In Jainism, a tirthankara is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma. The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on their own, made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana, the first Tirthankara refounds Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha; the tirthankara Māllīnātha is believed to be a woman named Malli bai by Svetambara Jains while the Digambara sect believes all 24 tirthankara to be men including Māllīnātha. Digambara tradition believes a woman can reach to the 16th heaven and can attain liberation only being reborn as a man. In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle.
In each half of the cosmic time cycle twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods; the first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira. History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, the twenty-third tirthankara. A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monastics, srāvakas and śrāvikās; the tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership; the higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required.
While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation. Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants. An Arihant is called Jina, one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment and greed, they dwell within the realm of their Soul, are free of kashayas, inner passions, personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are available to them – which they use for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, moksha to anyone seeking it sincerely; the word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths. Tirthankaras are variously called "Teaching Gods", "Ford-Makers", "Crossing Makers" and "Makers of the River-Crossing. Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara.
Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, list down sixteen observances which lead to the bandha of this karma: Purity of right faith Reverence Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence Giving gifts Practising austerities according to one's capacity Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors and the scriptures Practice of the six essential daily duties Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient Fervent affection for one's brethren following the same path. Five auspicious events called, Pañca kalyāṇaka marks the life of every tirthankara: Gārbha kalyāṇaka: When ātman of a tirthankara comes into his mother's womb. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of a tirthankara. Indra performs a ceremonial bath on tirthankara on Mount Meru. Tapa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounces all worldly possessions and become an ascetic.
Jñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kevalajñāna. A samavasarana is erected from where he restores sangha after that. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves his mortal body, it is known as nirvana, it is followed by moksha. Their souls dwells in Siddhashila after that. After attaining kevalajñāna, a tirthankara preaches the path to liberation in the samavasarana. According to Jain texts, the heavenly pavilion is erected by devas where devas and animals assemble to hear the tirthankara. A tirthankara's speech is heard by all animals in their own language, it is believed. Jainism postulates that time has no end, it moves like the wheel of a cart. The wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī and Avasarpiṇī. 24 tirthankaras are born in each half of this cycle. In Jain tradition the tirthankaras were royal in their final lives, Jain texts record details of their previous lives, their clan and families are among those recorded in early, or legendary, Hindu history. Jain canons state that Rishabhanatha, the fir
Peda Venkata Raya
Venkata III, the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1632–1642. But his paternal uncle, Timma Raja, another brother of Sriranga II, thought himself to have a better claim, seized the government at Vellore Fort, compelling Venkata III to remaining in his native place Anekonda; the Nayaks of Gingee and Madurai declared support for Venkata III, while Timma Raja got support from no-one and was looked upon as a usurper. Timma Raja made a lot of trouble and civil strife continued until his death in 1635, he was winning, until the King Peda Venkata ’s nephew, Sriranga III took to the field and defeated Timma Raja with help from the Dutch in Pulicat, compelling him to accept Venkata III’s claim. Timma Raja was allowed some territories under his control, but stirred up trouble for a second time, only to be slain by the Nayak of Gingee in 1635. Peace was restored and Peda Venkata Raya or Venkata III returned to Vellore to take charge. On 22 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company obtained a small strip of Land in the Coromandel Coast from Peda Venkata Raya in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities.
The region was under the control of the Damerla Venkatadri Nayakudu, a Recherla Velama Nayak of Kalahasti and Vandavasi. Venkatadri Nayakudu was son of Damerla Chennappa Nayakudu; this is regarded at the founding event of the formation of the Chennai Metropolis and is to the day celebrated as Madras Day. In 1637 the Nayaks of Tanjore and Madurai, out of some complications attempted to seize Venkata III and attacked Vellore but were defeated and peace was established; the Kings loyal nephew, Sriranga III for some reasons turned against the King in 1638 and engineered an invasion from Bijapur. The Bijapur – Sriranga III combine attacked Bangalore making the King Venkata III buy peace after an expensive deal. In 1641 the same combine launched another attack and were just 12 miles from Vellore Fort, but their camp was attacked with backing by Southern Nayaks. In the following year, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda watching the disorder, sent a huge force along the East Coast; the Golkonda army, after facing a stiff resistance near Madras by Venkata III’s army backed by Damerla Venkatadri Nayak of Kalahasti and the Gingee Nayak, marched towards the Vellore Fort.
