Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean; the region is the only part of Asia that lies within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia known as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India, Laos, Thailand and West Malaysia. Maritime Southeast Asia known as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, East Malaysia, the Philippines, East Timor, Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands. Taiwan is included in this grouping by many anthropologists; the region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities.
The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2, 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is about 8.5 % of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after East Asia; the region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, military and cultural integration amongst its members; the region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or the Indies until the 20th century.
Chinese sources referred the region as 南洋, which means the "Southern Ocean." The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina; the maritime section of Southeast Asia is known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia, used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia; the term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia; the term was used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command in 1943.
SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia," although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed. However, by the late 1970s, a standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged. Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries listed below. Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, is an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea; some southern parts of Mainland China, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan, are considered as part of Southeast Asia by some authors. * Administrative centre in Putrajaya. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia. Mainland Southeast Asia includes: Maritime Southeast Asia includes: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia.
Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Southeast Asia and sometimes considered both South Asian and Southeast Asian. Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia; the rest of the island of New Guinea, not part of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included, so are Palau and the Northern Mariana Islands, which were all part of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region the Philippines. The eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf; the region
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, their relatives. Called the "carp family", or "minnow family", Cyprinidae is the largest and most diverse fish family and the largest vertebrate animal family in general, with about 3,000 species of which only 1,270 remain extant, divided into about 370 genera.. They range from about 12 mm to the 3-meter Catlocarpio siamensis; this family of fish is one of the few. The family belongs to the ostariophysian order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make more than two-thirds; the family name is derived from the Ancient Greek kyprînos. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. So, food can be chewed by the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow; these pharyngeal teeth allow the fish to make chewing motions against a chewing plate formed by a bony process of the skull. The pharyngeal teeth are used by scientists to identify species. Strong pharyngeal teeth allow fish such as the common carp and ide to eat hard baits such as snails and bivalves.
Hearing is a well-developed sense in the cyprinids since they have the Weberian organ, three specialized vertebral processes that transfer motion of the gas bladder to the inner ear. The vertebral processes of the Weberian organ permit a cyprinid to detect changes in motion of the gas bladder due to atmospheric conditions or depth changes; the cyprinids are considered physostomes because the pneumatic duct is retained in adult stages and the fish are able to gulp air to fill the gas bladder, or they can dispose excess gas to the gut. Cyprinids are native to North America and Eurasia; the largest known cyprinid is the giant barb, which may grow up to 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight. Other large species that can surpass 2 m are the golden mahseer and mangar; the largest North American species is the Colorado pikeminnow, which can reach up to 1.8 m in length. Conversely, many species are smaller than 5 cm; the smallest known fish is Paedocypris progenetica, reaching 10.3 mm at the longest. All fish in this family most do not guard their eggs.
The bitterlings of subfamily Acheilognathinae are notable for depositing their eggs in bivalve molluscs, where the young develop until able to fend for themselves. Most cyprinids feed on invertebrates and vegetation due to the lack of teeth and stomach. Many species, such as the ide and the common rudd, prey on small fish when individuals become large enough. Small species, such as the moderlieschen, are opportunistic predators that will eat larvae of the common frog in artificial circumstances; some cyprinids, such as the grass carp, are specialized herbivores. For this reason, cyprinids are introduced as a management tool to control various factors in the aquatic environment, such as aquatic vegetation and diseases transmitted by snails. Unlike most fish species, cyprinids increase in abundance in eutrophic lakes. Here, they contribute towards positive feedback as they are efficient at eating the zooplankton that would otherwise graze on the algae, reducing its abundance. Cyprinids are important food fish.
In land-locked countries in particular, cyprinids are the major species of fish eaten because they make the largest part of biomass in most water types except for fast-flowing rivers. In Eastern Europe, they are prepared with traditional methods such as drying and salting; the prevalence of inexpensive frozen fish products made this less important now than it was in earlier times. Nonetheless, in certain places, they remain popular for food, as well as recreational fishing, have been deliberately stocked in ponds and lakes for centuries for this reason. Cyprinids are popular for angling for match fishing and fishing for common carp because of its size and strength. Several cyprinids have been introduced to waters outside their natural ranges to provide food, sport, or biological control for some pest species; the common carp and the grass carp are the most important for example in Florida. In some cases, such as the Asian carp in the Mississippi Basin, they have become invasive species that compete with native fishes or disrupt the environment.
