First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution prevents the government from making laws which respect an establishment of religion, prohibit the free exercise of religion, or abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights; the Bill of Rights was proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification. The First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Everson v. Board of Education, the Court drew on Thomas Jefferson's correspondence to call for "a wall of separation between church and State", though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute.
Speech rights were expanded in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing and school speech. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, is therefore subject to greater regulation; the Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota and New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in all cases; the Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. In 1776, the second year of the American Revolutionary War, the Virginia colonial legislature passed a Declaration of Rights that included the sentence "The freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, can never be restrained but by despotic Governments." Eight of the other twelve states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were considered "mere admonitions to state legislatures", rather than enforceable provisions. After several years of comparatively weak government under the Articles of Confederation, a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia proposed a new constitution on September 17, 1787, featuring among other changes a stronger chief executive. George Mason, a Constitutional Convention delegate and the drafter of Virginia's Declaration of Rights, proposed that the Constitution include a bill of rights listing and guaranteeing civil liberties.
Other delegates—including future Bill of Rights drafter James Madison—disagreed, arguing that existing state guarantees of civil liberties were sufficient and that any attempt to enumerate individual rights risked the implication that other, unnamed rights were unprotected. After a brief debate, Mason's proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. For the constitution to be ratified, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions. Opposition to ratification was based on the Constitution's lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Supporters of the Constitution in states where popular sentiment was against ratification proposed that their state conventions both ratify the Constitution and call for the addition of a bill of rights; the U. S. Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states. In the 1st United States Congress, following the state legislatures' request, James Madison proposed twenty constitutional amendments, his proposed draft of the First Amendment read as follows: The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed.
The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments. The people shall not be restrained from peaceably consulting for their common good; this language was condensed by Congress, passed the House and Senate with no recorded debate, complicating future discussion of the Amendment's intent. The First Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was submitted to the states for ratification on September 25, 1789, adopted on December 15, 1791. Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies between Ma
Virginia Department of Corrections
The Virginia Department of Corrections is the government agency responsible for community corrections and operating prisons and correctional facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The agency is accredited by the American Correctional Association and is one of the oldest functioning correctional agencies in the United States, its headquarters is located in the state capital of Richmond. From the time of the first settlement at Jamestown to the relocation of the state capital to Richmond in the late 18th Century, Virginia relied upon corporal and capital punishment as its penal measures. Virginia began to use small county jails for sentences of confinement. After the Revolutionary War, Virginia Governor Thomas Jefferson began to urge the state to construct a "penitentiary house." At that time, penitentiary houses were beginning being used throughout Europe to confine and reform criminals. However, for more than a decade, the Virginia General Assembly ignored Jefferson's ideas.
In 1796, a wave of reform swept the General Assembly of Virginia, the famous British-American architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe, was hired to design a penitentiary house for the newly formed Virginia Department of Welfare and Institutions. Latrobe's facility was constructed on a site outside of Richmond overlooking the James River; the facility, which received its first prisoners in 1800 and was completed in 1804, was known by generations of Virginians as the "Virginia State Penitentiary" or "The Pen." The structure burned and was torn down in 1905. A new facility was built and operated continuously afterwards until it too was demolished in 1992. In 1896, a penal farm operation was established in Goochland County for "miscreants and the infirm." This facility closed April 1, 2011, but the James River Work Center continues to operate in that same location today. "Community Corrections" philosophy and policy began being used in the Commonwealth of Virginia on October 1, 1942, designated as the Probation and Parole Services Agency, with the employees of the division referred to as Probation and Parole Officers.
By an act of the Virginia General Assembly in 1944, the VADOC was formed out of the former Virginia Department of Welfare and Institutions, the Virginia Parole Board, the Virginia Department of Probation and Parole Services. Today, the VADOC oversees all operations of the Commonwealth's corrections facilities; the VADOC is an agency of the Virginia Office of Public Safety. Virginia Secretary of Public Safety Brian Moran oversees 12 government agencies, including the VADOC; the VADOC's department director Harold Clarke came to Virginia after serving as the Nebraska Department of Corrections Director, the Secretary of the Washington State Department of Corrections, the Commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Corrections. He was appointed as Director of the VADOC by Governor Bob McDonnell in October 2010, began his term in November 2010. Underneath the director are three divisions — Operations, Re-entry & Programs and Communication, Administration — each overseen by a deputy director; the Chief of Corrections Operations manages the regional facilities' day-to-day operations as well as probation and parole activities.
