Henri Édouard Prosper Breuil, often referred to as Abbé Breuil, was a French Catholic priest, anthropologist and geologist. Breuil was born at Mortain, Manche and was the son of Albert Breuil, magistrate and he received his education at the Seminary of St. Sulpice and the Sorbonne and was ordained in 1900 but was given permission to pursue his research interests. He was a man of religious faith and learning. In 1904 Breuil had recognised that a pair of 13, 000-year-old carvings of reindeer at the British Museum were in one composition. He assumed a post as lecturer at the University of Fribourg in 1905, Breuil was a competent draughtsman, faithfully reproducing the cave paintings he encountered. In 1924 he was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal from the National Academy of Sciences and he published many books and monographs, introducing the caves of Lascaux and Altamira to the general public and becoming a member of the Institut de France in 1938. Breuil visited the Peking Man excavations at Zhoukoudian, China in 1931, in 1929, when already a recognised authority on North African and European Stone Age art, he attended a congress on prehistory in South Africa.
At the invitation of prime minister Jan Smuts he returned there in 1942, during his South African stay he studied rock art in Lesotho, the eastern Free State and in the Natal Drakensberg. He undertook three expeditions to South West Africa and Rhodesia between 1947 and 1950 and he described this period as the most thrilling years of my research life. In 1953 he announced his discovery of a painting about 6000 years old, subsequently dubbed The White Lady, Breuil returned to France in 1952 and produced a series of publications sponsored by the South African Government. Breuils books contain valuable photographs and sketches of the art works at the sites he visited but are marred by official South African racism, Breuil developed elaborate scenarios to attribute white authorship to the paintings he studied. His contributions to European and African archaeology were considerable and recognised by the award of honorary doctorates from no fewer than six universities and he died at LIsle-Adam, Val-dOise, France.
The Cave of Altamira at Santillana del Mar, four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art. The White Lady of the Brandberg, london and Faber, New York, Frederick A. Praeger,1955. The Men of the Old Stone Age, New York, St. Martins Press,1965. The Paintings of the Tsisab Ravine The Rock Paintings of Southern Africa Broderick, New York, William Morrow & Company,1963. Un préhistorien dans le siècle, CNRS Éditions,2011 Présentation du livre Straus, lAbbé Henri Breuil, Bulletin of the History of Archaeology. LAbbé Henri Breuil, Pope of Paleolithic Prehistory, Homenaje al Dr. Joaquín González Echegaray, Museo y Centro de Investigación de Altamira,1994, pp. 189–198
A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In arid areas, wind erosion can be an important factor in rockhouse formation, erosion from moving water is seldom a significant factor. Many rock shelters are found under waterfalls, Rock shelter formation types Rock shelters are often important archaeologically. Because rock shelters form natural shelters from the weather, prehistoric humans often used them as living-places, and left behind debris, tools, in mountainous areas the shelters can be important for mountaineers. In western Connecticut and eastern New York, many shelters are known by the colloquialism leatherman caves. Sandstone can be used as shingles for roof tops when possible, the Cumberland stitchwort is an endangered species of plant which is found only in rock shelters in Kentucky and Tennessee. Gatecliff Rockshelter Kinlock Shelter Mesa Verde Overhang Roc-aux-Sorciers Shelter Rock Walnut Canyon
Colonel William Willoughby Cole Verner was a British soldier and ornithologist and inventor of a type of compass. He was briefly a Professor of Topology at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and he is remembered for bringing Cueva de la Pileta, a cave filled with prehistoric paintings to international attention. Verner was born in 1852 and he showed an early interest in owning the fossils of extinct animals. By 1867 he had started his own diary recording his interest in egg collecting and shooting and he continued his diary until 1890. He took out patents to improve a cavalry sketch board which was designed to be used strapped to the wrist, in 1895 Verner had a novel version of a compass named after him. The compass was manufactured by two different companies and version nine of the design was still being made in 1942 and he wrote The Military Life of H. R. H. George, Duke of Cambridge based on Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. He wrote Sketches in the Soudan in 1885 and Rapid Field-Sketching and Reconnaissance and Advanced Guard, in 1894 his friend Howard Irby published The Ornithology of the Strait of Gibraltar and after he retired to Algeciras he wrote My Life among the Wild Birds in Spain.
