An endorheic basin is a limited drainage basin that retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation. Such a basin may be referred to as a closed or terminal basin or as an internal drainage system or interior drainage basin. Endorheic regions, in contrast to exorheic regions, which flow to the ocean in geologically defined patterns, are closed hydrologic systems, their surface waters drain to inland terminal locations where the water evaporates or seeps into the ground, having no access to discharge into the sea. Endorheic water bodies include some of the largest lakes in the world, such as the Caspian Sea, the world's largest saline inland sea. Endorheic basins constitute local base levels, defining a limit of erosion and deposition processes of nearby areas; the term comes from the Ancient Greek: ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow".
Endorheic lakes are bodies of water. Most of the water falling on Earth finds its way to the oceans through a network of rivers and wetlands. However, there is a class of water bodies that are located in closed or endorheic watersheds where the topography prevents their drainage to the oceans; these endorheic watersheds are called terminal lakes or sink lakes. Endorheic lakes are in the interior of a landmass, far from an ocean in areas of low rainfall, their watersheds are confined by natural geologic land formations such as a mountain range, cutting off water egress to the ocean. The inland water flows into dry watersheds where the water evaporates, leaving a high concentration of minerals and other inflow erosion products. Over time this input of erosion products can cause the endorheic lake to become saline. Since the main outflow pathways of these lakes are chiefly through evaporation and seepage, endorheic lakes are more sensitive to environmental pollutant inputs than water bodies that have access to oceans, as pollution can be trapped in them and accumulate over time.
Endorheic regions can occur in any climate but are most found in desert locations. In areas where rainfall is higher, riparian erosion will carve drainage channels, or cause the water level in the terminal lake to rise until it finds an outlet, breaking the enclosed endorheic hydrological system's geographical barrier and opening it to the surrounding terrain; the Black Sea was such a lake, having once been an independent hydrological system before the Mediterranean Sea broke through the terrain separating the two. Lake Bonneville was another such lake; the Malheur/Harney lake system in Oregon is cut off from drainage to the ocean, but has an outflow channel to the Malheur River, dry, but flows in years of peak precipitation. Examples of humid regions in endorheic basins exist at high elevation; these regions are subject to substantial flooding in wet years. The area containing Mexico City is one such case, with annual precipitation of 850 mm and characterized by waterlogged soils that require draining.
Endorheic regions tend to be far inland with their boundaries defined by mountains or other geological features that block their access to oceans. Since the inflowing water can evacuate only through seepage or evaporation, dried minerals or other products collect in the basin making the water saline and making the basin vulnerable to pollution. Continents vary in their concentration of endorheic regions due to conditions of geography and climate. Australia has the highest percentage of endorheic regions at 21 percent while North America has the least at five percent. 18 percent of the earth's land drains to endorheic lakes or seas, the largest of these land areas being the interior of Asia. In deserts, water inflow is low and loss to solar evaporation high, drastically reducing the formation of complete drainage systems. Closed water flow areas lead to the concentration of salts and other minerals in the basin. Minerals leached from the surrounding rocks are deposited in the basin, left behind when the water evaporates.
Thus endorheic basins contain extensive salt pans. These areas tend to be large, flat hardened surfaces and are sometimes used for aviation runways or land speed record attempts, because of their extensive areas of level terrain. Both permanent and seasonal endorheic lakes can form in endorheic basins; some endorheic basins are stable, climate change having reduced precipitation to the degree that a lake no longer forms. Most permanent endorheic lakes change size and shape over time becoming much smaller or breaking into several smaller parts during the dry season; as humans have expanded into uninhabitable desert areas, the river systems that feed many endorheic lakes have been altered by the construction of dams and aqueducts. As a result, many endorheic lakes in developed or developing countries have contracted resulting in increased salinity, higher concentrations of pollutants, the disruption of ecosystems. Within exorheic basins, there can be "non-contributing", low-lying areas that trap runoff and prevent it from contributing to flows downstream during years of average or below-average runoff.
In flat river basins, non-contributing areas can be a large fraction of the river
A terminal moraine called end moraine, is a type of moraine that forms at the snout of a glacier, marking its maximum advance. At this point, debris that has accumulated by plucking and abrasion, has been pushed by the front edge of the ice, is driven no further and instead is dumped in a heap; because the glacier acts much like a conveyor belt, the longer it stays in one place, the greater the amount of material that will be deposited. The moraine is left as the marking point of the terminal extent of the ice. Terminal moraines are one of the most prominent types of moraines in the Arctic. One notable terminal moraine is Trollgarden in Norway, once thought to be magically constructed by trolls. In North America, the Outer Lands is a name given to the terminal moraine archipelago of the northeastern region of the United States. According to geologist George Frederick Wright some of the most prominent examples of terminal moraines in Long Island are "the most remarkable in the world". Other prominent examples of terminal moraines are the Tinley Moraine and the Valparaiso Moraine the best examples of terminal moraines in North America.
These moraines are most seen southwest of Chicago. In Europe all the terrain in the central Netherlands is made up of an extended terminal moraine. In Switzerland, alpine terminal moraines can be found, one striking example being the moraine at the end of the valley of the Forno Glacier in the south-eastern canton of Graubünden near St. Moritz and the Italian border. In New Zealand the Franz Josef Glacier on the West Coast has created the terminal moraine called the Waiho Loop. Glacial landform Postglacial rebound Push moraine Outwash plain Trafalgar Moraine Oak Ridges Moraine List of glacial moraines
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
Baraboo Range is a syncline located in Columbia and Sauk Counties, Wisconsin. It consists of eroded Precambrian metamorphic rock, it varies from 5 to 10 miles in width. The Wisconsin River traveling in a north to south direction, turns to the east just north of the range before making its turn to the west towards the Upper Mississippi River; the eastern end of the range was glaciated during the Wisconsinian glaciation, while the western half was not, marks the eastern boundary of Wisconsin's Driftless Area. The city of Baraboo is in the center of the valley; the range was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1980. The range is an example of a buried mountain range exposed through erosion, to once again undergo the forces of surface erosion; the rocks are as much as 1.5 billion years old, among the oldest exposed rocks in North America, consisting of gray to pink Baraboo Quartzite and red rhyolite. The Baraboo River divides the range in half, flowing through Upper Narrows Gorge near Rock Springs and travels onto its confluence with the Wisconsin River downstream from Portage through the Lower Narrows.
The Baraboos are composed of resistant Precambrian quartzite which has formed an erosional remnant or monadnock, resulting in topographic prominence. The mountains may have formed as long ago as the late Precambrian; these formations were buried by Paleozoic sedimentary strata and are still being uncovered by the erosion of the softer, overlying rocks. Devil's Lake, the centerpiece of Devil's Lake State Park, was formed from terminal moraines blocking access to its outlet, creating what is today an endorheic lake. Steven Dutch, Devil's Lake, Retrieved July 27, 2007 Wisconsin Online, Retrieved July 27, 2007 Baraboo Range Protection Plan, Sauk County, Retrieved July 27, 2007 Devil's Lake State Park: Rocks and Water Through the Ages, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Retrieved July 27, 2007 Media related to Baraboo Range at Wikimedia Commons
Devil's Lake State Park (Wisconsin)
Devil's Lake State Park is a state park located in the Baraboo Range in eastern Sauk County, just south of Baraboo, Wisconsin. Devil's Lake State Park is the biggest state park in Wisconsin, it is around thirty-five miles northwest of Madison, is on the western edge of the last ice-sheet deposited during the Wisconsin drift. This 9,217-acre state park is known for its 500-foot-high quartzite bluffs along the 360-acre Devil's Lake, created by a glacier depositing terminal moraines that plugged the north and south ends of the gap in the bluffs during the last ice age 12,000 years ago; the sand at the bottom of Devil's Lake is thought to be deposited by glaciers. Devil's Lake is situated in the Baraboo Hills; the Baraboo Hills are thought to be much older than Devil's Lake itself. In 1974, the National Park Service declared the Southern portion of the Baraboo Hills a National Natural Landmark; the Nature Conservancy designated it as one of the Last Great Places. Loess forms the parent material of a brown silt loam soil.
During the fall, the park's brilliant foliage makes it a popular attraction. The lake is surrounded by a mixed conifer-deciduous forest and the Baraboo Hills are home to one of the largest contiguous hardwood forests in the Midwest, its scenic beauty along with its proximity to the Wisconsin Dells has made it one of the most popular of Wisconsin's state parks for both day use and overnight camping. Due to the long geological history of Devil's Lake and the Baraboo Range, the area has been used in geological research for years; the lake itself is rectangular in shape and is a little over a mile long from north to south and a half mile from east to west. It has unique rock formations and a variety of animal and plant species. One of the most notable features of the park is the presence of large talus slopes on three sides of the lake. Both the north and south shores have food courts and modern restroom facilities; the park has trails ranging from handicapped-accessible paved trails to difficult hiking or bouldering trails.
There are designated rock climbing areas for all levels of experienced climbers. There are bike trails available. Devil's Lake State Park contains eight miles of off-road bike trails and a two-mile paved path, available for people with disabilities. There are three popular campgrounds at the park containing 407 campsites all together, one of which contains a sledding hill. There are many quartzite rock formations, such as Balanced Rock and Devil's Doorway, throughout the park. Effigy mounds are located throughout the park; the park contains twelve miles of the 1,200-mile Ice Age Trail. Parfrey's Glen, Wisconsin's first state natural area, is managed by the Devil's Lake State Park and located just east of the park. Nearby attractions include Devil's Head Resort, Cascade Mountain Resort, the Circus World Museum; the area where the park now stands was first settled by pioneers in the mid-1800s. By the start of the 20th century, the area had become a popular vacation destination for wealthy families from Chicago and Madison.