The Operations division is responsible for ensuring VADOC compliance with the Prison Rape Elimination Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Community Corrections is responsible for completing risk assessments on certain sexual offenders for the courts and providing victims with information; the Chief Deputy Director oversees Re-entry & Programs and Victim Services. The Deputy Director of Administration manages the agency's core business activities, including Human Resources, Information Technology and Virginia Correctional Enterprises. In May 2010, Governor Bob McDonnell signed Executive Order Number Eleven establishing the Virginia Prisoner and Juvenile Offender Re-entry Council; the Council was formed to tie together the re-entry initiative amongst the state agencies, local agencies, community organizations. The Secretary of Public Safety composed a task force to further develop the Virginia Adult Re-entry Initiative, or VARI; the plan gave directions for streamlining services, shifting some organizational practices, establishing new ways to measure achievement while keeping with the public safety practices, which Governor McDonnell listed as top priority.
Through the Re-entry Program, offenders are evaluated upon arrival to the facility to determine the best strategy for their re-entry preparation plan. They are tested to determine their risk for recidivism. An initial Re-entry Case Plan is developed and updated depending on the offender's actions. Workshops and programs are made available to prepare the offender for re-entry into the community. There are 32,000 offenders housed in VADOC facilities. A 2011 study showed among the 36 states that report felon recidivism — defined as re-imprisonment within three years of release — Virginia has the fourth lowest recidivism rate in the United States. List of Virginia state prisons In September 2018, the department was in the news as it banned any woman, visiting inmates to the prisons from wearing tampons or menstrual cups in concerns over contraband being smuggled in to the prisons; the ban was rescinded that same month after
Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing the Christian practice. Believers assert that the healing of disease and disability can be brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or other rituals that, according to adherents, can stimulate a divine presence and power. Religious belief in divine intervention does not depend on empirical evidence that faith healing achieves an evidence-based outcome. Claims "attributed to a myriad of techniques" such as prayer, divine intervention, or the ministrations of an individual healer can cure illness have been popular throughout history. There have been claims that faith can cure blindness, cancer, AIDS, developmental disorders, arthritis, defective speech, multiple sclerosis, skin rashes, total body paralysis, various injuries. Recoveries have been attributed to many techniques classified as faith healing, it can involve prayer, a visit to a religious shrine, or a strong belief in a supreme being.
Many people interpret the Bible the New Testament, as teaching belief in, the practice of, faith healing. According to a 2004 Newsweek poll, 72 percent of Americans said they believe that praying to God can cure someone if science says the person has an incurable disease. Unlike faith healing, advocates of spiritual healing make no attempt to seek divine intervention, instead believing in divine energy; the increased interest in alternative medicine at the end of the 20th century has given rise to a parallel interest among sociologists in the relationship of religion to health. All scientists and philosophers dismiss faith healing as pseudoscience. Faith healing can be classified as a spiritual, supernatural, or paranormal topic, and, in some cases, belief in faith healing can be classified as magical thinking; the American Cancer Society states "available scientific evidence does not support claims that faith healing can cure physical ailments". "Death and other unwanted outcomes have occurred when faith healing was elected instead of medical care for serious injuries or illnesses."
When parents have practiced faith healing rather than medical care, many children have died that otherwise would have been expected to live. Similar results are found in adults. Regarded as a Christian belief that God heals people through the power of the Holy Spirit, faith healing involves the laying on of hands, it is called supernatural healing, divine healing, miracle healing, among other things. Healing in the Bible is associated with the ministry of specific individuals including Elijah and Paul. Christian physician Reginald B. Cherry views faith healing as a pathway of healing in which God uses both the natural and the supernatural to heal. Being healed has been described as a privilege of accepting Christ's redemption on the cross. Pentecostal writer Wilfred Graves, Jr. views the healing of the body as a physical expression of salvation. Matthew 8:17, after describing Jesus exorcising at sunset and healing all of the sick who were brought to him, quotes these miracles as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:5: "He took up our infirmities and carried our diseases".
Those Christian writers who believe in faith healing do not all believe that one's faith presently brings about the desired healing. "our faith does not effect your healing now. When you are healed rests on what the sovereign purposes of the Healer are." Larry Keefauver cautions against allowing enthusiasm for faith healing to stir up false hopes. "Just believing hard enough, long enough or strong enough will not strengthen you or prompt your healing. Doing mental gymnastics to'hold on to your miracle' will not cause your healing to manifest now." Those who lay hands on others and pray with them to be healed are aware that healing may not always follow immediately. Proponents of faith healing say it may come and it may not come in this life. "The truth is that your healing may manifest in eternity, not in time". Parts of the four gospels in the New Testament say that Jesus cured physical ailments well outside the capacity of first-century medicine. One example is the case of "a woman who had had a discharge of blood for twelve years, who had suffered much under many physicians, had spent all that she had, was not better but rather grew worse".
After healing her, Jesus tells her "Daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace! Be cured from your illness". At least two other times Jesus credited the sufferer's faith as the means of being healed: Mark 10:52 and Luke 19:10. Jesus endorsed the use of the medical assistance of the time when he told the parable of the Good Samaritan, who "bound up wounds, pouring on oil and wine" as a physician would. Jesus told the doubting teacher of the law to "go, do likewise" in loving others with whom he would never ordinarily associate; the healing in the gospels is referred to as a "sign" to prove Jesus' divinity and to foster belief in him as the Christ. However, when asked for other types of miracles, Jesus refused some but granted others in consideration of the motive of the request; some theologians' understanding is. Sometimes he determines. Jesus told his followers to heal the sick and stated that signs such as healing are evidence of faith. Jesus told his follo
Margot Susanna Adler was an American author, lecturer, Wiccan priestess, New York correspondent for National Public Radio. Born in Little Rock, Adler grew up in New York City, she attended The High School of Art in New York City. Her grandfather, Alfred Adler, was a noted Austrian Jewish psychotherapist, collaborator with Sigmund Freud and the founder of the school of individual psychology. Adler received a bachelor of arts in political science from the University of California, Berkeley and a master's degree from the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism in New York in 1970, she was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University in 1982. During the mid-1960s, Adler worked as a volunteer reporter for KPFA-FM, the Pacifica Radio station in Berkeley, California. After returning to New York City, she worked at its sister station, WBAI-FM, where, in 1972, she created the talk show Hour of the Wolf, another talk show, called Unstuck in Time. Adler joined NPR in 1979 as a general assignment reporter, after spending a year as an NPR freelance reporter covering New York City, subsequently worked on a great many pieces dealing with subjects as diverse as the death penalty, the right to die movement, the response to the war in Kosovo, computer gaming, the drug ecstasy, geek culture and technology and Pokémon.
After 9/11, she focused much of her work on stories exploring the human factors in New York City, from the loss of loved ones and jobs, to work in the relief effort. She was the host of Justice Talking up until the show ceased production on July 3, 2008, she was a regular voice on All Things Considered. She was co-producer of an award-winning radio drama, War Day. Adler wrote Drawing Down the Moon, a 1979 book about Neopaganism, revised in 2006; the book is considered by some a watershed in American Neopagan circles, as it provided the first comprehensive look at modern nature-based religions in the US. For many years it was the only introductory work about American Neopagan communities, her second book, Heretic's Heart: A Journey Through Spirit and Revolution, was published by Beacon Press in 1997. Adler was a Wiccan priestess, an elder in the Covenant of the Goddess, she participated in the Unitarian Universalist faith community. In early 2011, Adler was diagnosed with endometrial cancer, which metastasized over the following three years.
Adler died on July 28, 2014 at the age of 68. She remained symptom-free until mid-2014. Adler was cared for in her final months by her son. 1979 – Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Goddess-Worshippers, Other Pagans in America Today. ISBN 0-14-019536-X 1997 – Heretic's Heart: A Journey Through Spirit and Revolution ISBN 0-8070-7098-X 2000 – Our Way to the Stars by Margot Adler & John Gliedman – Motorbooks Intl, ISBN 0-7603-0753-9, ISBN 978-0-7603-0753-3 2013 – Out for Blood Kindle Single 2014 – Vampires Are Us ISBN 1-5786-3560-8, ISBN 978-1-5786-3560-3 1989 – Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism – Judith Plant ISBN 0-86571-152-6 1994 – Return of the Great Goddess by Burleigh Muten ISBN 1-57062-034-2 1995 – People of the Earth: The New Pagans Speak Out by Ellen Evert Hopman, Lawrence Bond ISBN 0-89281-559-0 2001 – Modern Pagans: an Investigation of Contemporary Ritual ISBN 1-889307-10-6 2002 – The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s – Edited by Robert Cohen and Reginald E. Zelnik ISBN 978-0-520-23354-6 2003 – Sisterhood Is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium – edited by Robin Morgan ISBN 0-7434-6627-6 2005 – Cakes and Ale for the Pagan Soul: Spells and Reflections from Neopagan Elders and Teachers – Patricia Telesco ISBN 978-1-58091-164-1 1986 – From Witch to Witch-Doctor: Healers and Shamans ACE – Lecture on cassette 1986 – The Magickal Movement: Present and Future ACE – Panel discussion on cassette Maggie Shayne Murry Hope Vale, V. and John Sulak.
