University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant research university in Gainesville, United States. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida; the university traces its origins to 1853 and has operated continuously on its Gainesville campus since September 1906. The University of Florida is one of sixty-two elected member institutions of the Association of American Universities, the association of preeminent North American research universities, the only AAU member university in Florida; the university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. After the Florida state legislature's creation of performance standards in 2013, the Florida Board of Governors designated the University of Florida as one of the three "preeminent universities" among the twelve universities of the State University System of Florida. For 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida as the eighth best public university in the United States.
The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. It is the third largest Florida university by student population, is the eighth largest single-campus university in the United States with 54,906 students enrolled for the fall 2018 semester; the University of Florida is home to sixteen academic colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. It offers multiple graduate professional programs—including business administration, law, medicine and veterinary medicine—on one contiguous campus, administers 123 master's degree programs and seventy-six doctoral degree programs in eighty-seven schools and departments; the university's seal is the seal of the state of Florida, on the state flag. The University of Florida's intercollegiate sports teams known by their "Florida Gators" nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. In their 111-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 41 national team championships, 36 of which are NCAA titles, Florida athletes have won 275 individual national championships.
In addition, University of Florida students and alumni have won 126 Olympic medals including 60 gold medals. The University of Florida traces its origins to 1853, when the East Florida Seminary, the oldest of the University of Florida's four predecessor institutions, was founded in Ocala, Florida. On January 6, 1853, Governor Thomas Brown signed a bill that provided public support for higher education in Florida. Gilbert Kingsbury was the first person to take advantage of the legislation, established the East Florida Seminary, which operated until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861; the East Florida Seminary was Florida's first state-supported institution of higher learning. James Henry Roper, an educator from North Carolina and a state senator from Alachua County, had opened a school in Gainesville, the Gainesville Academy, in 1858. In 1866, Roper offered his land and school to the State of Florida in exchange for the East Florida Seminary's relocation to Gainesville; the second major precursor to the University of Florida was the Florida Agricultural College, established at Lake City by Jordan Probst in 1884.
Florida Agricultural College became the state's first land-grant college under the Morrill Act. In 1903, the Florida Legislature, desiring to expand the school's outlook and curriculum beyond its agricultural and engineering origins, changed the name of Florida Agricultural College to the "University of Florida," a name the school would hold for only two years. In 1905, the Florida Legislature passed the Buckman Act, which consolidated the state's publicly supported higher education institutions; the member of the legislature who wrote the act, Henry Holland Buckman became the namesake of Buckman Hall, one of the first buildings constructed on the new university's campus. The Buckman Act organized the State University System of Florida and created the Florida Board of Control to govern the system, it abolished the six pre-existing state-supported institutions of higher education, consolidated the assets and academic programs of four of them to form the new "University of the State of Florida."
The four predecessor institutions consolidated to form the new university included the University of Florida at Lake City in Lake City, the East Florida Seminary in Gainesville, the St. Petersburg Normal and Industrial School in St. Petersburg, the South Florida Military College in Bartow; the Buckman Act consolidated the colleges and schools into three institutions segregated by race and gender—the University of the State of Florida for white men, the Florida Female College for white women, the State Normal School for Colored Students for African-American men and women. The City of Gainesville, led by its Mayor William Reuben Thomas, campaigned to be home to the new university. On July 6, 1905, the Board of Control selected Gainesville for the new university campus. Andrew Sledd, president of the pre-existing University of Florida at Lake City, was selected to be the first president of the new University of the State of Florida; the 1905-1906 academic year was a year of transition. Architect William A. Edwards designed the first official campus buildings in the Collegiate Gothic style.
Classes began on the new Gainesville campus with 102 students enrolled. In 1909, the school's name
Apalachicola National Forest
The Apalachicola National Forest is the largest U. S. National Forest in the state of Florida, it is the only national forest located in the Florida Panhandle. The National Forest provides water and land-based outdoors activities such as off-road biking, swimming, hunting, horse-back riding, off-road ATV usage. Apalachicola National Forest contains two Wilderness Areas: Bradwell Bay Wilderness and Mud Swamp/New River Wilderness. There are several special purpose areas: Camel Lake Recreation Area, Fort Gadsden Historical Site, Leon Sinks Geological Area, Silver Lake Recreation Area, Trout Pond Recreation Area, Wright Lake Recreation Area. In descending order of forest land area it is located in parts of Liberty, Wakulla and Franklin counties; the forest is headquartered in Tallahassee, as are all three National Forests in Florida, but there are local Forest ranger district offices located in Bristol and Crawfordville. Hunting and fishing are monitored and governed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
The national forest itself is a wildlife management area. The FWC divides the management area into sections that allow dog hunting, still hunting, private property. Modern gun season for large game ends in January; the Apalachicola National Forest is in the southeastern conifer forests ecoregion. Areas of the national forest with dry, sandy soils support Florida longleaf pine sandhills and east Gulf coastal plain near-coast pine flatwoods. Sandhills are woodlands dominated by longleaf pine. Pine flatwoods are woodlands on broad, sandy flatlands. Both of these pine communities are sustained by frequent fires. Near the floodplains of spring-fed rivers grow southern coastal plain hydric hammocks, dense forests of evergreen and deciduous hardwood trees. Blackwater rivers support southern coastal plain blackwater river floodplain forests of baldcypress along their banks. Major rivers support diverse east Gulf coastal plain large river floodplain forests. Notable animals that inhabit this forest are red-cockaded woodpecker, fox squirrel, red fox, gray fox, coyote, black bear, wild turkey and alligator.
