Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman
Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman is a Hindu deity known as Sri Chowdeswari Amman.. Worshipped in three forms of Shakti and Jyothi; this goddess is worshipped as Sri Chowdeswari Amman, as Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman. The other names are Soodambigai amman, Sowdamman. According to the Devanga Purana, Sage Deva is the progenitor of the Devanga community. Devala emerged from the third eye of Lord Shiva to create clothing and to teach weaving to the world. Devala Maharishi was the first person to weave cotton cloth and the first to give the cloth to Lord Shiva, using animal skin until then; when Devala was return after getting threads from Lord Vishnu's Lotus navel, demons attacked him, it was no moon day so in the dark the power of demons were high. Devala prayed Sakthi to protect him. Devi Sakthi appeared with brightness and glory holding Trisul and Dhanda in her hand mounted in lion and killed the demons. Devala soaked the threads in the demons colourful blood. Devi Sakthi is named as Sowdeswari or Soodambika or Sowdambigai.
She advised Devala sage to worship her in every no moon day. Devala weaved new clothes and give them to all Trimurti, Deva, Gandarva and normal people. Devala gave clothes to cover Deva's body parts, he gave clothes to Snake community of patal lok and he married the daughter of Shesha so the people of Devanga community are called as Jedar or Jeandaru. There are many informations available in Mahabarata about Devanga people. People who follow Devala are known as Devangar. Devanga community people celebrate Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman every 12 years with Dhoddabbam, involving all Sowdeswari Amman temples across India. Devanga NewYear- If they follow calendar of moon's rotation, they celebrate their New year on the day of Ugadi. If they follow sun's rotation calender, they celebrate their New year on the day of Chaithra 1, they celebrate Ugadi as their new year. Devanga janivara - They celebrate their janivara festival on Aavani Avittam / Aavani Thiruvonam day. Yearly Festival - They celebrate the yearly festival of Sowdeswari amman temple.
It falls during the season of Navratri and it varies among the place and their area tradition. It includes ManjaNeer meravana, Alagu seva, Amman beethi ulaa. NoMoonDay - On the no moon day they stop weaving clothes and pray Devi Sowdeswari. Sankranti Devanga people celebrate sankaranti festival. In Tamil Nadu they celebrate pongal festival instead of celebrating sankaranthi. Dhoddabba - A festival celebrated once by every 12 years; some Devanga people won't celebrate Diwali. Janmastami - Devanga people celebrate krishna ashtami festival, and they celebrate all local festivals Alagu Seva is a special Cultural Ritual Event done only by Devanga People. Deities used to wound themselves by holy sword by saying "Theesukko Thaye", "Thegadhuko Thaye", "Tho parak, Thali parak" "Baa Maa Baa, Baa Thaye Baa", it is done by Devanga Men without any age difference. It is believed. Following them, Nowadays these people are invoking Sowdeswari Amman by this method. Pandaram is applied among the wounds so as to protect from infections.
In this modern days young Devanga people used to perform some Ritual dance by this holy swords. Except Devanga, other people are not allowed to perform this Ritual, it is known as "Alagu Seva", "Katthi Haakkadhu". The one who perform this tradition is called Veera Kumar. Devanga people wear a holy thread across their Chest, it represents. They wear this thread for representing them as weavers and its not for any other reasons.. Devanga Kula Jegath Guru Hampi Hemakooda Gayathri Peeda Sri Sri Sri Dhayananthapuri swamiji, Dhayananthapuri swamiji-Hampi Hemakooda Gayathri Peedam Devangakula Guru Abbot Chandramouleswara Swamiji sends a prayer to the Gayatri goddess, at Sambusailam Monastery, it is located on the left side of Erikarai Jalakandapuram Sri Ramakrishna Sowdeswari Amman temple. Chandramouleeswarar swamji-Sambusailam Gayathri Peetham The main temple to the goddess Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman is located in Hampi, Karnataka, and that temple is called as "Thai Sthalam". You can visit Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman temples in Tamil Nadu.