In 1911, Verner discovered Cueva de la Pileta in Benaoján, breil had come to Spain because of Verners reporting of Cueva de la Pileta near Ronda. Verner had been told of the cave that had discovered by a Spanish farmer called José Bullón in 1905 who was looking for bat guano. Bullón had found remains and markings on the walls. Verner had himself lowered into the cave and reported his findings in the London-based Saturday Review and it was these reports that brought Breuil to Spain with Hugo Obermaier, Paul Wernert and the Spaniard Juan Cabre Aquilo. Breuil stayed in Spain for two months studying the cave paintings whilst funded by the Prince of Monaco, Verner co-authored a scientific paper with Breuil and Obermaier on Cueva de la Pileta. Verner wrote History and Campaigns of the Rifle Brigade in 1912, in 1917 Breuil returned and he and Verner were warned off their next investigation of Devils Tower Cave in Gibraltar by a local policeman. Their confidence was confirmed when Gibraltar 2 was found nearby in the early 1920s by Dorothy Garrod who had come to investigate at Breuils encouragement
Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar. The Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and it is situated 20 km north-east of Tarifa on the Río de la Miel, which is the southernmost river of the Iberian peninsula and continental Europe. In 2015, it had a population of 118,920, the area of the city has been populated since prehistory, and the earliest remains belong to Neanderthal populations from the Paleolithic. Recently it has proposed that the site of Iulia Transducta was the Villa Vieja of Algeciras. After being destroyed by the Goths and their Vandal allies, the city was founded again in April 711 by the invading Moors, as the first city created by the Amazigh on the occupied Spanish soil. In the year 859 AD Viking troops on board 62 drekars and commanded by the leaders Hastein, after looting the houses of the rich, they burnt the Aljama mosque and the Banderas mosque. Reorganized near the medina, the managed to recover the city and make the invaders run away.
It enjoyed a period of independence as a taifa state from 1035-1058. It was named al-Jazirah al-Khadra after the offshore Isla Verde, the name is derived from this original Arabic name. In 1278, Algeciras was besieged by the forces of the Kingdom of Castile under the command of Alfonso X of Castile and his son and this siege was the first of a series of attempts to take the city and ended in failure for the Castilian forces. An armada sent by Castile was annihilated whilst trying to blockade the citys harbor, after many centuries of Muslim rule, the tide of the reconquista arrived at Algeciras. In July 1309 Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege to Algeciras as well as Gibraltar, the latter fell into Christian hands, but Muslim Algeciras held on for the following three decades, until Alfonso XI of Castile resumed its siege. In March 1344, after years of siege, Algeciras surrendered. On winning the city, Alfonso XI made it the seat of a new diocese, established by Pope Clement VIs bull Gaudemus et exultamus of 30 April 1344, no longer a residential bishopric, Aliezira is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
The city was retaken by the Moors in 1368 and it was destroyed on the orders of Muhammed V of Granada. The site was abandoned, but was refounded in 1704 by refugees from Gibraltar following the territorys capture by Anglo-Dutch forces in the War of the Spanish Succession. It was fortified to guard against British raids with installations such as the Fuerte de Isla Verde built to guard key points, the city was rebuilt on its present rectangular plan by Charles III of Spain in 1760. In July 1801, the French and Spanish navies fought the British Royal Navy offshore in the Battle of Algeciras, the city became the scene for settling a major international crisis as it hosted the Algeciras Conference in 1906
Coptic Cave is a sea cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The cave was intended to be used as a decoy to protect Operation Tracer and this was a plan to leave behind spies should the British lose control of the Rock of Gibraltar in World War II. The eight meter high cave was named after a lamp that was discovered in 1937 which was thought to be of Coptic origin. The lamp is now thought to be Roman and to have brought to Gibraltar by Vandals or Byzantines. During World War II this cave and Beefsteak Cave were chosen to be part of Operation Monkey which created two decoy caves and these caves were intended to deflect any investigation by invaders of Gibraltar who were looking for spies left behind by the British. The real plan to leave behind spies in a cave was called Operation Tracer, the back of Coptic Cave is nearly 15 metres from the entrance. A shaft was created at the back of the cave which was intended as an escape route and for the delivery of materials via a wooden ladder.
The cave had a wall constructed which is still extant that closed off the entrance. Gibraltar is sometimes referred to as the Hill of Caves and the formation of all the caves is limestone
Martins Cave is a cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It opens on the cliffs of the Rock of Gibraltar. It is an ancient sea cave, though it is now located over 700 feet above the shore of the Mediterranean Sea and it is only accessible because Martins Path was constructed. Gibraltar is sometimes referred to as the Hill of Caves and the formation of all the caves is limestone. Formed before the arrival of humans, its creation, and that of caves in its vicinity, is attributed to the cracks. Its extreme length from the entrance is 114 feet, while its greatest breadth is 73.16 feet, there is only one outlet from within the cave. The cave was said to have discovered in 1821 by a soldier named Martin. According to an 1829 account, the soldier had been wandering about the summit of the Rock somewhat inebriated and was absent from that evenings muster and he was feared to have fallen over the precipice and to have been dashed to pieces on the rocks below. Three days after disappearing, however, he reappeared with torn and dirty clothes and he had indeed fallen but had landed on a narrow ledge in front of the entrance to the cave, before being rescued.