It is home to several wetland plant communities. Southern coastal plain nonriverine basin swamps are large, seasonally flooded depressions of baldcypress and swamp tupelo. East Gulf coastal plain savannas and wet prairies are low, flat plains covered in grasses and sedges, which are seasonally flooded and maintained by frequent fires. Southern coastal plain nonriverine cypress domes are small wetlands of pond cypress notable for their dome-shaped appearance; the Forest contains. In addition, Bradwell Bay Wilderness contains about 100 acres of old-growth Slash Pine - Swamp Tupelo swamps. Allen Nease Ocala National Forest Osceola National Forest Apalachicola National Forest travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website The Florida Trail in the Apalachicola National Forest Field Guide to Flora in Apalachicola National Forest
Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge
The Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge is part of the United States National Wildlife Refuge System, located in north Key Largo, less than 40 miles south of Miami off SR 905. The 6,686 acre refuge opened during the year of 1980, under the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 and the Endangered Species Act of 1973, it was established in order to protect critical breeding and nesting habitat for the threatened American crocodile and other wildlife. This area includes 650 acres of open water in and around the refuge. In addition to being one of only three breeding populations of the American crocodile, the refuge is home to tropical hardwood hammock, mangrove forest, salt marsh, it is administered as part of the National Key Deer Refuge, located in the Florida Keys. Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge was once platted for residential development; the American crocodile had nearly been extirpated by hunting for export of its hide as an exotic leather. The government took protective action and listed the US population due to this hunting and due to loss of habitat in the area.
Due to its recovery trend, on March 20, 2007, the federal government downlisted the American crocodile from endangered to threatened, though the capturing and hunting of the crocodile is still forbidden. The crocodile is just one of several species of fauna that occur in the refuge's habitats; the Key Largo Woodrat, Key Largo Cotton Mouse, Schaus Swallowtail butterfly, Florida semaphore cactus are listed as endangered, the Stock Island Tree Snail and Eastern Indigo Snake are listed as threatened. All six species retain a precarious foothold in North Key Largo. Due to the once unrestricted commercial and residential development of the Florida Keys, the size and number of fragmented tropical hardwood hammock habitat have been reduced. Along with the decline of their habitat, the populations of animals who reside in the habitat have declined. Though the refuge office distributes brochures and information, has a 2,500 square-foot butterfly garden beside the office, the refuge's natural areas are closed to the public.
This closure is necessary to protect the threatened and endangered listed species that occur on the Refuge. The woodrat is a member of the Order Rodentia, Family Cricetidae, subfamily Neotominae. Critecidae is one of the largest families of mammals, with 681 species in 130 genera and 6 subfamilies; the subfamilies of Cricetidae include: Arvicolinae, Lophiomyinae, Neotominae and Tylomyinae. In other words, the Key Largo woodrat, its smaller cousin the Key Largo cotton mouse are in subfamily Neotominae, along with most native North American rats and mice, are only distantly related to the "true rats," including members of the genus Rattus, the most important of which to humans are the black rat, Rattus rattus, the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus. Many members of other rodent genera and families are referred to as rats, share many characteristics with true rats.is considered more as a type of mouse due to its similar behavior and physical characteristics. One of the favored habitats of the woodrat comes under the protection of the hardwood hammocks.
These trees provide a critical home for this endangered animal. Local researchers have discovered that the desired habitat for these creatures has something to do with a type of roof coverage, they tend to prefer nesting in areas underneath rock formations, hurricane-downed trees, overturned boats. Experts say a devastating hurricane would down thousands of trees yet, would increase the woodrat population; the main shelter characteristic of the woodrats are areas containing roofs. The roof provides a type of cover, critical for protection against predators and heavy rainfall. According to local volunteer and photographer Clay DeGayner, the woodrats' population has declined over the past twenty years and at one point had dropped to numbers as low as 25 to 50 woodrats. A captive breeding program was started to augment the endangered woodrat population and help it recover more quickly; the Key Largo Woodrat forages for food at night and in tree tops. Though fallen fruit can found on the forest floor, where the rat is most vulnerable to its predators.