But Venkata III, now badly under threat from all sides retreated to the Jungles of Chittoor and died October 1642. Venkata III had no son and was succeeded by his treacherous nephew Sriranga III, who came to Vellore Fort after deserting the Bijapur camp. Rao, Velcheru Narayana, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Symbols of substance: court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu. Maps. Sathianathaier, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar. K. A. Nilakanta Sastry, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, ISBN 0-19-560686-8
Bankapura is a panchayat town in Haveri district in the state of Karnataka, India. It is in Shiggaon taluk, is just 2.5 km from the Pune-Bangalore national highway NH-4, 22 km from Haveri town. Bankapura is about 45 km from Hubli-Dharwad. An historical site, Bankapura is famous for the Nagareshwara temple, Bankapura fort, The Bankapura Peacock Sanctuary. Baada, the birthplace of Kanaka Dasa is near to Bankapura. There are more than 50 popular archaeological monuments in Haveri District like Siddeshwar temple Haveri and Galaganatheswar temple Galaganatha in Haveri taluk, Shiva temple in Chaudayyadanapura of Ranebennur, Tarakeshwar temple at Hangal. Under the Chalukyas, many beautiful temples were built here, but during the invasion of Ali Adilshahi in about 1567 most of the temples were destroyed. A fort, now in ruins, at Bankapura houses the Ranganatha Nagareshwara temple, which has 66 pillars carved out of grey stone. There is a beautiful mosque in the fort; the place is of historical significance to Jains.
Adipuran, a Jain religious text was composed here. Bankapura fort, was ruled by Kadamba of Banavasi, Cholas, Hoysalas, Kings of Vijayanagar, Adilshahi of Bijapur, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. During the 9th century, Bankapura was named after Bankeyarasa, a feudatory of Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I. In the 11th century the Kadambas took over, followed by the Hoysalas king Vishnuvardhana. Invasion by the BahamanisIn the 16th century, the Bahamanis attacked Bankapur and Mustapha Khan of Bijapur annexed the fortress after a pitched battle for more than a year; the Nawabs of Savanur and the Marathas ruled for a short duration before Hyder Ali and Tipu took possession. Bankapura was ceded to the British. InscriptionsIn the Nagareshwara temple, at the entrance to the mukhamantapa, there are large clear inscriptions written in old Kannada, it is known from history that the great poet of Kannada literature, visited Bankapur to meet Ajithsenacharya, who became his teacher. Inside the ruined Bankapura fort, conquered by the Bahamanis, there is a temple built by the Chalukyas known as Aravattaru Kambada Gudi.
Bankapura is an important historical place. In spite of the vandalism the ornate Nagareshwara temple was subjected to, it still retains its beauty; the impressive Bankapur fort area has the eye catching 66 pillared Nagareshwar temple was built in the 11th century in Chalukya style. There are many well carved pillars; the fort area comprises 139.10 acres of land of, which 52.10-acre is reserved for the popularly known Mayura Vana, the abode of the peacocks for three decades. As per the 16 inscriptions, has references to the history of this place, it was dedicated to Shiva; the temple once it was a centre for study and research on Jainism. During rule of Mustafa Khan the temple, the back corners of the temple hall damaged including number of carvings in the exterior wall panels but the pillars, the artistic carvings and the ceiling designs are intact. Ten-year-old Haveri has many distinct features, the district has the rare distinction of housing a Black Buck Sanctuary and a Peacock Sanctuary, second only to the one in Uttarakhand.
Bankapura is now considered as a conservation reserve for peacocks by the Government of India. As of 2001 India census, Bankapura had a population of 20,264. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bankapur has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower than the national average of 59.5%. 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Bankapura Fort on Google Maps
Shravanabelagola is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore. The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have died here in 298 BCE after he became a Jain monk and assumed an ascetic life style. Shravanabelagola is located at 11 km to the south-east of Channarayapatna in the Channarayapatna taluk of Hassan district of Karnataka, it is at a distance of 51 km south-east of Hassan, the district centre. It is situated at a distance of 12 km to the south from the Bangalore-Mangalore road, 18 km from Hirisave, 78 km from Halebidu, 89 km from Belur, 83 km from Mysuru, 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka and 222 km from Mangalore; the sacred places are spread over two hills and Vindyagiri among the village at the foothill.
