United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge
The Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States on the border between California and Oregon. It is operated by Wildlife Service; the refuge was designated a National Historic Landmark on October 16, 1965. Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908, was the first waterfowl refuge in the United States, it is located in the Klamath Basin near Oregon. It has a total area of 50,912.68 acres, of which 44,294.55 acres are in California and 6,618.13 acres are in Oregon. The refuge includes shallow freshwater marshes, open water, grassy uplands, croplands that are intensively managed to provide foraging and breeding habitat for waterfowl and other animals; the market hunting of migratory birds in the late 19th century created the need for preservation and creation of a wildlife refuge. Refuge objectives include the protection of habitat for flora and fauna, including migrating waterfowl, preserving the biodiversity of the Klamath Basin.
It works to promote integrated pest management. The refuge provides wildlife-related public services, including education and viewing and photography opportunities. Avian species on the refuge include the bald eagle, golden eagle, American white pelican, white-faced ibis, snow goose, Ross's goose, greater white-fronted goose, Canada goose, peregrine falcon, northern pintail, gadwall, western grebe, eared grebe, black tern, tricolored blackbird. Conservation and management activities include the maintenance of a local water infrastructure and the monitoring of the interaction between agriculture and habitat. Issues in focus include the loss of wetland habitat, the degradation of water quality and water rights. List of largest National Wildlife Refuges List of National Wildlife Refuges Volcanic Legacy Scenic Byway This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. "Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located on the borders of the U. S. states of Idaho. The recreation area, managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, was established by U. S. Congress and signed by President Gerald Ford in 1975 to protect the historic and archaeological values of the Hells Canyon area and the area of the Snake River between Hells Canyon Dam and the Oregon-Washington border. 215,000 acres of the recreation area are designated the Hells Canyon Wilderness. There are nearly 900 miles of hiking trails in the recreation area; the largest portion of the area lies in eastern Wallowa Oregon. Smaller portions lie in southwestern Idaho County, northwestern Adams County and northeastern Baker County, Oregon. All or included in the HCNRA is the Hells Canyon Archeological District, a 12,000-acre historic district, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the district includes 536 contributing sites, 23 contributing buildings, 58 other contributing structures.
The Snake River National Recreation Trail #102 lies within the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area and along the Idaho side of the Snake River, from near Lamont Springs, downstream, to Pittsburg Landing. The SRNRT was designated in 1980 under the National Trails System Act, it was constructed during the period of the late 1800s to about the 1930s. Access to the SRNRT can be gained via road to the trailhead at Pittsburg Landing on the north end of the trail, or, by boat access near Hells Canyon Dam on the south end of the trail. Access can be gained via trails leading from Seven Devils Wilderness Area trail head at Windy Saddle via either the Granite Creek trails or Sheep Creek trails. Ewert, Sara E. Dant. "Evolution of an Environmentalist: Senator Frank Church and the Hells Canyon Controversy." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51: 36-51. Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument is a U. S. National Monument in Wheeler and Grant counties in east-central Oregon. Located within the John Day River basin and managed by the National Park Service, the park is known for its well-preserved layers of fossil plants and mammals that lived in the region between the late Eocene, about 45 million years ago, the late Miocene, about 5 million years ago; the monument consists of three geographically separate units: Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, Clarno. The units cover a total of 13,944 acres of semi-desert shrublands, riparian zones, colorful badlands. About 210,000 people visited the park in 2016 to engage in outdoor recreation or to visit the Thomas Condon Paleontology Center or the James Cant Ranch Historic District. Before the arrival of Euro-Americans in the 19th century, the John Day basin was frequented by Sahaptin people who hunted and gathered roots and berries in the region. After road-building made the valley more accessible, settlers established farms, a few small towns along the river and its tributaries.
Paleontologists have been unearthing and studying the fossils in the region since 1864, when Thomas Condon, a missionary and amateur geologist, recognized their importance and made them known globally. Parts of the basin became a National Monument in 1975. Averaging about 2,200 feet in elevation, the monument has a dry climate with temperatures that vary from summer highs of about 90 °F to winter lows below freezing; the monument has more than 80 soil types that support a wide variety of flora, ranging from willow trees near the river to grasses on alluvial fans to cactus among rocks at higher elevations. Fauna include more than 50 species of migratory birds. Large mammals like elk and smaller animals such as raccoons and voles frequent these units, which are populated by a wide variety of reptiles, fish and other creatures adapted to particular niches of a mountainous semi-desert terrain; the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument consists of three separated units—Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, Clarno—in the John Day River basin of east-central Oregon.
