History of cricket in India from 2000–01
This article describes the history of cricket in India from the 2000–01 season to the present. The BCCI tinkered with the Duleep Trophy in the 2002–03 season; the original zonal teams were replaced by five new teams called Elite A, Elite B, Elite C, Plate A and Plate B. These teams were constructed from the new Elite Group and Plate Group divisions, introduced into the Ranji Trophy that season. However, this format lasted for only one season as it was felt that the new teams lacked a sense of identity. From the 2003–04 season, the five original zonal teams competed along with a sixth guest team, a touring foreign team; the first guest team was England A in 2003–04. The Indian Premier League has become popular in India since its inaugural in 2008. Mumbai has continued its dominance of the domestic scene into the 21st century by winning the Ranji Trophy five times in the first decade. Noted Indian cricketers in the 21st century include Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Rahul Dravid, Sourav Ganguly, Anil Kumble, Virender Sehwag, Sachin Tendulkar, Yuvraj Singh, VVS Laxman, Gautam Gambhir and Virat Kohli.
India won the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 in 2007. India was the first Sub-continental team to win a Test match at the WACA in January 2008 against Australia. Indian cricket team under the leadership of Mahendra Singh Dhoni and brilliant performances from Gautam Gambhir & Yuvraj Singh went on to win the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 and became the first team in history to win the Cup at home. 2000–01 – Baroda 2001–02 – Railways 2002–03 – Mumbai 2003–04 – Mumbai 2004–05 – Railways 2005–06 – Uttar Pradesh 2006–07 – Mumbai 2007–08 – Delhi 2008–09 – Mumbai 2009–10 – Mumbai 2010–11 – Rajasthan 2011–12 – Rajasthan 2012–13 – Mumbai 2013–14 – Karnataka 2014–15 – Karnataka 2000–01 – North Zone 2001–02 – West Zone 2002–03 – Elite C 2003–04 – North Zone 2004–05 – Central Zone 2005–06 – West Zone 2006–07 – North Zone 2007–08 – North Zone 2008–09 – West Zone 2009–10 – West Zone 2010–11 – South Zone 2011–12 – East Zone 2012–13 – East Zone 2013–14 – North Zone & South Zone Shared 2014–15 – Central Zone 1st Test at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi – India won by 7 wickets 2nd Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – match drawn 1st Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – Australia won by 10 wickets 2nd Test at Eden Gardens, Calcutta – India won by 171 runs 3rd Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – India won by 2 wickets 1st Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – India won by 10 wickets 2nd Test at Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad – match drawn 3rd Test at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore – match drawn 1st Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – India won by an innings and 101 runs 2nd Test at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi – India won by 4 wickets 1st Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – India won by an innings and 112 runs 2nd Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – India won by 8 wickets 3rd Test at Eden Gardens, Kolkata – match drawn 1st Test at Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad – match drawn 2nd Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – match drawn 1st Test at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore – Australia won by 217 runs 2nd Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – match drawn 3rd Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – Australia won by 342 runs 4th Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – India won by 13 runs 1st Test at Modi Stadium, Kanpur – match drawn 2nd Test at Eden Gardens, Kolkata – India won by 8 wickets 1st Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – match drawn 2nd Test at Eden Gardens, Kolkata – India won by 195 runs 3rd Test at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore – Pakistan won by 168 runs Limited overs tour only.
1st Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – match drawn 2nd Test at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi – India won by 188 runs 3rd Test at Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad – India won by 259 runs 1st Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – match drawn 2nd Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – India won by 9 wickets 3rd Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – England won by 212 runs Limited overs tour only. Limited overs tour only. CricketArchive – Itinerary of Events in India
Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast and Diu to the south and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west, its capital city is Gandhinagar. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state; the economy of Gujarat is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.96 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹157,000. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.
Along with Bihar and Nagaland, Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Present-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, meaning the land of the Gurjaras who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation, it contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was; the ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat; the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.
There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime, he built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas.
The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history; the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps; the greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century AD. The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods.
The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka state, he shifted his capital from Giringer near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University, it was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang/ I Tsing visited in 640 along the Silk Road. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages; the oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century.
In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam, which stretched
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between teams representing regional and state cricket associations. The competition consists of 37 teams, with all 29 states in India and two of the seven union territories having at least one representation; the competition is named after first Indian cricketer who played international cricket, known as'Ranji'. The current Ranji Trophy championship is held by Vidarbha, which won against Saurashtra by 78 runs in the final match of the 2018–19 season held at Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium, Nagpur; the competition was launched in following a meeting in July 1934, with the first fixtures taking place in 1934–35. The trophy was donated by Ranji; the first match of the competition was held on 4 November 1934 between Madras and Mysore at the Chepauk ground in Madras in the final. Mumbai have won the tournament the most number of times with 41 wins including 15 back-to-back wins from 1958–59 to 1972–73. State teams and cricket associations and clubs with first-class status are qualified to play in the Ranji Trophy.