Shravanabelagola "White Pond of the Shravana" is named with reference to the colossal image of Gommaṭa - the prefix Śravaṇa serves to distinguish it from other Belagolas with the prefixes Hale- and Kodi-, while Beḷagoḷa "white pond" is an allusion to the pond in the middle of the town. The Sanskrit equivalents Śvetasarovara and Dhavalasarasa used in the inscriptions that support this meaning; some inscriptions mention the name of the place as Beḷgoḷa, which has given rise to another derivation from the plant Solanum ferox. This derivation is in allusion to a tradition which says that a pious old woman anointed the colossal image with the milk brought by her in a gullakayi or eggplant; the place is designated as Devara Beḷgoḷa "White Pond of the God" and Gommaṭapuram "city of Gommaṭa" in some epigraphs. Shravanabelagola has two hills and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was built there by Ashoka in the third century BC.
Chandragiri has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya; the 58-feet tall monolithic statue of Gommateshwara is located on Vindyagiri Hill. It is considered to be the world's largest monolithic statue; the base of the statue has an inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, who erected the statue for his mother; every twelve years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka or Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the statue is anointed with Water, Rice flour, Sugar cane juice, Sandalwood paste and gold and silver flowers. Mahamastakabhisheka was held in 2018 during feb month; the next Mahamastakabhisheka will be held in 2030. The statue is referred to as Gommateshwara by Kannadigas, but the Jains refer to the same as "Bahubali".
Shravanabelagola, nestled by the Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri Hills, protected by the monolith Bhagwan Bahubali, home to over 2,300 years of Jain heritage, is a veritable picture postcard of our history and heritage spanning the centuries. In the town of Shravanabelagola, stands a colossal rock-cut statue of Lord Gommateshwara Shri Bahubali. About eight hundred odd inscriptions which the Karnataka Archeological Department has collected at the place are Jaina and cover a extended period from 600 to 1830 A. D; some refer to the remote time of Chandragupta Maurya and relate the story of the first settlement of Jains at Shravanabelagola. That this village was an acknowledged seat of learning is proved from the fact that a priest from here named Akalanka was in 788 A. D. summoned to the court of Himasitala at Kanchi where having confuted the Buddhists in public disputation, he was instrumental in gaining their expulsion from the South of India to Ceylon. More than 800 inscriptions have been found at Shravanabelagola, dating to various times from 600 AD to 1830 AD.
A large number of these are found in the Chandragiri and the rest can be seen in the Vindhyagiri Hill and the town. Most of the inscriptions at the Chandragiri date back before the 10th century; these inscriptions include texts in the Kannada. The second volume of Epigraphia Carnatica, written by B. Lewis Rice, is dedicated to the inscriptions found here, it is said to be the oldest Konkani inscription. The inscriptions are written in Halegannada characters; some of these inscriptions mention the rise and growth in power of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysala Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar dynasty. These inscriptions have helped modern scholars to understand the nature and development of the Kannada language and its literature. On August 5, 2007, the statue at Shravanabelagola was voted by the readers of Times of India as the first of the Seven Wonders of India. 49% votes went in favor of the statue. 1. Akkana Basadi: This was built in 1181 A. D. Akkana Basadi has 23rd Tirthankara Parshwanath as main deity of the temple.
2. Chandragupta basadi: This was established in the 9th century; the middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture. 3. Shantinatha Basadi:This temple is dedicated to Shantinatha, it was built around 1200 A. D. 4. Parshwanatha Basadi: This is a beautiful structure with decorated outer walls. The
Kannada literature is the corpus of written forms of the Kannada language, a member of the Dravidian family spoken in the Indian state of Karnataka and written in the Kannada script. Attestations in literature span one and a half millennia, with some specific literary works surviving in rich manuscript traditions, extending from the 9th century to the present; the Kannada language is divided into three linguistic phases: Old and Modern. Although much of the literature prior to the 18th century was religious, some secular works were committed to writing. Starting with the Kavirajamarga, until the middle of the 12th century, literature in Kannada was exclusively composed by the Jains, who found eager patrons in the Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and the Yadava kings. Although the Kavirajamarga, authored during the reign of King Amoghavarsha, is the oldest extant literary work in the language, it has been accepted by modern scholars that prose and grammatical traditions must have existed earlier; the Veerashaiva movement of the 12th century created new literature which flourished alongside the Jain works.
