV and WJBK include the Canadian communities in Essex, Chatham-Kent, Lambton Counties within their weather portions, with WJBK granting the Ontario viewers equal prominence to the other Michigan communities in their county-by-county forecasts. In the past few years, the Detroit stations have been stepping up their coverage of border-related and Windsor-related news as well. Monroe County, southern Washtenaw County, most Downriver communities in Wayne County receive television stations from the Toledo market.
WGTE recognizes Metro Detroit as part of its primary viewing area and prior to the magazine's discontinuation of local listings in 2005, the Detroit editions of TV Guide. WGTE, however, is the only station from that market, carried on cable systems in Wayne County. In the past, WTOL, WTVG and WNWO were carried on United Cable Television's systems in the Downriver communities of Gibraltar and Woodhaven, though WTOL and WTVG were dropped in the late 1980's, while successor company Tele-Communications Inc. continued to carry WNWO in both communities until 1997 when it was dropped due to requests from WDIV. Eastern Monroe County and Downriver communities located closer to the Detroit River and Lake Erie may receive some stations from Cleveland over-the-air during tropospheric propagation events as Cleveland stations otherwise only reach as far away as parts of Essex County, let alone Downriver due to adjacent channel interference from Detroit and Windsor stations, while Toledo stations only provided city-grade analog signals as far north as Wyandotte and "Grade B" coverage up to the northern reaches of the city of Detroit.
Though it was never listed in most Detroit TV Guide editions but was for a time in the News and Free Press inserts, much of Oakland County, Livingston County, Macomb County and St. Clair County were all within reception range of Flint station WCMZ-TV prior to its April 23, 2018 shutdown; the northernmost areas of Oakland and Livingston Counties along with Lapeer County and Sanilac County are within range of another Flint station, WJRT-TV, in the News and Free Press inserts for a time as well. Lapeer and Sanilac Counties are served by WSMH from Flint. Western Washtenaw County and western Livingston County are within reception range of stations from the Lansing market, notably WLNS-TV, WILX-TV and WKAR-TV, they were once carried for a time in the News and Free Press inserts. East of those locations as far east as the Downriver communities in Wayne County, these stations can be seen during favorable weather conditions, albeit with weaker signals. Fox Sports Detroit Michigan Channel Michigan Government Television, based in Lansing Detroit has the 11th-largest radio market in the United States.
Note: When counties are marked with an asterisk, it means that the station can be received in that county, but is not part of the primary service area. Metro Detroit has multiple locally focused and locally owned websites and properties in a variety of digital media formats. Traffic reporting has been a primary focus in the Detroit area since CKLW, the 50,000-watt powerhouse radio station located in Windsor, Canada but broadcasting to the Detroit, Michigan m
National Register of Historic Places listings in Detroit
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Detroit, Michigan. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Detroit, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 345 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Wayne County, including 14 National Historic Landmarks; the city of Detroit is the location of 262 of these properties and districts, including 10 National Historic Landmarks. A single property straddles the city thus appears on both lists; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The properties on this list are within the city of Detroit but outside of the Downtown/Midtown area bounded by the Lodge Freeway to the west, the Edsel Ford Freeway on the north, the Chrysler Freeway and Interstate 375 on the east, the Detroit River to the south. Properties on this list are further divided into geographical areas: New Center Area: North of Midtown and bounded by the Lodge Freeway on the west, I-94 on the south, I-75 on the east, Virginia Park on the north.
North End: North of the New Center and bounded by the Lodge Freeway on the west, Virginia Park on the south, I-75 on the east, Highland Park on the north. Palmer Park Area: Bounded by Highland Park and McNichols Rd. on the south, Livernois on the west, Eight Mile on the north, I-75 on the east. Corktown – Woodbridge: West of Downtown and bounded by I-96 to the east, I-94 on the south, the Lodge Freeway to the east, the Detroit River to the south. Southwest Detroit: The section of Detroit west of Corktown – Woodbridge and south of Michigan Avenue. Eastern Market Area: The section of Detroit east of Downtown/Midtown and adjacent to Eastern Market. Jefferson Corridor: The section of Detroit east of Downtown and Eastern Market and south of Kercheval. West Side: The remainder of Detroit not delineated west of Woodward Avenue. East Side: The remainder of Detroit not delineated east of Woodward Avenue. There are 138 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Detroit outside of Downtown and Midtown, including five National Historic Landmarks and one property straddling the border with River Rouge, Michigan.
There are 126 more properties and districts listed on the National Register in Downtown and Midtown Detroit, including four National Historic Landmarks. These other properties are listed at National Register of Historic Places listings in Downtown and Midtown Detroit. All together there are 264 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Detroit proper. Nine additional properties and districts, including one National Historic Landmark, are located in the Detroit enclave of Highland Park. Three properties are located in the Detroit enclave of Hamtramck; the properties and districts in these two Detroit enclaves, plus 71 others, are listed in this list of non-Detroit NRHP listings in Wayne County. Detroit, settled in 1701, is one of the oldest cities in the Midwest, it experienced a disastrous fire in 1805 which nearly destroyed the city, leaving little present-day evidence of old Detroit save a few east-side streets named for early French settlers, their ancestors, some pear trees which were believed to have been planted by early missionaries.
After the fire, Judge Augustus B. Woodward designed a plan of evenly spaced public parks with interconnecting semi-circular and diagonal streets. Although Woodward's plan was not implemented, the basic outline in still in place today in the heart of the city. Main thoroughfares radiate outward from the center of the city like spokes in a wheel, with Jefferson Avenue running parallel to the river, Woodward Avenue running perpendicular to it, Gratiot and Grand River Avenues interspersed. A sixth main street, wanders downriver from the center of the city. After Detroit rebuilt in the early 19th century, a thriving community soon sprang up, by the Civil War, over 45,000 people were living in the city spread along Jefferson Avenue to the east and Fort Street to the west; as in many major American cities, subsequent redevelopment of the central city through the next 150 years has eliminated all but a handful of the antebellum structures in Detroit. The oldest remaining structures are those built as private residences, including a group in the Corktown neighborhood and another set of houses strung along Jefferson Avenue—notably the Charles Trowbridge House, the Joseph Campau House, the Sibley House, the Beaubien House, the Moross House.
Other extant pre-1860 structures include Fort Wayne. As Detroit grew into a thriving hub of commerce and industry, the city spread along Jefferson, with multiple manufacturing firms taking advantage of the transportation resources afforded by the river and a parallel rail line; the shipyard that became the Dry Dock Engine Works-Detroit Dry Dock Company Complex opened on the Detroit River at the foot of Orleans in 1852.