Located in rugged terrain in the counties of Wheeler and Grant, the park units are characterized by hills, deep ravines, eroded fossil-bearing rock formations. To the west lies the Cascade Range, to the south the Ochoco Mountains, to the east the Blue Mountains. Elevations within the 13,944-acre park range from 2,000 to 4,500 feet; the Clarno Unit, the westernmost of the three units, consists of 1,969 acres located 18 miles west of Fossil along Oregon Route 218. The Painted Hills Unit, which lies about halfway between the other two, covers 3,132 acres, it is situated about 9 miles northwest of Mitchell along Burnt Ranch Road, which intersects U. S. Route 26 west of Mitchell; these two units are within Wheeler County. The remaining 8,843 acres of the park, the Sheep Rock Unit, are located along Oregon Route 19 and the John Day River upstream of the unincorporated community of Kimberly; this unit is in Grant County, although a small part extends into Wheeler County. The Sheep Rock Unit is further subdivided into the Mascall Formation Overlook, Picture Gorge, the James Cant Ranch Historic District, Cathedral Rock, Blue Basin, the Foree Area.
Some of these are separated from one another by farms and other parcels of land that are not part of the park. The park headquarters and main visitor center, both in the Sheep Rock Unit, are 122 miles northeast of Bend and 240 miles southeast of Portland by highway; the shortest highway distances from unit to unit within the park are Sheep Rock to Painted Hills, 45 miles. The John Day River, a tributary of the Columbia River, flows west from the Strawberry Mountains before reaching the national monument, it turns north between the Mascall Formation Overlook and Kimberly, where the North Fork John Day River joins the main stem. Downstream of Kimberly, the river flows west to downstream of the unincorporated community of Twickenham, north thereafter. Rock Creek enters the river at the north end of Picture Gorge. Bridge Creek passes through Mitchell north along the eastern edge of the Painted Hills Unit to meet the John Day downstream of Twickenham. Intermittent streams in the Clarno Unit empty into Pine Creek, which flows just beyond the south edge of the unit and enters the John Day upstream of the unincorporated community of Clarno.
Early inhabitants of north-central Oregon included Sahaptin-speaking people of the Umatilla and Warm Springs tribes as well as the Northern Paiutes, speakers of a Uzo-Aztecan language. All were hunter-gatherers competing for resources such as elk and salmon. Researchers have identified 36 sites of related archeological interest, including rock shelters and cairns, in or adjacent to the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument. Most significant among the prehistoric sites are the Picture Gorge pictographs, consisting of six panels of rock art in the canyon at the south end of the Sheep Rock Unit; the art is of undetermined origin and age but is "centuries old". The John Day basin remained unexplored by non-natives until the mid-19th century. Lewis and Clark noted but did not explore the John Day River while traveling along the Columbia River in 1805. John Day, for whom the river is named visited only its confluence with the Columbia in 1812. In 1829, Peter Skene Ogden, working for the Hudson's Bay Company, led a company of explorers and fur trappers along the river through what would
Malheur National Forest
The Malheur National Forest is a National Forest in the U. S. state of Oregon. It contains more than 1.4 million acres in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. The forest consists of high desert grasslands, juniper, pine and other tree species. Elevations vary from about 4,000 feet to the 9,038-foot peak of Strawberry Mountain; the Strawberry Mountains extend east to west through the center of the forest. U. S. Route 395 runs south to north through the forest, while U. S. Route 26 runs east to west; the forest was established by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 13, 1908, is named after the Malheur River, from the French, meaning "misfortune". It is managed by the United States Forest Service for timber extraction, cattle grazing, gold mining and wilderness use. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. In descending order of land area, the forest is located in parts of Grant, Harney and Malheur counties. There are three ranger districts in the forest, with offices in John Day, Prairie City, Hines.