With the waning of Jain influence during the 14th-century Vijayanagara empire, a new Vaishnava literature grew in the 15th century. After the decline of the Vijayanagara empire in the 16th century, Kannada literature was supported by the various rulers, including the Wodeyars of the Kingdom of Mysore and the Nayakas of Keladi. In the 19th century, some literary forms, such as the prose narrative, the novel, the short story, were borrowed from English literature. Modern Kannada literature is now known and recognised: during the last half century, Kannada language authors have received eight Jnanpith awards, 62 Sahitya Akademi awards and 9 Sahitya Akademi Fellowships in India. In the early period and beginning of the medieval period, between the 9th and 13th centuries, writers were predominantly Jains and Lingayats. Jains were the earliest known cultivators of Kannada literature, which they dominated until the 12th century, although a few works by Lingayats from that period have survived. Jain authors wrote about other aspects of religion.
The Veerashaiva authors wrote about Shiva, his 25 forms, the expositions of Shaivism. Lingayat poets belonging to the vachana sahitya tradition advanced the philosophy of Basava from the 12th century. During the period between the 13th and 15th centuries, there was decline in Jain writings and an increase in the number of works from the Lingayat tradition. Thereafter and Vaishnava writers dominated Kannada literature. Vaishnava writers focused on the Hindu epics – the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata – as well as Vedanta and other subjects from the Puranic traditions; the devotional songs of the Haridasa poets, performed to music, were first noted in the 15th century. Writings on secular subjects remained popular throughout this period. An important change during the Bhakti "devotion" period starting in the 12th century was the decline of court literature and the rise in popularity of shorter genres such as the vachana and kirthane, forms that were more accessible to the common man.
Writings eulogising kings and spiritual heroes waned, with a proportional increase in the use of local genres. Kannada literature moved closer to the spoken and sung folk traditions, with musicality being its hallmark, although some poets continued to use the ancient champu form of writing as late as the 17th century; the champu Sanskritic metre was the most popular written form from the 9th century onwards, although it started to fall into disuse in the 12th century. Other Sanskritic metres used were the ashtaka and the shataka. There were numerous translations and adaptations of Sanskrit writings into Kannada and, to a lesser extent, from Kannada into Sanskrit; the medieval period saw the development of literary metres indigenous to the Kannada language. These included one of the oldest native metres. There were rare interactions with Tamil literature, as well. Though religious literature was prominent, literary genres including romance, erotica, folk songs and parables, musical treatises and musical compositions were popular.
The topics of Kannada literature included grammar, prosody, chronicles, history and cuisine, as well as dictionaries and encyclopedias. According to critic Joseph T. Shipley, over fifty works on scientific subjects including medicine and astrology have been written in the Kannada language. Kannada literature of this period was written on palm leaves. However, more than 30,000 more durable inscriptions on stone and copper plates have survived to inform modern student
Gulbarga known as Kalaburagi, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Gulbarga district and a major city of the North Karnataka region. Gulbarga is 623 km north of 220 km from Hyderabad, it was part of Hyderabad State and incorporated into a newly formed Mysore State through the States Reorganisation Act in 1956. Gulbarga city is in Gulbarga Urban Region, it is called one of the Sufi cities having famous religious places, like Khwaja Banda Nawaz Dargah, Sharana Basaveshwara Temple, Ladle Mashak and Buddha Vihar. It has a fort built during Bahmani rule. Has many domes like Shor Gumbad. Gulbarga has a few architectural marvels built during the Bahamani Kingdom rule, including the Jama Masjid sited in the Gulbarga Fort; the history of Gulbarga dates to the 6th century. The Rashtrakutas gained control over the region, but the Chalukyas regained their domain within a short period and reigned supreme for over 200 years; the Kalyani Kalachuris who succeeded them ruled until the 12th century.