Modern Pagans. San Francisco: Re/Search Publications. ISBN 1-889307-10-6 Margot Adler on IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN
Esoteric Tarot is the art of reading Tarot cards, the practice of using cards to gain insight into the past, present or future by formulating a question drawing and interpreting cards. Reading Tarot cards is a type of cartomancy. One of the earliest reference to Tarot triumphs, the first reference to Tarot as the devil's picture book, is given by a Dominican preacher in a fiery sermon against the evils of the devil's instrument. References to the Tarot as a social plague continue throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but there are no indications that the cards were used for anything but games anywhere other than in Bologna; as Dummett notes, "...it was only in the 1780s, when the practice of fortune-telling with regular playing cards had been well established for at least two decades, that anyone began to use the Tarot pack for cartomancy." The belief in the divinatory meaning of the cards is associated with a belief in their occult properties: a held belief in the 18th century propagated by prominent Protestant clerics and freemasons.
One of them was Court de Gébelin. From its humble uptake as an instrument of prophecy in France, the Tarot went on to become a thing of hermeneutic, mystical and psychological properties, it was used by Romani people when telling fortunes, as a Jungian psychological apparatus capable of tapping into "absolute knowledge in the unconscious", a tool for archetypal analysis, a tool for facilitating the Jungian process of Individuation. Many involved in occult and divinatory practices attempt to trace the Tarot to ancient Egypt, divine hermetic wisdom, the mysteries of Isis; the first of those was Antoine Court de Gébelin, a French clergyman, who wrote that after seeing a group of women playing cards he had the idea that Tarot was not a game of cards but was in fact of ancient Egyptian origin, of mystical cabbalistic import, of deep divine significance. De Gébelin published a dissertation on the origins of the symbolism in the Tarot in volume VIII of work Le Monde primitif in 1781, he thought the Tarot represented ancient Egyptian Theology, including Isis and Typhon.
For example, he thought the card he knew as the Papesse and known today as the High Priestess represented Isis. He related four Tarot cards to the four Christian Cardinal virtues: Temperance, Justice and Prudence, he relates The Tower to a Greek fable about avarice. Although the ancient Egyptian language had not yet been deciphered, de Gébelin asserted the name "Tarot" came from the Egyptian words Tar, "path" or "road", the word Ro, Ros or Rog, meaning "King" or "royal", that the Tarot translated to the Royal Road of Life. Egyptologists found nothing in the Egyptian language to support de Gébelin's etymologies. Despite this lack of any evidence, the belief that the tarot cards are linked to the Egyptian Book of Thoth continues to the present day; the actual source of the occult Tarot can be traced to two articles in volume eight, one written by himself, one written by M. le C. de M.***. The second has been noted to have been more influential than de Gébelin's; the author takes de Gébelin's speculations further, agreeing with him about the mystical origins of the Tarot in ancient Egypt, but making several additional, influential, statements that continue to influence mass understanding of the occult tarot to this day.
He makes the first statement proposing that the Tarot is, in fact, The Book of Thoth, that it is associated with the Romani people, makes the first association of Tarot with cartomancy. The first to assign divinatory meanings to the Tarot cards were cartomancer Jean-Baptiste Alliette in 1783 and Mlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormand. According to Dummett, Etteilla: devised a method of tarot divination in 1783, wrote a cartomantic treatise of tarot as the Book of Thoth, created the first society for Tarot cartomancy, the Société littéraire des associés libres des interprètes du livre de Thot. created the first corrected Tarot, The Grand Ettielle deck created the first Egyptian tarot to be used for Tarot cartomancy published, under the imprint of his society, the Dictionnaire synonimique du Livre de Thot, a book that "systematically tabulated all the possible meanings which each card could bear, when upright and reversed.". Etteilla also: suggested that Tarot was repository of the wisdom of Hermes Trismegistus was a book of eternal medicine was an account of the creation of the world argued that the first copy of the tarot was imprinted on leaves of goldMichael Dummett suggests that Etteilla was attempting to scoop Court de Gébelin as the author of the occult tarot.