The Malheur National Forest contains the largest known organism in the world: an Armillaria solidipes that spans 2,200 acres. There are two wilderness areas in the Malheur National Forest. Strawberry Mountain Wilderness at 68,700 acres Monument Rock Wilderness at 19,620 acres, located within the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Vinegar Hill-Indian Rock Scenic Area, a high-elevation scenic area in the northeast portion of the forest Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, a federally protected refuge to the south of the forest Malheur National Forest home page Cedar Grove Botanical Area
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge located 30 miles south of the city of Burns in Oregon's Harney Basin. Administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the refuge area is T-shaped with the southernmost base at Frenchglen, the northeast section at Malheur Lake and the northwest section at Harney Lake; the refuge was created in 1908 by order of President Theodore Roosevelt to protect habitat for diverse waterfowl and migratory birds, grew to encompass 187,757 acres of public lands. A popular site for birding, fishing and hiking, the refuge gained widespread attention in early 2016 after its headquarters complex was occupied by armed anti-government protesters. Archaeological research within the Harney Basin region, including near Burns, demonstrates that it was home to Native Americans for about the past 16,000 to 15,000 years; the first recognizable remains of seasonal prehistoric dwellings appear in the Harney Basin at the Dunn Site about 5,500 BP. Around Malheur and Harney lakes, the presence of identifiable remains of numerous settlements and burials of the Boulder Village Period demonstrate that these lakes were utilized by Paiute tribes for hunting and fishing as part of their seasonal nomadic round of the Harney Valley from before 3,000 BP up until historic contact with and settlement of the area by non-Native peoples.
For example, the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Headquarters lies within a major archaeological site, once a settlement used by Paiute tribes seasonally for thousands of years until historic contact. The arrival of settlers in the region led to restrictions on the use of the land by the Paiute people who were restricted to living in the Malheur Indian Reservation. After it was established, the size of the Malheur Indian Reservation continued to shrink as small areas of it were extracted from it and transferred to local settlers for their private use; the Paiute people were denied the local fishing and hunting rights that were promised them. The Paiute people were forced to leave their Malheur Indian Reservation after joining the Bannock people in Idaho in an uprising, the Bannock War, in 1878, were resettled in Yakama Reservation, 350 miles away in southeastern Washington. About 550 Paiute men and children, of whom many had not engaged in any hostile action, traveled for nearly a month through the snow and over two mountain ranges.
Though supplies were in transit from the Malheur agency, the Paiute people were forced to leave Camp Harney under-equipped. As a result, five children, one woman, an elderly man died along the way and were left unburied as they traveled. During the five years they spent on the Yakama Reservation, historian Sally Zanjani estimates that more than one-fifth of them died during their exile of malnourishment and disease; when they were allowed to leave the reservation in 1883, some of the Paiute people moved to either the Warm Springs Reservation or Nevada. Others returned to the Harney Basin and in 1972, acquired title to 771 acres of land and created the Burns Paiute Indian Reservation. After the removal of Paiute tribes, much of the region's land became public property; the region hosted large livestock operations while the area's water resources were altered by irrigation and drainage projects. The remarkable abundance and diversity of bird life within the pre-irrigation Malheur region was first described by Charles Bendire in the middle 1870s.
Beginning in the late 1880s, the area's bird populations were devastated by the actions of plume hunters who harvested the showy feathers of Malheur's waterfowl for use as hat ornaments. In 1908, wildlife photographers William L. Finley and Herman Bohlman documented the area's unusual diversity of birds, as well as the detrimental impacts of plume hunting. Finley used photographs to lobby President Theodore Roosevelt for federal protection of the region. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge was created on August 18, 1908 by a proclamation from President Roosevelt, under a law which allowed the president to declare game preserves on federal public land; the refuge began as a 81,786-acre parcel surrounding Malheur Lake, Harney Lake and Mud Lake, was named the Malheur Lake Refuge. In the years that followed, the refuge grew to its current size of 187,756 acres through federal purchases and acquisitions of surrounding lands. Of its current acreage, 43,665.57 acres were acquired by purchase from various willing sellers.
The creation and expansion of this refuge involved litigation, of which two lawsuits ended in favorable Supreme Court decisions, that provide the legal foundation for its ownership and management by federal agencies. Roads and other infrastructure were built by workers with the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression. While cattle grazing was permitted on some portions of the property after 1935, the prioritization of the needs of the refuge's wildlife led to reductions in the number of cattle allowed on the property starting in the 1970s; the number of cattle allowed to graze within the refuge remained at a steady level throughout the 1990s and 2000s. As the need for a comprehensive management plan for the refuge was realized, ranch operators became concerned about the possibility of furt
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is a protected area in the northern Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon in the United States. The 4,554-acre park, including the marble cave, is 20 miles east of Cave Junction, on Oregon Route 46; the protected area, managed by the National Park Service, is in southwestern Josephine County, near the Oregon–California border. Elijah Davidson, a resident of nearby Williams, discovered the cave in 1874. Over the next two decades, private investors failed in efforts to run successful tourist ventures at the publicly owned site. After passage of the Antiquities Act by the United States Congress, in 1909 President William Howard Taft established Oregon Caves National Monument, to be managed by the United States Forest Service; the growing popularity of the automobile, construction of paved highways, promotion of tourism by boosters from Grants Pass led to large increases in cave visitation during the late 1920s and thereafter. Among the attractions at the remote monument is the Oregon Caves Chateau, a six-story hotel built in a rustic style in 1934.
It is a National Historic Landmark and is part of the Oregon Caves Historic District within the monument. The NPS, which assumed control of the monument in 1933, offers tours of the cave from mid-April through early November. In 2014, the protected area was expanded by about 4,000 acres and re-designated a National Monument and Preserve. At the same time, the segment of the creek that flows through the cave was renamed for the mythological Styx and added to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Oregon Caves is a solutional cave, with passages totaling about 15,000 feet, formed in marble; the parent rock was limestone that metamorphosed to marble during the geologic processes that created the Klamath Mountains, including the Siskiyous. Although the limestone formed about 190 million years ago, the cave itself is no older than a few million years. Valued as a tourist cave, the cavern has scientific value. Activities at the park include cave touring, hiking and wildlife viewing. One of the park trails leads through the forest to Big Tree, which at 13 feet is the widest Douglas fir known in Oregon.
Lodging and food are available in Cave Junction. Camping is available in the preserve at the Cave Creek Campground, at a local USFS campground, private sites in the area. Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is in the Siskiyou Mountains, a coastal range, part of the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon; the monument consists of 484 acres in the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest, about 6 miles north of the Oregon–California border in Josephine County. Elevations within the monument range from 3,680 to 5,480 feet. Mount Elijah in the preserve rises to 6,390 feet. In December 2014, the U. S. Congress enlarged the protected area that includes the cave and changed its name from Oregon Caves National Monument to Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve; the preserve covers 4,070 acres, both it and the monument, which abuts the preserve, are administered by the same staff. By highway, Oregon Caves is 55 miles southwest of Grants Pass, 300 miles south of Portland and 450 miles north of San Francisco.
The caves are 20 miles east of the small city of Cave Junction via Oregon Route 46 off U. S. Route 199; the main cave has known passages totaling about 15,000 feet in length. Eight separate smaller caves have been discovered in the monument. Runoff from the wooded monument forms small headwater streams of the Illinois River, a major tributary of the Rogue River. One of five small springs in the monument becomes Upper Cave Creek, which flows on the surface before disappearing into its bed and entering the cave. Supplemented by water entering the cave from above, the stream emerges from the main entrance as Cave Creek. Within the cave, Cave Creek is known as the River Styx, named for the river Styx of Greek mythology connecting Earth to the Underworld. In late 2014, Congress added the River Styx to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, which added a level of protection aimed at keeping the stream free-flowing in perpetuity, it is the only subterranean river in the Wild Rivers system. Archeologists believe the first humans to inhabit the Rogue River region were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
Radiocarbon dating suggests. At least 1,500 years before the first contact with whites, the natives established permanent villages along streams. So, no evidence has been found to suggest that any of the native peoples, such as the Takelma who lived along the Rogue and Applegate rivers in the 19th century, used the cave. Bypassed by the early non-native explorers, fur traders, settlers because of its remote location, the region attracted newcomers in quantity when prospectors found gold near Jacksonville in the Rogue River valley in 1851; this led to the creation of Jackson County in 1852 and, after gold discoveries near Waldo in the Illinois River valley, the creation of Josephine County, named for the daughter of a gold miner. With an influx of miners and of settlers who farmed donation land claims, Josephine County's population was only 1,204 in 1870. Elijah Jones Davidson, who discovered the cave in 1874, had emigrated from Illinois to Oregon with his parents, who settled along Williams Creek in Josephine County.
Williams, as the community came to be called, is about 12 miles northeast of the cave. Only a few people visited the cave during the next de