At the time, reaching the cave was very difficult, the Royal Engineers made, Martins Path, a small approach path above the precipice to facilitate access. We left our horses in charge of a servant half a mile from the cave, the Governor readily agreed to the proposal. A ten-member team of prisoners began the explorations, with Martins Cave being the first to be explored, excavations commenced on 23 June 1868, and continued until 22 July. There were no traces of any previous attempts at detailed exploration. Parts of a lower jaw, and two bushels of bones belonging to ox, goat and rabbit were found, there were several bird. A small, brightly coloured, enamelled copper plate was found, similar works of art, consisting of fragments of pottery and stone implements were unearthed. The two swords both just over a metre long dating to the 12th or 13th century were unearthed, the British Museum has seven items in its collection donated by Captain Brome. Six of these are the two swords, a scabbard, two buckles and a plaque which were all found in Martins Cave.
During World War II Gibraltars caves were extended and exploited by the military including, the generators were removed but the holes that were drilled in the roof of the cave still have cables as evidence of the caves industrial use
New St. Michael's Cave
New St. Michaels Cave, known as Lower St. Michaels Cave, is a cave system in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Unlike its namesake, St. Michaels Cave, which has known for over 2,000 years. Michaels Cave, which had been prepared as an emergency hospital, the caves chambers include examples of almost all known cave formations, including a lake nearly 40 yards long containing an estimated 45,000 imperial gallons of crystal-clear water. After the war, the cave and every visitor was supervised by the United Kingdoms Ministry of Defence and it was not until the 1970s that civilian guides were authorised. Within ten years, the guides were all civilians as the Gibraltar Tourist Board took over the management from the military. Three-hour guided tours of the cave can be arranged, ending with viewing the underground lake
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 and shares its border with Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the landmark of the region. At its foot is a populated city area, home to over 30,000 Gibraltarians. An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar from Spain in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne, the territory was subsequently ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Today Gibraltars economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services, the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations as Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians overwhelmingly rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum, under the Gibraltar constitution of 2006, Gibraltar governs its own affairs, though some powers, such as defence and foreign relations, remain the responsibility of the British government.
The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq, earlier, it was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin and one of the Pillars of Hercules. The pronunciation of the name in modern Spanish is, evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar between 28,000 and 24,000 BP has been discovered at Gorhams Cave, making Gibraltar possibly the last known holdout of the Neanderthals. Within recorded history, the first inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BC, Gibraltar became known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. The Carthaginians and Romans established semi-permanent settlements, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals. The area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania from 414 AD until the Islamic conquest of Iberia in 711 AD, in 1160, the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mumin ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built.
It received the name of Medinat al-Fath, on completion of the works in the town, the Sultan crossed the Strait to look at the works and stayed in Gibraltar for two months. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today, from 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462, Gibraltar was finally captured by Juan Alonso de Guzmán, after the conquest, King Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. In 1501, Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, the occupation of the town by Alliance forces caused the exodus of the population to the surrounding area of the Campo de Gibraltar. As the Alliances campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated and ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britains withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence
Ibex Cave is a limestone cave on the Rock of Gibraltar which has yielded stone artefacts of Mousterian tradition. It is so named as a skull was found within the cave which would have been hunted by the Neanderthals of Gibraltar thousands of years ago. Ibex Cave was named and excavated by the Gibraltar Museum in 1994 and its first formal description was in 1999. Ibex Cave was named and excavated by the Gibraltar Museum in 1994, before this, a sand collection operation had been ongoing on the Eastside of the Rock of Gibraltar. The sand from the slopes that was beneath the water catchments was extracted and transported along a belt system to the road below for industrial use. The decaying skeleton of this system was visible from Sir Herbert Miles Road until very recently. In 1985, when workers began removing sand from above the water catchments and they recovered stone artefacts and bones until ordered to stop by George Palao of the Public Works Department. Palao gathered the collected items and arranged for the cave to be sealed according to notes found years in a vault at the Gibraltar Museum and these finds were rediscovered in a bag in 1991 by Prof.