Carp in particular can stir up sediment, reducing the clarity of the water and making it difficult for plants to grow. Numerous cyprinids have become important in the aquarium and fishpond hobbies, most famously the goldfish, bred in China from the Prussian carp. First imported into Europe around 1728, it was much fancied by Chinese nobility as early as 1150 AD and after it arrived there in 1502 in Japan. In the latter country, from the 18th century onwards, the common carp was bred into the ornamental variety known as koi – or more nishikigoi, as koi means "common carp" in Japanese. Other popular aquarium cyprinids include danionins and true barbs. Larger species are bred by the thousands in outdoor ponds in Southeast Asia, trade in these aquarium fishes
The danionins are a group of small minnow-type fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae. Members of this group are in the genera Danio and Rasbora, they are native to the fresh waters of South and Southeast Asia, with fewer species in Africa. Many species are available as aquarium fish worldwide. Danio species tend to have horizontal stripes, rows of spots, or vertical bars, have long barbels. Devario species tend to have vertical or horizontal bars, short rudimentary barbels, if barbels are present at all. All danionins are egg scatterers and breed in the rainy season in the wild, they are carnivores living on small crustaceans. The grouping of fish now deemed danionins has been the subject of constant research and speculation throughout the 20th century. Nearly all the fish classed within the genera Danio and Devario were placed in the genus Danio upon discovery. However, in the first part of the 20th century, George S. Myers split them into three genera, Danio and Daniops; the sole species within Myers' Daniops, D. myersi, has long ago been found to be a synonym of Devario laoensis, but his genus Brachydanio lasted for much longer, as it included most of the fish now classed as Danio, whereas Danio included most of the fish now classed as Devario.
However, Danio dangila and Danio feegradei, both of which had most of the characteristics of the Brachydanio were placed within Danios.. In 1941, H. M. Smith attempted to unite all the Brachydanios and Danios species into one genus on the basis of a fish from Thailand, supposed to bridge the gap, he downgraded both Danio and Brachydanio into subgenera and erected a new subgenus of Allodanio with one member, Allodanio ponticulus, but Myers pointed out that A. ponticulus was a member of the genus Barilius. The danionin group was thought to include Parabarilius, Danio and Danionella. In this scheme, danionins were distinguished from other cyprinids by the uniquely shared character of the "danionin notch", a large and peculiarly shaped indentation in the medial margin of the mandibles. However, all of these categories at that time were informal. Microrasbora was not considered to be a part of the danionins, nor closely related to Danionella, a part of the danionins as understood at that time. In the late 1980s and 1990s, doubts grew about the validity of Brachydanio, with species being referred to their original naming of Danio, Fang Fang determined that the genus Danio, recognized up to that point, was paraphyletic.
Fang restricted Danio to the species in the "D. dangila species group", which at the time comprised nine species including D. dangila, D. rerio, D. nigrofasciatus, D. albolineatus. The only Danio species to have been called Danio were D. dangila and D. feegradei. As D. dangila was the first discovered Danio the name Danio had to remain with D. dangila, why the vast majority of species were moved to Devario. The sister group to Devario was deemed to be a clade formed by Inlecypris and Chela, more controversially, Esomus was found to be the sister group of Danio; the relationships of Sundadanio and Microrasbora remained unresolved. The danionin notch was found to not supported to be a danionin synapomorphy. In another paper, Celestichthys margaritatus was described as a new species of the Danioninae, it is most related to Microrasbora erythromicron. The genus is identified as a danionin due specializations of its lower jaw and its numerous anal fin rays. Though it lacks a danionin notch, Celestichthys exhibits the "danionin mandibular knob", a bony process on the side of the mandible behind the danionin notch or where the notch should be.
This knob is better developed in males than females. The fish of Rasborinae invariably have anal fins with three spines and five rays. Celestichthys has 8-10 anal fin rays. Rasborins have the generalized cyprinid principal caudal fin ray count of 10/9, while all Asian cyprinids with fewer than 10/9 principal caudal fin rays are all diminutive species of Danioninae, including Celestichthys, M. erythromicron and Paedocypris. In 2007, an analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of the described genus Paedocypris was published, placing it as the sister taxon to Sundadanio; the clade formed by these two genera was found to be sister to a clade including many danionin genera, as well as some rasborin genera such as Rasbora and Boraras, making the danionin group paraphyletic without these rasborin genera based on these results. This paper considered the danionin genera to be within a larger Rasborinae. In 2007, another study analyzed the relationships of Danio; these authors considered Rasborinae to have priority over Danioninae, suggesting that they have the same meaning.
Danio was found to be the sister group of a clade including Chela, Microrasbora and Inlecypris, rather than in a clade with either Devario or Esomus as in previous studies. This paper supported the close relationship of "Microrasbora" erythromicron to Danio species.