The temple for this goddess is located all over the country. In other states the goddess is named as Sri Banasankari, Sri Chowdeswari, Soodambigai etc. A five-day festival celebrated for Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman called Jagajathara Dhodabba comes in the month of January. Sakthi - It is dedicated to the goddess Sakthi - "Irumaneru" goddess will be revered for Sakthi function. Chamundi - It is dedicated to the goddess Chamundeswari - "Yendhelaaru" goddess will be revered for Chamundi fucntion. Jyothi - It is dedicated to goddess Jyothi Light - "La
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting and braiding or plaiting; the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter-woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Cloth is woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back strap loom, or other techniques without looms; the way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be woven in decorative or artistic design. In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.
One warp thread is called. The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other in a loom. There are many types of looms. Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions called the primary motion of the loom. Shedding: where the warp threads are separated by raising or lowering heald frames to form a clear space where the pick can pass Picking: where the weft or pick is propelled across the loom by hand, an air-jet, a rapier or a shuttle. Beating-up or battening: where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed; the warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one above another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. The upper group is lowered by the loom mechanism, the lower group is raised, allowing to pass the shuttle in the opposite direction in a straight motion. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the final distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large.
The secondary motion of the loom are the: Let off Motion: where the warp is let off the warp beam at a regulated speed to make the filling and of the required design Take up Motion: Takes up the woven fabric in a regulated manner so that the density of filling is maintainedThe tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions: to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two main stop motions are the warp stop motion weft stop motionThe principal parts of a loom are the frame, the warp-beam or weavers beam, the cloth-roll, the heddles, their mounting, the reed; the warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom. The threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll; each thread or group of threads of the warp passes through an opening in a heddle. The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles.
In the case of small patterns the movement of the heddles is controlled by "cams" which move up the heddles by means of a frame called a harness. Where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine; every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted. Traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the weft thread is carried on a pirn, in a shuttle that passes through the shed. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick; the "picking" on a power loom is done by hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80–250 times a minute. When a pirn is depleted, it is ejected from the shuttle and replaced with the next pirn held in a battery attached to the loom. Multiple shuttle boxes allow more than one shuttle to be used; each can carry a different colour.
The rapier-type weaving machines do not have shuttles, they propel the weft by means of small grippers or rapiers that pick up the filling thread and carry it halfway across the loom where another rapier picks it up and pulls it the rest of the way. Some carry the filling yarns across the loom at rates in excess of 2,000 metres per minute. Manufacturers such as Picanol have reduced the mechanical adjustments to a minimum, control all the functions through a computer with a graphical user interface. Other types use compressed air to insert the pick, they are all fast and quiet. The warp is sized in a starch mixture for smoother running; the loom warped by passing the sized warp threads through two or more heddles attached to harnesses. The power weavers. Most looms used for industrial purposes have a machine that ties new warps threads to the waste of used warps threads, while still on the loom an operator rolls the old and new threads back on the warp beam; the harnesses are controlled by dobbies or a Jacquard head.
The raising and lowering
A lingam, sometimes referred to as linga or Shiva linga, is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva in Shaivism. It is a votary symbol revered as self-manifested natural objects; the lingam is represented within a lipped, disc-shaped platform called a yoni that symbolizes the goddess Shakti. Lingayats wear a lingam inside a necklace, called Ishtalinga. Lingam is additionally found in Sanskrit texts with the meaning of "evidence, proof", or in sexual context where it means the "male generative organ, phallus". Lingam iconography found at archaeological sites of the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia includes simple cylinders set inside a yoni, rounded pillars with carvings such as of one or more mukha, anatomically realistic representations of a phallus such as at Gudimallam. In the Shaiva traditions, the lingam is regarded as a form of spiritual iconography. Lingam, states Monier Monier-Williams, appears in the Upanishads and epic literature, where it means a "mark, emblem, characteristic".