During the day, Key Largo woodrats shelter in crevices and fissures in the island's limestone substrate, under dense tangles of tree roots. The normal diet of the woodrats consists of green leaves, flowers and fruit from the trees they reside in and under. Woodrats are found near human habitation and, unlike introduced rat species that came to America from Europe and Asia, woodrats are not attracted to or known to consume garbage. Though it had ended by 2010, the main purpose of the breeding program was to enhance the wild population in order to mitigate the population decline. Divided into a couple of different stages, the first step was to trap woodrats and to breed them in a controlled, captive environment. Offspring were released into the refuge, but fell vic
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
A devil is the personification of evil as it is conceived in many and various cultures and religious traditions. It is seen as the objectification of a destructive force, it is difficult to specify a particular definition of any complexity that will cover all of the traditions, beyond that it is a manifestation of evil. It is meaningful to consider the devil through the lens of each of the cultures and religions that have the devil as part of their mythos; the history of this concept intertwines with theology, psychiatry and literature, maintaining a validity, developing independently within each of the traditions. It occurs in many contexts and cultures, is given many different names — Satan, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles — and attributes: It is portrayed as blue, black, or red; the idea of the devil has been taken often, but not always, for example when devil figures are used in advertising and on candy wrappers. The Modern English word devil derives from the Middle English devel, from the Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of the Latin diabolus.
This in turn was borrowed from the Greek: διάβολος diábolos, "slanderer", from διαβάλλειν diabállein, "to slander" from διά diá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl" akin to the Sanskrit gurate, "he lifts up". In his book The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Jeffrey Burton Russell discusses various meanings and difficulties that are encountered when using the term devil, he does not claim to define the word in a general sense, but he describes the limited use that he intends for the word in his book — limited in order to “minimize this difficulty” and “for the sake of clarity”. In this book Russell uses the word devil as "the personification of evil found in a variety of cultures", as opposed to the word Satan, which he reserves for the figure in the Abrahamic religions. In the Introduction to his book Satan: A Biography, Henry Ansgar Kelly discusses various considerations and meanings that he has encountered in using terms such as devil and Satan, etc.
While not offering a general definition, he describes that in his book "whenever diabolos is used as the proper name of Satan", he signals it by using "small caps". The Oxford English Dictionary has a variety of definitions for the meaning of "devil", supported by a range of citations: "Devil" may refer to Satan, the supreme spirit of evil, or one of Satan's emissaries or demons that populate Hell, or to one of the spirits that possess a demonic person; the earliest Hindu texts do not offer further explanations for evil, regarding evil as something natural. However texts offer various explanations for evil. According to an explanation given by the Brahmins, both demons and gods spoke truth and untruth, but the demons relinquished the truth and the gods relinquished the untruth, but both spirits are regarded as different aspects of one supreme god. Some fierce deities like Kali are not thought of as devils but just as darker aspects of God and may manifest benevolence. Zoroastrianism introduced the first idea of the conceptual devil.
In Zoroastrianism and evil derive from two opposed forces. The force of good is called Ahura Mazda and the "destructive spirit" in Avestan-language called Angra Mainyu; the Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. They are in eternal struggle and neither is all-powerful Angra Mainyu is limited to space and time: in the end of time, he will be defeated. While Ahura Mazda creates what is good, Angra Mainyu is responsible for every evil and suffering in the world, such as toads and scorpions. Among the Tengristic myths, Erlik refers to a devil-like figure as the ruler of Hell, the first human. According to one narrative and God swam together over the primordial waters; when God was about to create the Earth, he send Erlik to collect some mud. Erlik hid some inside his mouth to create his own world, but when God commanded the Earth to expand, Erlik got troubled by the mud in his mouth. God aided Erlik to spit it out; the mud carried by Erlik gave place to the unpleasant areas of the world. Because of his sin, he was assigned to evil.
In another variant, the creator-god is identified with Ulgen. Again, Erlik appears to be the first human, he desired to create a human just as Ulgen did, thereupon Ulgen reacted by punishing Erlik, casting him into the Underworld where he becomes its ruler. According to Tengrism, there is no death by meaning that life comes to an end, it is a transition into the invisible world; as the ruler of Hell, Erlik enslaves the souls. Further, he lurks on the souls of those humans living on Earth by causing death and illnesses. At the time of birth, Erlik sends a Kormos to seize the soul of the newborn, following him for the rest of his life in an attempt to seize his soul by hampering and injuring him; when Erlik succeeds in destroying a human's body, the Kormos sent by Erlik will try take him down into the Underworld. However a good soul will be brought to Paradise by a Yayutshi sent by Ulgen; some shamans made sacrifices to Erlik, for gaining a higher rank in the Underworld, if they should be damned to Hell.
According to Yazidism there is no entity that represents evil in opposi
Ocala National Forest
The Ocala National Forest ls the second largest nationally protected forest in the U. S. State of Florida, it covers 607 square miles of Central Florida. It is located three miles east of Ocala and 16 miles southeast of Gainesville; the Ocala National Forest, established in 1908, is the oldest national forest east of the Mississippi River and the southernmost national forest in the continental U. S; the word Ocala is thought to be a derivative of a Timucuan term meaning "fair land" or "big hammock". The forest is headquartered in Tallahassee, as are all three National Forests in Florida, but there are local ranger district offices located in Silver Springs and Umatilla; the Ocala National Forest lies between the St. Johns rivers in Central Florida. In descending order of land area it is located in parts of Marion, Lake and Seminole counties; the Ocala National Forest is in the southeastern conifer forests and the Florida sand pine scrub ecoregions. Dry, sandy areas support Florida peninsula inland scrub.
Longleaf pine sandhills are woodlands dominated by longleaf pine. Inland scrub consists of sand pines growing amid shrublands of evergreen oaks. Both of these pine communities are sustained by frequent fires; the Ocala National Forest contains a high proportion of remaining inland scrub habitat and is noted for its sand pine scrub ecosystem. The forest contains the largest concentration of sand pine in the world as well as some of the best remaining stands of longleaf pine in central Florida. Where fire is absent, southern coastal plain oak domes and hammocks can grow; these are small stands of thick evergreen oaks. The forest contains several slow-moving rivers and numerous wet "prairies". Blackwater rivers support southern coastal plain blackwater river floodplain forests of baldcypress along their banks; the forest's spring-fed rivers support southern coastal plain hydric hammocks, hammocks of evergreen and hardwood trees, near their floodplains. The prairies are Floridian highlands freshwater marshes.
Southern coastal plain nonriverine basin swamps are large, seasonally flooded depressions of baldcypress and swamp tupelo. The Ocala National Forest receives more visitors than any other national forest in the Sunshine State. Millions annually visit the forest, one of Central Florida's last remaining traces of forested land; the forest’s porous sands and undeveloped character provide an important recharge for the Floridan Aquifer. The Rodman Reservoir system forms most of the northern and north western border as part of the Ocklawaha River Basin; the Ocala Forest is known for having over 600 natural lakes and ponds. Between the river boundaries of this Forest lie central highlands, coastal lowlands, swamps and hundreds of lakes and ponds. Near the Juniper Prairie Wilderness and Juniper Springs is "The Yearling Trail", the location where The Yearling was filmed. Ocala has a wide variety of wildlife; the black bear population has its highest concentration here. Alligators, white-tailed deer, wild boar, numerous small animals, including squirrels, coyote, gray fox, red fox, raccoon, river otter, skunk, southeastern pocket gopher, nine-banded armadillo can be found as well.
The sandy soil is home to the gopher tortoise. The United States Navy's Pinecastle Bombing Range in the Ocala National Forest is the only place on the East Coast where the Navy can do live impact training; the Navy drops nearly 20,000 bombs a year at the site. The Pinecastle Bombing Range is a fenced 5,760 acres area, with the eastern edge of the range located about 2 miles west of State Road 19 and the Camp Ocala campgrounds, one-half mile west of the Farles Lake campground. F/A-18 Hornet jet fighters and other aircraft take off from Naval Air Station Jacksonville or from aircraft carriers off the Florida coast, fly low over the forest, drop their bombs in the middle 450 acres of the range. P-3 Orion and P-8 Poseidon aircraft will use an instrumented range in the southeast quadrant of Lake George to conduct aerial mining training utilizing inert 500lb mines. All air-to-ground exercises using conventional ordnance up to and including 500 pounds MK 82 bombs and five-inch Zuni rockets are authorized.
Napalm and High Explosive Incendiary are prohibited. Live ordnance is restricted to the Live Ordnance Impact Area. Pinecastle targets have been certified for laser operations; the Navy has used the area for target practice for 50 years under a special use permit from the U. S. Forest Service; the ghost town of Kerr City is in the forest. It is located on County Road 316 just west of State Road 19; the Ocala National Forest offers an accommodating climate for year-round recreation. The mild winters are fine for family camping while a summer canoe trip down a palm-lined stream is a cool way to spend an August day; the temperatures for the dry months of November through February range from a daily average of 50 °F to a high of 72 °F. The summer season is wetter. Short afternoon thundershowers raise the humidity to about 90% while the temperatures range from 80 °F to 95 °F; the average rainfall is 55 inches per year. Water plays an important part in a variety of recreational opportunities in the forest.
Activities range from canoeing, fishing, snorkeling, scuba diving and the use of personal watercraft. Several boat ramps are available in the forest. Many hiking trails run through the forest including the Florida Trail, Salt Springs Ob