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Devario is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae native to the rivers and streams of South and Southeast Asia. These fishes have many species having vertical or horizontal stripes; these species consume various small, aquatic insects and worms, as well as, in the case of fry, plankton. 43 species in this genus are recognized
Minnow is the common name for a number of species of small freshwater fish, belonging to several genera of the family Cyprinidae. They are known in Ireland as pinkeens. Smaller fish in the subfamily Leuciscinae are considered by anglers to be "true" minnows. Bluntnose minnow: The bluntnose minnow is a primary bait fish for Northern America, has a high tolerance for variable water qualities, which helps its distribution throughout many regions; the snout of the bluntnose minnow overhangs the mouth. There is a dark lateral line which stretches from the opercle to the base of the tail, where a large black spot is located; the average size of the adult is 5 cm.'Pimephales Common shiner: These fish are one of the most common type of bait fish and are exclusively stream dwellers. The common shiner can be identified by the nine rays on its anal terminal mouth; this minnow is bluish silver on the sides and greenish blue on the back. Save for breeding season in which case the male gains a rose colored tail and anal fin.
The shiner reach a size of 13 cm at adulthood. Another common "shiner" bait fish is the young version of the European chub, quite easy to catch. Notropis potteri is known as the chub shiner. Common emerald shiner: Common shiners are most abundant in the Great Lakes of North America Lake Erie; the name of the emerald shiner comes from the greenish emerald band that expands from the back of the gill cover to the tail. This type of minnow has a short, rounded snout, the only difference between the common emerald shiner and the silver shiner is that the silver shiner has a longer snout and a larger eye; these fish grow to an average length of about 6 cm. This is one of the most common bait fish used in the Lake Erie region of Ohio and many fisherman hold it over all other bait. Cheat minnow, a species in the genus Pararhinichthys Cutlips minnow, a species in the genus Exoglossum Desert minnows, fishes in the genus Dionda Eurasian minnows, fishes in the genus Phoxinus Fathead minnow, a species in the genus Pimephales Loach minnow, a species of the genus Rhinichthys Short levered minnow, a species of the genus Minnellinus Pikeminnows, fishes in the genus Ptychocheilus Pugnose minnow, a species in the genus Opsopoeodus Silverjaw minnow, a species in the genus Notropis Longjaw minnow, a species in the genus Ericymba Silvery minnows, fishes in the genus Hybognathus Suckermouth minnows, fishes in the genus Phenacobius Vietnamese cardinal minnow, a species in the genus Tanichthys White Cloud Mountain minnow, a species in the genus Tanichthys Topminnow: An endangered minnow species which are found in southern New Mexico and Arizona.
The drop in the topminnow population can be linked to the introduction of the common mosquitofish. This type of minnow grows to a length of 6 cm with the females growing to be larger than the males. During times of breeding males turn black while females and non-breeding males are tan or olive-green; the diet of the topminnow consists of bottom debris and small crustaceans. Common mosquitofish: The mosquitofish is a small minnow which has received its name for its fondness for mosquito larvae; the mosquitofish reaches a length of only 2.5–5 cm long. This is a peculiar fish because the male has a "modified" anal fin and female gives birth to live young, much like their related cousins the guppy. Other fish called minnows include in the Southern Hemisphere, some fish in the family Galaxiidae, in particular those of genus Galaxias in Southeast Asia, the danionins the Drakensberg minnow from the Congo Democratic Republic the Maluti minnow from Lesotho the Falklands minnow from the Falkland Islands the pike topminnow are confused for the northern pike called "minnow" for the little size.
The minnows of the deep, small bioluminescent bristlemouth fish 8 centimetres long Using minnows as baits can be seen by many fishermen as one of the most effective methods for fishing. Bait minnows can be found in any bait shop ones near a body of water, but many anglers prefer to capture their own. A method in which a fisherman finds a school of minnows and using a fine meshnet scoops through the school, bringing the net back out of the water in one motion; this method is used on the shore near the bank of a stream or a shallow area of a lake or pond. A seine is a large net, sometimes being 12 metres in size, which has small weights attached to the bottom; these small weights help to keep the net vertical in the water while two people hold either end of the net and drag it through a spot where minnows are suspected to be. This method is good for catching a variety of bait fish and is one of the oldest methods for catching fish. A wire trap is made of two half-cylinders with concave cones which end in small openings at either end.
These two halves are connected together after some sort of bait to entice the minnows has been placed inside. The wire trap is connected to a length of line, fastened to something on the bank or a float. Minnows are attracted inside the trap by the bait, swimming into the small opening at either end, after they have found their way in it is difficult for them to escape; this technique is one that requires less attention. Minnows are more reproductively resilient than anticipated. Minnows breed with the slightest rainfall and within
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund