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Device driver

In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device, attached to a computer. A driver provides a software interface to hardware devices, enabling operating systems and other computer programs to access hardware functions without needing to know precise details about the hardware being used. A driver communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects; when a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware operating-system-specific, they provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface. The main purpose of device drivers is to provide abstraction by acting as a translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it. Programmers can write higher-level application code independently of whatever specific hardware the end-user is using.

For example, a high-level application for interacting with a serial port may have two functions for "send data" and "receive data". At a lower level, a device driver implementing these functions would communicate to the particular serial port controller installed on a user's computer; the commands needed to control a 16550 UART are much different from the commands needed to control an FTDI serial port converter, but each hardware-specific device driver abstracts these details into the same software interface. Writing a device driver requires an in-depth understanding of how the hardware and the software works for a given platform function; because drivers require low-level access to hardware functions in order to operate, drivers operate in a privileged environment and can cause system operational issues if something goes wrong. In contrast, most user-level software on modern operating systems can be stopped without affecting the rest of the system. Drivers executing in user mode can crash a system if the device is erroneously programmed.

These factors make it more dangerous to diagnose problems. The task of writing drivers thus falls to software engineers or computer engineers who work for hardware-development companies; this is. Moreover, it was traditionally considered in the hardware manufacturer's interest to guarantee that their clients can use their hardware in an optimum way; the Logical Device Driver is written by the operating system vendor, while the Physical Device Driver is implemented by the device vendor. But in recent years, non-vendors have written numerous proprietary device drivers for use with free and open source operating systems. In such cases, it is important that the hardware manufacturer provides information on how the device communicates. Although this information can instead be learned by reverse engineering, this is much more difficult with hardware than it is with software. Microsoft has attempted to reduce system instability due to poorly written device drivers by creating a new framework for driver development, called Windows Driver Foundation.

This includes User-Mode Driver Framework that encourages development of certain types of drivers—primarily those that implement a message-based protocol for communicating with their devices—as user-mode drivers. If such drivers malfunction, they do not cause system instability; the Kernel-Mode Driver Framework model continues to allow development of kernel-mode device drivers, but attempts to provide standard implementations of functions that are known to cause problems, including cancellation of I/O operations, power management, plug and play device support. Apple has an open-source framework for developing drivers on macOS, called I/O Kit. In Linux environments, programmers can build device drivers as parts of the kernel, separately as loadable modules, or as user-mode drivers. Makedev includes a list of the devices in Linux: ttyS, lp, hd, sound... The Microsoft Windows.sys files and Linux.ko modules contain loadable device drivers. The advantage of loadable device drivers is that they can be loaded only when necessary and unloaded, thus saving kernel memory.

Device drivers on modern Microsoft Windows platforms, can run in kernel-mode or in user-mode. The primary benefit of running a driver in user mode is improved stability, since a poorly written user-mode device driver cannot crash the system by overwriting kernel memory. On the other hand, user/kernel-mode transitions impose a considerable performance overhead, thus making kernel-mode drivers preferred for low-latency networking. Kernel space can be accessed by user module only through the use of system calls. End user programs like the UNIX shell or other GUI-based applications are part of the user space; these applications interact with hardware through kernel supported functions. Because of the diversity of modern hardware and operating systems, drivers operate in many different environments. Drivers may interface with: Printers Video adapters Network cards Sound cards Local buses of various sorts—in particular, for bus mastering on modern systems Low-bandwidth I/O buses of various sorts Computer storage devices such as hard disk, CD-ROM, floppy disk buses Implementing support for different

John King (racing driver)

John King II is an American professional stock car racing driver. Born in Fort Blackmore, King grew up in Kingsport, Tennessee. King began his racing career in 2006, competing in local late model series in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. In 2009, King moved up to the UARA-STARS Late Model Series, as part of his participation in the Bill Elliott Driver Development Program. During his early career King scored two wins in all series combined, one on a dirt track and the other on an asphalt course. King made his debut in the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series in 2010, competing at Bristol Motor Speedway and finishing fifteenth, he made six additional starts in the Camping World Truck Series through 2010 and 2011 before signing with Red Horse Racing to drive the team's No. 7 truck for the 2012 season. Chad Kendrick is the No. 7 truck's crew chief. He started the 2012 season by winning the series' biggest race, the NextEra Energy Resources 250 at Daytona International Speedway, leading a one-two finish by Red Horse Racing as teammate Timothy Peters finished second.

King had been involved in two crashes over the course of the race, one of them taking out then-leader Johnny Sauter. The win came in King's eighth start in the series, King stated that the win was only the third of his entire career. Following a ninth-place finish in the season's second race at Martinsville Speedway, King struggled in the following three events, crashing twice. In September 2012, King returned to the Camping World Truck Series, driving the No. 5 truck for Wauters Motorsports at Kentucky Speedway. In 2013, King drove for Eddie Sharp Racing in the season-opening race at Daytona, finishing eighteenth. In February 2014, King announced that he would drive for NTS Motorsports in the season-opening Truck Series race at Daytona that month, finishing 23rd. * Season still in progress1 Ineligible for series points Official website John King driver statistics at Racing-Reference

Falkner (novel)

Falkner is the penultimate book published by the author Mary Shelley. Like Shelley's earlier novel Lodore, it charts a young woman's education under a tyrannical father figure; as a six-year-old orphan, Elizabeth Raby prevents Rupert Falkner from committing suicide. However, she falls in love with Gerald Neville, whose mother Falkner had unintentionally driven to her death years before; when Falkner is acquitted of murdering Neville's mother, Elizabeth's female values subdue the destructive impulses of the two men she loves, who are reconciled and unite with Elizabeth in domestic harmony. Falkner is the only one of Shelley's novels. In critic Kate Ferguson Ellis's view, the novel’s resolution proposes that when female values triumph over violent and destructive masculinity, men will be freed to express the "compassion and generosity" of their better natures. Critics have until cited Lodore and Falkner as evidence of a conservative retrenchment by Shelley. In 1984, Mary Poovey identified the retreat of Shelley’s reformist politics into the "separate sphere" of the domestic.

As with Lodore, contemporary critics reviewed the novel as a romance, overlooking its political subtext and noting its moral issues as purely familial. Betty Bennett argues, that Falkner is as much concerned with power and political responsibility as Shelley's previous novels. Poovey suggested that Shelley wrote Falkner to resolve her conflicted response to her father's combination of libertarian radicalism and stern insistence on social decorum. Critics view Falkner neither as notably feminist, nor as one of Mary Shelley's strongest novels, though she herself believed it could be her best; the novel has been criticised for its two-dimensional characterisation. In Bennett's view, "Lodore and Falkner represent fusions of the psychological social novel with the educational novel, resulting not in romances but instead in narratives of destabilization: the heroic protagonists are educated women who strive to create a world of justice and universal love". Allen, Graham. "Public and Private Fidelity: Mary Shelley's'Life of William Godwin' and Falkner".

Mary Shelley's Fictions: From Frankenstein to Falkner. Eds. Michael Eberle-Sinatra and Nora Crook. New York, NY: Macmillan. Bennett, Betty T. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8018-5976-X. Bennett, Betty T. "'Not This Time, Victor': Mary Shelley's Reversioning of Elizabeth, from Frankenstein to Falkner". Mary Shelley in Her Times. Eds Betty T. Bennett, Betty T. and Stuart Curran. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Bunnell, Charlene E. "The Illusion of'Great Expectations': Manners and Morals in Mary Shelley's Lodore and Falkner". Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after "Frankenstein": Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth. Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997. Ellis, Kate Ferguson. "Falkner and other fictions". The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley. Ed. Esther Schor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-00770-4.

Hopkins, Lisa. "'A Medea, in More Senses than the More Obvious One': Motherhood in Mary Shelley's Lodore and Falkner". Eighteenth-Century Novel 2: 383-405. Jowell, Sharon L. "Mary Shelley's Mothers: The Weak, the Absent, the Silent in Lodore and Falkner". European Romantic Review 8.3: 298-322. Poovey, Mary; the Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley and Jane Austen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. ISBN 0-226-67528-9. Saunders, Julia. "Rehabilitating the Family in Mary Shelley's Falkner". Mary Shelley's Fictions: From Frankenstein to Falkner. Eds. Michael Eberle-Sinatra and Nora Crook. New York, NY: Macmillan. Sites, Melissa. "Utopian Domesticity as Social Reform in Mary Shelley's Falkner". Keats-Shelley Journal 54: 148-72

Albanian Naval Force

The Albanian Naval Force is the naval branch of the Albanian military. Their name was changed from the Albanian Naval Defense Forces in 2010; the Naval Force is headquartered in Durrës, operates multiple bases, including Kepi i Palit base in Durrës, Pashaliman in Vlorë. The vessels of the Albanian Naval Force are patrol craft and support craft; the Naval Force operates four large Damen Stan Type 4207 patrol boats, three of which were built in Albania. Some of the Naval Force's vessels were purchased from, or donated by Italy, the United States, China, or the Soviet Union. Most former Soviet or Chinese boats have been retired from service; the Naval Force performs duties, based on the concept of "one Force, two Missions." The legal framework has been updated in order to facilitate EU-NATO integration. The Naval Force is responsible for aids to navigation, including lighthouses; the history of the Albanian navy dates back to the General Command of Military Powers in 1925, following the creation of the Albanian Republic.

Earlier efforts to create an Albanian naval force following Albanian independence in 1912 failed due to the start of World War I. In this period Albania possessed few naval vessels. Following the establishment of the Albanian Kingdom by King Zog in 1928, the navy was reformed into the Royal Albanian Navy. Following the Italian invasion of Albania and World War II, the Albanian Armed Forces were abolished and many ships were destroyed in the harbors of Albania; the early history of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania saw Albania recovering from the result of Italian occupation and World War II. In 1945, a shipyard was built in Durrës to repair Albania's remaining ships. In the mid-1950s Albania began to expand its navy. In 1954, a torpedo boat unit and associated facility was established on Sazan Island, off the coast of Durrës. A submarine unit was established in 1958. A naval academy was opened in Vlorë in 1961; until 1996 Albania had more than 145 vessels in service. 45 of them were small, fast Chinese Type 25 Huchuan-class PHT torpedo boats, carrying two/four 533 mm torpedoes, some Shanghai-class coastal anti-submarine patrol craft.

The largest of the fleet were four Soviet-built Whiskey-class submarines, a direct result of an Albanian-Soviet dispute over their ownership, after Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and the Soviets abandoned the Pasha Liman Base. The submarines were put into full service thanks to Chinese assistance, but by the end of the 1980s their efficiency was in doubt due to Albanian isolation and the end of Chinese help. Naval ensigns Other ensigns The collapse of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania began in the early 1990s and was finalized with the 1992 elections and the founding of the 4th Albanian Republic; the fall of communism in Albania ushered in a new era of cooperation between the navies of Albania and other European nations. Starting in the 1990s, Albania began to take part in numerous search and rescue exercises alongside other European nations. Vessels of the Albanian navy were damaged during the 1997 political conflict. In March 1998, the Albanian Navy docked in Italy for refuge.

The Naval Force's facilities were damaged in the conflict and repairs were made with the help of the United States, Germany, Greece and other countries. In the same year, Albania retired its four Whiskey-class submarines; as a result of numerous agreements made between 1998 and 2004, Albania received donated patrol vessels from the United States and Italy for use in search and rescue operations. The United States donated five boats in 1998, Italy donated six boats in 2002, Italy donated another five in 2004. In 2004, Albania entered into an agreement with Italy wherein the Italian Navy provided equipment and technical assistance to the Albanian Naval Force in order to upgrade the country's aids to navigation. In June 2007, Albania reorganized its navy; the newly named Naval Force was thereafter organized into a logistics battalion. The Naval Force operates multiple bases, including Kepi i Palit base in Durrës, Pashaliman in Vlorë. In the past, the Naval Force operated additional facilities including Porto Palermo, outside of Himerë, a submarine base on Sazan Island, a base in Shëngjin.

Pashaliman Naval Base, located near Vlorë, has been used by the Albanian Navy from the 1950s. In that time it was one of few naval bases in the Mediterranean. Four retired Whiskey-class submarines owned by the Soviet Union are still located on the facility alongside Albania's active-duty naval vessels. Three of the Albanian Navy's four Damen Stan patrol vessels were built at Pashaliman, the most recent completed in 2014; the Naval Force operates naval exercises in the Bay of Vlorë, out of Pashaliman. The most recent exercise was in April 2016. A civilian naval engineering firm and shipyard operate out of the military facility at Pashaliman; the Albanian Navy operated a submarine bunker called Porto Palermo, shut down after the decommissioning of Albania's submarines. In recent years, Porto Palermo has been used as the site of training exercises with foreign militaries, most a joint exercise with the United Kingdom. List of navies Albanian Armed Forces Albanian Army Albanian Air Force Albanian Hydrographic Service Wertheim, Eric.

The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, 2005–2006. US Naval Institute Press. Annapolis, Maryland. 2005. Jane's Fighting Ships 2005–2006, Jane's Information Group, ISBN 0-7106-2692-4 The Military Balance 2008, The International Institute f

Ningyuan County

Ningyuan County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Yongzhou prefecture-level City. Located on the southern part of the province, the county is bordered to the north by Qiyang County, to the northeast by Xintian County, to the east by Jiahe County, to the southeast by Lanshan County, to the southwest by Jianghua and Dao Counties, to the northwest by Shuangpai County. Ningyuan County covers 1,806 km2, as of 2015, It had a registered population of 871,200 and a permanent resident population of 726,700; the county has 12 towns, four ethnic townships of Yao people and four subdistricts under its jurisdiction, the county seat is Shunling.

List of the oldest Scout groups

Many Scout Groups claim the title of oldest Scout Group in their respective countries. Due to the rapid growth of Scouting, it took some time for central organisations to be established, the earliest groups were only registered some time after their first meeting; some groups first met under the banner of other organisations, including the Boys' Brigade, Church Lads' Brigade, YMCA, churches or schools, only registered with central Scout organisations. Some maintained dual registrations; this makes it impossible to establish. Today, national Scout associations do not take a stance as to, the first group in their country. There are records of Boy Scouts and Scouting groups from 1900; the Boys' Brigade began its Scouting scheme in 1906. Scouting is considered to have started on 1 August 1907 with a camp run by Robert Baden-Powell on Brownsea Island. Thereafter the publishers C. Arthur Pearson Limited and Baden-Powell began promoting Scouting in Britain, Scouting for Boys was published in six fortnightly installments from January 1908 and in complete book form.

The book was followed by The Scout magazine from April 1908. Boys began forming Scout patrols and flooding the C. Arthur Pearson Limited's Scout office and Baden-Powell with requests for assistance; the Scouting movement developed from here, in Britain, the British Empire, among English speaking people and the rest of the world. The first Scout Patrols and Troops were formed in the United Kingdom in 1907. There are a number of claimants to be the first troop; as Scouting was a movement and not an organisation, there was no central organisation. The publishers C. Arthur Pearson Limited sold registration cards to subscribers of its magazine. Numerous local or regional Boy Scouts Associations were formed and several national Scouting organisations were formed in the United Kingdom including the Boys' Brigade Scouts, Chums Scout Patrols, YMCA Boy Scouts, British Boy Scouts, Church Scout Patrols, London Diocesan Boy Scout Corps, Boys' Life Brigade Scouts, National Peace Scouts, The Boy Scouts Association and Salvation Army Boy Scouts.

The Boy Scouts Association was formed in 1910 and does not acknowledge any single troop as being the first. The Boy Scouts Association issued backdated registrations; the Scout Association maintains a list of all the Scout Troops who claim to have started in 1908. The Scout Troops with the strongest claims are listed below: The 1st Glasgow Scout Group in Scotland holds the earliest known registration certificate, dated 26 January 1908, issued by The Boy Scouts Association; the Group was formed from the Glasgow Battalion of the Army Cadet Corps. In June 1907, they formed the'Cadets' Winter Recreation Training Club'; the club was a success from the beginning, as'Boss' Young related: "At first we met at my house, signalled up and down the stairs, tied knots around the banisters and always finished with a good tuck-in."'Boss' Young met B-P during Autumn 1907 who suggested that the Club could experiment with the ideas contained in'Scouting for Boys'. On 16 January 1908, the Club was formally disbanded and the First Glasgow Troop of Boy Scouts was registered with Scout HQ in London.

The first Scout Troop to receive a visit from Baden-Powell was the Vaux's Own Scout Troop in Sunderland. This visit was made on 22 February 1908, so it is assumed by The Scout Association "that it had been in existence for some days at any rate"; this was the first Scout Troop listed in the Imperial records. The 1st Crystal Palace Patrol is documented as being in existence on 28 February 1908; the group is still in existence. In 2007, 1st Henfield Scout Troop was named as the oldest surviving Scout Troop in the world for the centenary of Scouting, they were the hosts of the only place that the centenary flame stopped in England for the night before reaching its goal of Brownsea Island. However, it is not the oldest Scout Troop, it is said that the boys that went to Brownsea Island on the first Scout trip were from Henfield. The 1st Birkenhead has a claim to be the oldest Scout Troop as it was founded on 24 January 1908 when B P attended a meeting at the YMCA. Documents at the District Headquarters confirm this fact.

Baden-Powell at the 1929 Coming of Age Jamboree in Birkenhead said "Here in Birkenhead that I first mooted the idea of Scouting". The 1st Croydon Scout Group were founded in the latter months of 1907; the Group was registered by Imperial Scout Headquarters on 16 June 1908 and can claim to be one of the earliest Groups.1st Church Kirk, Church near Accrington Lancashire. Formed 1907. Baden Powell formed a link with Accrington during his opening of the Ambulance Drill Hall in 1904; the 1st New Cross Scout Group was formed 17 January 1908 but was not registered until 26 May 1908 by Baden Powell before he registered his own group. There is an entry in Baden-Powell's diary on 4 February 1908 which mentions a Scout Troop in Nottingham.1st Alsager, Cheshire were formed before 24 February 1908. A troop from Hampstead was involved in various events in the first half of 1908; the 1st City Of Aberdeen Scouts existed in 1908. 1st Arbroath Scout Troop dates back to June 1908. 1st Stirlingshire Scouts unofficially first met in August 1908, officially on the 21st of December 1908.

The 1st Norwich "Capt. Bower's Own" Sea Scouts started in January 1908; the group is one of few which has continuously run for 100 years and, had just 4 Group Scout Leaders during that time. To celebrate their centenary year, the group published a book en