Around the end of the 12th century, the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dwarasamadra destroyed the supremacy of the Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Kalyani. Around the same period, the Kakatiya kings of Warangal came into prominence and the present Gulbarga and Raichur districts formed part of their domain; the Kakatiya power was subdued in 1321 AD and the entire Deccan, including the district of Gulbarga, passed under the control of the Delhi Sultanate. The revolt of the officers appointed from Delhi resulted in the founding of the Bahmani Sultanate in 1347 CE by Zafar Khan Alauddin Hasan Gangu, who chose Gulbarga to be the capital; when the Bahamani dynasty came to an end in 1527, the kingdom broke up into five independent Sultanates, Bidar, Berar and Golconda. The present Gulbarga/Gulbarga district came under Bidar and under Bijapur; the last of these sultanates, Golconda fell to Aurangzeb in 1687. With the conquest of the Deccan by Aurangezeb in the 17th century, Gulbarga passed under the Mughal Empire.
In the early part of the 18th century, with the decline of the Mughal Empire, Asaf Jha, one of Aurangzeb's generals, formed the Hyderabad State, in which a major part of the Gulbarga area was included. In 1948, Hyderabad State became a part of the Indian Union, in 1956, excluding two talukas which were annexed to Andhra Pradesh, Gulbarga district became part of new Mysore State. Gulbarga was renamed Kalaburagi ) effective 1 November 2014; the largest collection of Islamic art is seen only at the domed ceiling and walls are adorned with painting containing calligraphy designs and floral and plants and geometric patterns inside the 14th century tomb of Sufi saint Syed Shah Qhabulullah Husayni with natural colours. By religious restrictions the artist was prohibited from depicting living beings in the interior of tomb, his imagination was therefore employed either in inventing new designs for religious texts or in adding further delicacy and subtleness to the geometric and floral devices by making the drawings more and more intricate.
A small tomb beside the said. Another vacant Shore Gumbad outside the city has delicate designs on its domed ceiling; the walls and ceiling of the tomb of Sultan Firuz Shah Bahmani can be appreciated which, although in monotone, represents faithfully the creepers and floral patterns, the numerous geometric devices and calligraphic styles. The most notable building, however, of this period is Jama Masjid of Gulbarga fort, built by Persian architect named Rafi in 1367 during the reign of Muhammad Shah Bahmani I; the glory of the towns in north Karnataka waned with the decline of Bahmani dynasty, although Barid Shahi and Adil Shahi kings kept up its beauty during their chequered rule. It suffers from pollution through lead, it has affected the mental health of people. Royal patronage played an important role in the making of Islamic art, as it has in the arts of other culture. From 14th century onwards in the eastern lands, the books of art provide the best documentation of the courtly patronage.
The entire district is on the Deccan Plateau, the elevation ranges from 300 to 750 m above MSL. Two main rivers, the Krishna and Bhima, flow through the district; the predominant soil type is black soil. The district has many tanks; the Upper Krishna Project is a major irrigation venture in the district of Jowar. The main crops are groundnuts and pulses. Gulbarga is the largest producer of pigeon peas, in Karnataka. Gulbarga is an industrially backward district but is showing signs of growth in the cement, textile and chemical industries. Gulbarga has a university with Engineering Colleges. Central University of Karnataka is located in Aland Taluk of Gulbarga; the geographical area of the city is 64 square kilometres. The climate of the district is dry, with temperatures ranging from 8 °C to 45 °C and an annual rainfall of about 750 mm; the year in Gulbarga is divided into three main seasons. The summer lasts from late February to mid-June, it is followed by the southwest monsoon. This is followed by dry winter weather until mid-January.