While most associations are regional, like the Karnataka State Cricket Association and Mumbai Cricket Association, two and Services, are pan-Indian The following 37 teams participate in the Ranji Trophy: † denotes newly added teams for the 2018–19 season The following teams have appeared in the Ranji Trophy, but no longer do so: Central Provinces and Berar Northern India Sind Southern Punjab Western India North West Frontier Province Holkar Gwalior Kathiawar Patiala/Patiala and Eastern Punjab States Union Eastern Punjab Travancore-Cochin Madhya Bharat Northern Punjab From its inception until the 2001 season, the teams were grouped geographically into four or five zones – North, West and South, with Central added in 1952–53. Initial matches were played within the zones on a knock-out basis until 1956–57, thereafter on a league basis, to determine a winner. From the 1970–71 season, the knock-out stage was expanded to the top two teams from each zone, a total of ten qualifying teams; this was expanded again to the top three from each zone in 1992–93, a total of fifteen qualifying teams.
The format was changed in the 2002–03 season with the zonal system abandoned and a two-division structure adopted – the Elite Group, containing fifteen teams, the Plate Group, containing the rest. Each group had two sub-groups; the team which finished last in each Elite sub-group was relegated, both Plate Group finalists were promoted for the following season. For the 2006–07 season, the divisions were re-labelled the Super League and Plate League respectively. In the 2008–09 season, this format was adjusted to give both Super League and Plate League teams an opportunity to contest the Ranji Trophy; the top two from each Plate sub-group contested semi-finals. The winner of this knock-out tournament won the Ranji Trophy. Promotion and relegation between Super League and Plate League continued as before. In the 2010–11 season, Rajasthan won the Ranji Trophy after beginning the season in the Plate League. From the 2012–13 season, this format was adjusted slightly; the Super League and Plate League names were abandoned.
The top tier expanded from fifteen teams in two sub-groups of nine. The top three teams from Groups A and B and the top two from Group C contest the knockout phase; the lowest placed team in each of Group A and Group B is relegated to Group C, the top two from Group C are promoted to the top tier. For the 2017-18 season, the two-tier system was abandoned to have 4 groups of seven teams each and two quarter-finalists from each group. From the 2018-19 season, the teams contested in three-tiers. Five teams will qualify for the quarter-finals from the top tier. Two teams will qualify from One team from the lower-tier for the quarter-finals. Round-robin matches are four days in length. Throughout its history, if there is no outright result in a Ranji Trophy knock-out match, the team leading after the first innings is the winner. Prior to the 2016–17 season matches were played at the home ground of one of the two teams taking part. For the 2016 -- 17 competition the BCCI decided. Points in the league stages of both divisions are awarded as follows: † Some sources credit Goel with 636 or 640 wickets instead – see Rajinder Goel article for details.
The following teams have won the tournament: Mumbai/Bombay have played in 46 of the 83 finals till 2
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Bengal cricket team
The Bengal cricket team represents the Indian state of West Bengal in domestic first-class cricket. It is considered Eastern India's strongest cricket team; the team plays. Bengal has been runner-up a total of 11 times. Bengal won the Vijay Hazare Trophy known as the Ranji One Day Trophy, in 2012. Under the captaincy of Sourav Ganguly, it beat Mumbai in the finals at the Feroz Shah Kotla Ground, Delhi on 12 March 2012. Bengal's first success came in the third Ranji Trophy season, in which it came runners-up to Nawanagar. Two years it beat Southern Punjab in the final of the Ranji Trophy to become the 4th team to hold the title. For the next 51 years, although it had been runner-up 11 times, it did not regain the title until it beat a strong Delhi team in the 1990 final; the team was runner-up twice consecutively in the 2006-07 season. Their ranks are bolstered by the return of Sourav Ganguly to the domestic competition. Players who represented India Eden Gardens, Kolkata - The second largest stadium in the world and the home ground of Kolkata Knight Riders Jadavpur University Campus Ground, Jadavpur- It has been leased out to the Cricket Association of Bengal and it plays host to inter- and intra state cricket matches.
Bengal Cricket Academy, Kalyani Deshbandu Park, North Kolkata - hosted matches of Vinoo Mankad Trophy, Cooch Behar Trophy, Vijay Merchant Trophy and Polly Umrigar Trophy Players with international caps are listed in bold. Cricket Association of Bengal List of Cricket Association of Bengal Presidents Ranji Trophy winners Bengal cricket team.
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s