Etteilla in fact claimed to have been involved with Tarot longer than Court de Gébelin. Mlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormand outshone Ettiella and was the first cartomancer to people in high places, being the personal confidant of Empress Josephine and other notables. Lenormand used both regular playing cards, in particular the Piquet pack, as well as cards derived from Etteilla's Egyptian root, she was so famous that a deck was published in her name, the Grand Jeu de Mlle Lenormand, two years after her death in 1843. The concept of the cards as a mystical key was extended by Éliphas Lévi. Lévi was educated in the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, was ordained as a deacon, but never became a priest. Dummett notes that it is from Lévi's book Dogme et rituel that the "whole of the modern occultist movement stem
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent. These interpretations are distinguished from statutory law, which are the statutes and codes enacted by legislative bodies, regulatory law, which are regulations established by executive agencies based on statutes; the term "case law" is applied to any set of previous rulings by an adjudicatory tribunal that guides future rulings. In common law countries the term is used for judicial decisions of selected appellate courts, courts of first instance, agency tribunals, other bodies discharging adjudicatory functions. In common law countries, "case law" is a near-exact synonym for "common law". In the common law tradition, courts decide the law applicable to a case by interpreting statutes and applying precedents which record how and why prior cases have been decided. Unlike most civil law systems, common law systems follow the doctrine of stare decisis, by which most courts are bound by their own previous decisions in similar cases, all lower courts should make decisions consistent with previous decisions of higher courts.
For example, in England, the High Court and the Court of Appeal are each bound by their own previous decisions, but the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is able to deviate from its earlier decisions, although in practice it does so. Speaking, higher courts do not have direct oversight over the lower courts of record, in that they cannot reach out on their own initiative at any time to overrule judgments of the lower courts; the burden rests with litigants to appeal rulings to the higher courts. If a judge acts against precedent and the case is not appealed, the decision will stand. A lower court may not rule against a binding precedent if it feels that it is unjust. If the court believes that developments or trends in legal reasoning render the precedent unhelpful, wishes to evade it and help the law evolve, it may either hold that the precedent is inconsistent with subsequent authority, or that it should be distinguished by some material difference between the facts of the cases. If that judgment goes to appeal, the appellate court will have the opportunity to review both the precedent and the case under appeal overruling the previous case law by setting a new precedent of higher authority.
This may happen several times. Lord Denning, first of the High Court of Justice of the Court of Appeal, provided a famous example of this evolutionary process in his development of the concept of estoppel starting in the High Trees case: Central London Property Trust Ltd v. High Trees House Ltd K. B. 130. The different roles of case law in civil and common law traditions create differences in the way that courts render decisions. Common law courts explain in detail the legal rationale behind their decisions, with citations of both legislation and previous relevant judgments, an exegesis of the wider legal principles; the necessary analysis constitutes a precedent binding on other courts. By contrast, decisions in civil law jurisdictions are very short, referring only to statutes; the reason for this difference is that these civil law jurisdictions adhere to a tradition that the reader should be able to deduce the logic from the decision and the statutes, so that, in some cases, it is somewhat difficult to apply previous decisions to the facts presented in future cases.
Some pluralist systems, such as Scots law in Scotland and so-called civil law jurisdictions in Quebec and Louisiana, do not fit into the dual "common-civil" law system classifications. Such systems may have been influenced by the Anglo-American common law tradition; because of their position between the two main systems of law, these types of legal systems are sometimes referred to as "mixed" systems of law. Law professors in common law traditions play a much smaller role in developing case law than professors in civil law traditions; because court decisions in civil law traditions are brief and not amenable to establishing precedent, much of the exposition of the law in civil law traditions is done by academics rather than by judges. Common law courts relied little on legal scholarship. Today academic writers are cited in legal argument and decisions as persuasive authority, thus common law systems are adopting one of the approaches long common in civil law jurisdictions. Judges may refer to various types of persuasive authority to reach a decision in a case.
Cited non-binding sources include legal encyclopedias such as Corpus Juris Secundum and Halsbury's Laws of England, or the published work of the Law Commission or the American Law Institute. Some bodies are given statu
Lois Bourne who went under the craft name Tanith, was an influential figure in the Neopagan religion of Wicca, having been involved in it from the early 1960s, wrote a number of books on the subject. Initiated into Gardnerian Wicca by Gerald Gardner, she rose to become the high priestess of the Bricket Wood coven, the first Wiccan coven started by Gerald Gardner, based in Bricket Wood in Hertfordshire, working alongside the high priest Jack Bracelin. Lois Bourne, aged eighty-nine, died in Watford General Hospital Friday night, 22 December 2017. Witch Amongst Us - the Autobiography of a Witch ISBN 0-7090-3761-9 Conversations with a Witch ISBN 978-0-7090-7064-1 Dancing with Witches ISBN 0-7090-8074-3 Spells to Change Your Life ISBN 978-1-904435-10-5