Clive Finlayson, Director of the Gibraltar Museum. They included stone tools, made mainly of red jasper and many mammal bones including the almost complete skull of an ibex, in the bag was Palaos report and thus was able to establish where the finds came from. The stone artefacts were of Mousterian tradition, i. e. Neanderthal and this we did by obtaining permission to enter via the Waterworks. Mr Manolo Perez and his deputy, Mr Derek Cano, and their staff have always been most helpful to the Gibraltar Museum and this time was no exception. Having left the car on the west side of the Rock we walked the long, some are the size of two football pitches and during the Second World War one of them housed the Blackwatch Regiment. The moment you enter this quarter-mile long tunnel you literally see the light at the other end, as you walk along it, on the tracks of a small railway system, the opening gets larger and the light brighter. Having got used to the darkness of the depths of the Rock you are suddenly confronted with the bright blue of the Mediterranean on the other side.
The other side of the Rock is literally another world, having got there the early morning sun, contrasting with the deep shade of the west side, is quite warm and agreeable. The old corrugated sheets of the watercatchments were still prevalent in early days of 1992. From the exit to the tunnel we walked south along a passage on the side of which was the channel used to carry the rainwater into the reservoirs. We reached a point where we had to abandon the luxury of the passage, the steps here were narrow and a railing to hold onto was not always there
Hayne's Cave Battery
Haynes Cave Battery is the remains of two gun positions that made up an artillery battery on the west side of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar at Haynes Cave. Gun emplacements can still be visited at this cave, the derelict battery can now be found on the Royal Anglian Way which is named after the 2nd Battalion of the Royal Anglian Regiment, who refurbished it in August 1969. The path leads up the west side to the top of the passing by this battery, some military support buildings. The battery dates from 1788 although it has a plaque labelled 1903 It is named as the nearby Haynes Cave and this battery was named after Captain Haynes who was the garrison quartermaster in 1787. Visitors can see the remains of one of the two 4-inch QF gun positions which were installed in 1904 and are about 40 metres apart, in 1911 the guns were removed in favour of the superior 6 inch guns of Tovey Battery
Neanderthals in Gibraltar
The Neanderthals in Gibraltar were among the first to be discovered by modern scientists and may have been among the last of their species. The skull of a Neanderthal child was discovered nearby in 1926, the caves in the Rock of Gibraltar that the Neanderthals inhabited have been excavated and have revealed a wealth of information about their lifestyle and the prehistoric landscape of the area. The peninsula stood on the edge of a coastal plain, now submerged. Unlike northern Europe, which underwent massive swings in its climate and was uninhabitable for long periods. It became a refuge from the ice ages for animals and Neanderthals, the Gibraltar Neanderthals first came to light in 1848 during excavations in the course of the construction of a fortification called Forbes Barrier at the northern end of the Rock of Gibraltar. They gave a report on it to the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1864 and proposed that the species be called Homo calpicus after Mons Calpe, the ancient name for Gibraltar.
It was only realised that the skull was a specimen of Homo neanderthalensis. The skull was the first Neanderthal adult cranium to be discovered and, although small, is nearly complete, in 1926, a second Neanderthal skull was found by Dorothy Garrod at a rock shelter named Devils Tower, very close to Forbes Quarry. This fossil, known as Gibraltar 2, is less complete than the Gibraltar 1 skull and has been identified as that of a four-year-old child. Further excavations at the two sites are infeasible, large-scale excavations in 1947-54 by John dArcy Waechter showed that Gorhams Cave had been occupied for over 100,000 years during the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic and Holocene epochs. Further excavations have been carried out in Gorhams and Ibex Caves since 1994 as part of the Gibraltar Museums Gibraltar Caves Project, the finds have enabled palaeontologists to reconstruct the lifestyles of the occupants and their environment in considerable detail. When Ibex Cave was discovered in 1975, fifty artefacts from the Middle Pleistocene period were found on the surface along with vertebrate remains and shells.
Neanderthal tools were found in an excavation carried out there in 1994 by the Gibraltar Caves Project, most of the stone tools appear to have been deposited during a single period of occupation, perhaps as short as a single day. In July 2012, archaeologists discovered an engraving in Gorhams Cave, buried under 39, 000-year-old sediments, which has been called the oldest known example of abstract art. Consisting of a series of intersecting lines, the engraving is located about 100 metres inside the cave on a ledge that is thought to have used by Neanderthals as a sleeping place. Its meaning is not known but researchers have described it as providing the first evidence that Neanderthals had the ability to produce abstract act. Pleistocene Gibraltar was physically different from today. During the ice ages, the greater volume of water locked up in the polar ice caps