Other contextual meanings of the term include "evidence, symptom", "gender, male organ, phallus". The term appears in early Indian texts on logic, where an inference is based on a sign, such as "if there is smoke, there is fire" where the linga is the smoke. According to James Lochtefeld, it is sometimes "simplistically called a phallic symbol", it is a religious symbol in Hinduism representing Shiva as the generative power, all of existence, all creativity and fertility at every cosmic level. The lingam of the Shaivism tradition is a short cylindrical pillar-like symbol of Shiva, made of stone, gem, clay or disposable material. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the lingam is a votary aniconic object found in the sanctum of Shiva temples and private shrines that symbolizes Shiva and is "revered as an emblem of generative power", it is found within a lipped, disked structure, an emblem of goddess Shakti and this is called the yoni. Together they symbolize the union of the feminine and the masculine principles, "the totality of all existence", states Encyclopædia Britannica.
According to Rohit Dasgupta, the lingam symbolizes Shiva in Hinduism, it is a phallic symbol. Since the 19th-century, states Dasgupta, the popular literature has represented the lingam as the male sex organ; this view contrasts with the traditional abstract values they represent in Shaivism wherein the lingam-yoni connote the masculine and feminine principles in the entirety of creation and all existence. According to Wendy Doniger, for many Hindus, the lingam is not a "male sexual organ" but of a spiritual icon and their faith, just like for the Christians the cross is not an "instrument of execution" but a symbol of Christ and the Christian faith. According to Alex Wayman, given the Shaiva philosophical texts and spiritual interpretations, various works on Shaivism by some Indian authors "deny that the linga is a phallus". To the Shaivites, a linga is neither a phallus nor do they practice the worship of erotic penis-vulva, rather the linga-yoni is a symbol of cosmic mysteries, the creative powers and the metaphor for the spiritual truths of their faith.
According to Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, the lingam signifies three perfections of Shiva. The upper oval part of the Shivalingam represent Parashiva and lower part of the Shivalingam called the pitha represents Parashakti. In Parashiva perfection, Shiva is the absolute reality, the timeless and spaceless. In Parashakti perfection, Shiva is all-pervasive, pure consciousness and primal substance of all that exists and it has form unlike Parashiva, formless. According to Nagendra Singh, some believe. According to Chakrabarti, "some of the stones found in Mohenjodaro are unmistakably phallic stones"; these are dated to some time before 2300 BCE. States Chakrabarti, the Kalibangan site of Harappa has a small terracotta representation that "would undoubtedly be considered the replica of a modern Shivlinga." According to Encyclopædia Britannica, while Harappan discoveries include "short cylindrical pillars with rounded tops", there is no evidence that the people of Indus Valley Civilization worshipped these artifacts as lingams.
The colonial era archaeologists John Marshall and Ernest Mackay proposed that certain artifacts found at Harappan sites may be evidence of yoni-linga worship in Indus Valley Civilization. Scholars such as Arthur Llewellyn Basham dispute whether such artifacts discovered at the archaeological sites of Indus Valley sites are yoni. For example and Ryan state that lingam/yoni shapes have been recovered from the archaeological sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, part of the Indus Valley Civilisation. In contrast, Indologist Wendy Doniger states that this rare artifact can be interpreted in many ways and has unduly been used for wild speculations such as being a linga. Another postage stamp sized item found and called the Pashupati seal, states Doniger, has an image with a general resemblance with Shiva and "the Indus people may well have created the symbolism of the divine phallus", but given the available evidence we cannot be certain, nor do we know that it had the same meaning as some project them to might have meant.