As of the 2011 Indian census, Gulbarga city has a population of 543,000. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Gulbarga has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national av
Lakshmeshwara is a town,and newly created Taluk place with Gajendragarh in Gadag district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is 55 km from Hubli. Lakshmeshwara is an agricultural trading town. There are many important temples in this historic town, including the Shiva temple, the "Someshwara Temple". There are two ancient Jain temples in the town, as well as a notable Jamma Masjid. Lakshmeshwara is home for many smaller shrines, a dargah, the Kodiyellamma temple, the Mukha Basavanna shrine, a gigantic idol of Suryanarayana. Lakmeshwar is 40 km from Gadag. There are direct trains from Bangalore to Lakmeshwar. Lakshmeshwar is at 15.13°N 75.47°E / 15.13. It has an average elevation of 634 metres; as of 2001 India census, Lakshmeshwar had a population of 33,411. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Lakshmeshwar has an average literacy rate of 62%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, female literacy is 53%. In Lakshmeshwar, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Lakshmeshwara is famous for prolific literature. It is a place with rich heritage in Karnataka hence. Many kings have patronised the place. Lakshmeshwar or ancient Huligere or Puligere was the capital of Puligere-300. Puligere means pond of tigers. There are theories of the origin of the name Lakshmeshwara: from King Lakshmanarasa, ruling Puligere or from the temple called Lakshmi-Lingana gudi, which means the temple of Lakshmi. Other names include Purigere, Porigere and Pulikanagar. Adikavi Pampa wrote his famous poetry in Lakshmeshwara. Many Jain saints and writers have flourished here, they include Devachakra Bhattaraka, Hemadevacharya, Tribhuvana Chandra Padmita and Rama Dvacharya. The most important monument at Lakshemshwar is the Someshwara temple complex; the temple complex with three main entrances is surrounded by high walls look like a fort. It is a splendid specimen of Chalukya architecture. In middle of the temple complex, there is a Someshwara temple, surrounded by many small temples dedicated to Shiva, along the compound wall, built with granite, some halls in the complex meant for resting devotees.
Someshwara temple with the traditional structures of a temple includes a garbha griha, an ardha mantapa or halfway hall, a navaranga and a mukha mantapa or entrance porch. The Nandi and Shiva Parvati idols in the temple are exquisitely sculpted; these idols are referred to as Saurashtra Someshwara, as these idols were brought by a Shiva devotee from Saurashtra and installed at Lakshmeshwara. Inside the Someshwara temple complex, behind the temple, there is an open step-well; this step-well, being richly carved and ornamented, is of artistic significance. At the Someshwara temple complex, there are many Kannada inscription. Over 50 stone inscriptions show the cultural importance; the Kannada poet Kayasena of Mulgund, who wrote in the Bharmamrita, was a disciple of Narendrasena II of the Lakshmeshwar inscription of 1081. Lakshmeshwar inscription of the reign of Jagadekamella II. Two Jain Inscription of Mulgund and Lakshmeshwar The Lakshmeshwar inscriptions, during 733–744 CE Vikramaditya II was the son of King Vijayaditya who ascended the Badami Chalukyas throne following the death of his father.
Jainism related to Lakshmeshwara has long history. At Lakshmeshwara, during the period of Kirtivarma II, the Jinalaya built by Kumkuma Mahadevi. Kalyani Chalukyas most important Jinalayas Brahma Jinalaya at Lakkundi, Charantimatha at Aihole and Sankha Jinalya at Lakshmeswar; the Sankha Jinalaya at Lakshmeshwara is dedicated to Neminatha. Sendraka Durgashakti, a feudatory of Pulakeshin II is said to have given gifts to this temple. An inscription of Vinayaditya refers to a grant to Jain acharya of mulasangha. Epigraph dated 729 A. D. of Vijayaditya mentions a grant to Niravadya Pandita, to house pupil of Sri Pujyapada. Another inscription of Vikramaditya II mentions gifts to Sweta Jinalaya; the Jaina monument of the Rashtrakuta period found Lakshmeshwar. Lakshmeshwara is one of the ancient Jain centres. Many Jain temples are mentioned in the inscriptions. Of the two historical Jinalayaa at Lakshmeswar, the more famous is Sankha Jinalaya called Sahasrakuta Jinalaya, in the BastiBana area; this takes back the history of Lakeshmeshwara to the 8th century.
Neminath, the 22nd Jain thirthankara, is the presiding deity of this Jain Basadi. Basadi, which consists of a Garbhagriha, a large Ardhamandapa, larger Mahamandapa and a Rangamandapa; the rangamandapa has three entrances. It has a chaturmukha structure in diminutive model, it has a rekhanagara shikhara. The unique feature of this temple is the Sahasrakuta Jinabimba in minute form. There is a Manasthamba erected in front of the temple. There are ventilated walls in front of the temple, whereas yakshas and yakshis can be found in the other walls. There are many splendid carvings of musicians. Inside the temple one can find the rare monolithic piece of Sahasra Jinabimbas and the idols of Dharnendra and Padmavathi. Many mutilated Jain idols can be found on the wall of a well nearby. Adikavi Pampa wrote Adi Purana, seated in this Basadi. Basadi renovated; the other Jinalaya there is a Trikuta dedicated to'Anantan