The first hotel was established in 1866. The park was founded in 1911, it was home to five resorts. No trace of any of these hotels remains. There were many private residences in the west and south shores of the lake, only four of which remain. At various times the lakeshore hosted water slides and golf courses; the clubhouse of one course sat on the current location of the park's nature center. By the 1940s, the hotels were all closed, the park was retreating to its former natural self. From 1934 to 1941 two hundred members of the Civilian Conservation Corps resided in a work camp; these young men built many of the trails and benches still in use today. The visitor center houses a three-dimensional model of the park from a top-down view; the exhibits at the park's nature center focus on the geology and natural history of the area. Public nature programs are offered in the summer, as well as evening programs on Saturday nights in the Northern Lights Amphitheater; the nature center has many historical photographs that come from as far back as the 1800s.
They have many displays of examples of the flora and fauna that can be found throughout the park. North Glacial Moraine is well covered by the north shore developments; the parking lots, concession building and the picnic shelter all sit atop the moraine. This moraine forms the northern border of Devil's Lake; the moraine is 80 feet thick. Southeast Glacial Moraine -- is located between the South Bluff; the Group Camp is located atop the moraine. It is best seen from the Roznos Meadow parking area along State Route 113; the moraine is 130 feet thick. The park has several American Indian mounds. Across the parking lot from the nature center are effigy mounds built in stylized animal shapes, such as a lynx and a sparrow. In front of the concession building is a linear mound, one of several geometric mounds in the park; these mounds were used as ancient burial sites by early North Americans. The nature center offers courses on the history of the effigy mounds; the Baraboo Range National Natural Landmark is 50,700 acres in southern Wisconsin.
It is an exhumed mountain range consisting of the largest contiguous forest in southern Wisconsin. The range is largely
Baraboo is a city in and the county seat of Sauk County, United States. The largest city in the county, Baraboo is the principal city of the Baraboo Micropolitan Statistical Area, its 2010 population was 12,048. It is situated on the Baraboo River. Baraboo is home to the Circus World Museum, the former headquarters and winter home of the Ringling Brothers circus; the Al. Ringling Theatre is an active landmark in the city. Baraboo is near Devil's Lake State Park, Aldo Leopold's Shack and Farm; the area around Baraboo was the site of a Kickapoo village as early as 1665. The current community was established by Abe Wood in 1838, was known as the village of Adams. In 1846 it became the county seat of Sauk County after a fierce fight with the nearby village of Reedsburg. In 1852, the village was renamed "Baraboo", after the nearby river, it was incorporated as a village in 1866 and as a city in 1882. Baraboo was the site of several sawmills early in its history because of its location near the Baraboo and Wisconsin Rivers.
The city was the home of the Ringling Brothers. From 1884 to 1917 it was the headquarters of their circus and several others, leading to the nickname "Circus City". Today Circus World Museum is located in Baraboo. A living history museum, it has a collection of other circus artifacts, it has the largest library of circus information in the United States. The museum hosted the Great Circus Parade, which carried circus wagons and performers through the streets of Baraboo, across the state by train, through downtown Milwaukee; the Al. Ringling Theatre is a grand scale movie palace in downtown Baraboo, made possible through the financial assistance of the Ringling family; the Al Ringling home still exists. Located near Baraboo is the Badger Army Ammunition Plant, the largest munitions factory in the world during WWII, when it was known as "Badger Ordnance Works"; the plant is no longer in use. Cirrus Aircraft, a manufacturer of single-engine aircraft, was founded in a rural Baraboo barn in 1984 by brothers Alan and Dale Klapmeier.
After a few years of designing the VK-30, the company relocated to the Baraboo–Wisconsin Dells Airport, in 1994 moved to its present-day home in Duluth, Minnesota. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.47 square miles, of which, 7.39 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. West Baraboo, a suburb of Baraboo, borders the city on its west side. Baraboo gives its name to the Baraboo Syncline, a doubly plunging, asymmetric syncline in Proterozoic-aged Baraboo quartzite. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin Charles R. Van Hise, used the syncline to demonstrate that small-scale deformational structures in isolated outcrops reflect larger regional structures and that sedimentary structures could indicate the original top-facing direction within elaborately deformed strata; these two principles sparked a global revolution in structural geology during the 1920s. The nearby Baraboo Hills are designated one of the "Last Great Places" by the Nature Conservancy because of their rare rocks and animals.
The hills were created by glacial action, in some points poke up from the flat terrain to form a stark contrast. Some of these features were created when a glacial pocket was formed during the Wisconsin glaciation where the advance of the glacier halted, along the edge of what is known as the Driftless Area. Devil's Lake State Park, Wisconsin's largest state park, contains large areas of the Baraboo Hills. Pewits Nest is located outside Baraboo. Baraboo forms the core of the United States Census Bureau's Baraboo Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Sauk County; the Baraboo µSA is just northwest of the Madison metropolitan area, with which it forms the Census Bureau's Baraboo-Madison Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the census of 2010, there were 12,048 people, 5,161 households, 3,016 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,630.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,619 housing units at an average density of 760.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.0% White, 1.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population. There were 5,161 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.6% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 38 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,711 people, 4,467 households, 2,733 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,030.2 people per square mile. There were 4,718 housing units at an average density of 894.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.12% White, 0.51% African American, 0.77% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races.
1.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,467 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples liv