According to the Indologist Asko Parpola, "it is true that Marshall's and Mackay's hypotheses of linga and yoni worship by the Harappans has rested on rather slender grounds, that for instance the interpretation of the so-called ring-stones as yonis seems untenable". He quotes Dales 1984 paper, which states "with the single exception of the unidentified photography of a realistic phallic object in Marshall's repo
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Caste system in India
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. It has origins in ancient India, was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, modern India the Mughal Empire and the British Raj, it is today the basis of educational and job reservations in India. It consists of two different concepts and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system. Vaidyanathan argues that the caste system had existed at the village level to serve the needs of its people, however It was the method in which the 1881 census was carried out in India by the British Raj which institutionalized the caste system on a much larger and national scale which resulted in being detrimental to Indian society; the caste system as it exists today in, is thought to be the result of developments during the collapse of the Mughal era and the rise of the British colonial regime in India. The collapse of the Mughal era saw the rise of powerful men who associated themselves with kings and ascetics, affirming the regal and martial form of the caste ideal, it reshaped many casteless social groups into differentiated caste communities.
The British Raj furthered this development, making rigid caste organisation a central mechanism of administration. Between 1860 and 1920, the British segregated Indians by caste, granting administrative jobs and senior appointments only to Christians and people belonging to certain castes. Social unrest during the 1920s led to a change in this policy. From on, the colonial administration began a policy of divisive as well as positive discrimination by reserving a certain percentage of government jobs for the lower castes. In 1948, negative discrimination on the basis of caste was banned by law and further enshrined in the Indian constitution, however the system continues to be practiced in India with devastating social effects. Caste-based differences have been practised in other regions and religions in the Indian subcontinent like Nepalese Buddhism, Islam and Sikhism, it has been challenged by many reformist Hindu movements, Sikhism, by present-day Indian Buddhism. Each religion in India continues to have a hierarchy based on castes, thus dalits exist among Hindus, Christians as well as Sikhs, wherein all manual scavengers and pig herders in most villages in Punjab are Dalit Sikhs.
New developments took place after India achieved independence, when the policy of caste-based reservation of jobs was formalised with lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Since 1950, the country has enacted many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socioeconomic conditions of its lower caste population; these caste classifications for college admission quotas, job reservations and other affirmative action initiatives, according to the Supreme Court of India, are based on heredity and are not changeable. Discrimination against lower castes is illegal in India under Article 15 of its constitution, a few departments in the government of India tracks violence against Dalits nationwide. Varna means type, colour or class and was a framework for grouping people into classes, first used in Vedic Indian society, it is referred to in the ancient Indian texts. The four classes were the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, Shudras; the varna categorisation implicitly had a fifth element, being those people deemed to be outside its scope, such as tribal people and the untouchables.
Jati, meaning birth, is mentioned much less in ancient texts, where it is distinguished from varna. There are four varnas but thousands of jatis; the jatis are complex social groups that lack universally applicable definition or characteristic, have been more flexible and diverse than was often assumed. Some scholars of caste have considered jati to have its basis in religion, assuming that in India the sacred elements of life envelop the secular aspects; this view has been disputed by other scholars, who believe it to be a secular social phenomenon driven by the necessities of economics and sometimes geography. Jeaneane Fowler says that although some people consider jati to be occupational segregation, in reality the jati framework does not preclude or prevent a member of one caste from working in another occupation. A feature of jatis has been endogamy, in Susan Bayly's words, that "both in the past and for many though not all Indians in more modern times, those born into a given caste would expect to find marriage partner" within his or her jati.
Jatis have existed in India among Hindus, Muslims and tribal people, there is no clear linear order among them. The term caste is not an Indian word, though it is now used, both in English and in Indian languages. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning "race, breed" and "'pure or unmixed". There is no exact translation in Indian languages, but varna and jati are the two most approximate terms; the sociologist G. S. Ghurye wrote in 1932 that, despite much study by many people, we do not possess a real general definition of caste, it appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because of the complexity of the phenomenon. On the other hand, much literature on the subject is marred by lack of precision about the use
For the place with the same name, see Devala In Hinduism, Devala was one of the great rishis or sages. He is acknowledged to be a great authority like Narada and Vyasa and is mentioned by Arjuna in Bhagavad Gita. Sage Devala is the progenitor of Devanga community. Devala came out from the heart of Lord Shiva to teach weaving to the world. Main god for devala Sri Ramalinga Sowdeswari Amman
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s