The concepts of multifaith, generic and/or humanist chaplaincy are gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. School chaplains are a fixture in religious and, more recently, in religious schools the role of the chaplain tends to be educational and liturgical. In secular schools the role of the chaplain tends to be that of a mentor, Chaplains provide care for students by supporting them during times of crisis or need. Many chaplains run programs to promote the welfare of students and parents including programs to help deal with grief. Chaplains build relationships with students by participating in extra activities such as breakfast programs, lunchtime groups. School chaplains can liaise with external organisations providing support services for the school, with stagnant incomes and rising prices putting pressure on independent school budgets, cutting the post of school chaplain can seem an easy saving. In Australia chaplains in schools have, been funded by the federal government.
Australian chaplains assist school communities to support the spiritual, Chaplaincy services are provided by non denominational companies. As of August 2013 there are 2339 chaplains working in Australian secular schools, similarly, in Scotland the focus of school chaplaincy is on welfare and building positive relationships joining students on excursions and sharing meals. Chaplains are non-denominational and act as a link between the community and society. Like Australian chaplains it is expected that they will not proselytise, in Ireland chaplaincy takes a very different approach in which chaplains are expected to teach up to four hours of class instruction per week and are usually Catholic. Chaplaincy duties include visiting homes, religious services and celebrations, Chaplains often oversee programs on campus that foster spiritual, ethical and political and cultural exchange, and the promotion of service. Each day communities respond to disasters or emergencies. Most often, these incidents are managed effectively at the local level, there are some incidents that may require a collaborative approach that includes personnel from,1.
A combination of specialties or disciplines,3, Chaplain Fellowship Disaster Response certifies first responder chaplain for crisis and disaster response. At the scene of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, for example, New York City Fire Department Chaplain Fr. Judge was killed by flying debris from the South Tower when he re-entered the lobby of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, environmental chaplaincy is an emerging field within chaplaincy. Environmental chaplains provide spiritual care in a way that honors humanitys deep connection to the earth, environmental chaplains may bear witness to the Earth itself and represent the merging of science and spirituality
In some Christian churches, the reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy. In early Christian times, the reader was of value due to the rarity of literacy. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the term lector or reader can mean someone who in a liturgy is assigned to read a Biblical text other than the Gospel. But it has the specific meaning of a person who has been instituted as a lector or reader. This is the meaning in which the term is used in this article, in this sense, the office was formerly classed as one of the four minor orders and in recent centuries was generally conferred only on those preparing for ordination to the priesthood. With effect from 1 January 1973, the apostolic letter Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972 decreed instead that, What up to now were called minor orders are henceforth to be called ministries. Ministries may be assigned to lay Christians, hence they are no longer to be considered as reserved to candidates for the sacrament of orders, two ministries, adapted to present-day needs, are to be preserved in the whole Latin Church, those of reader and acolyte.
The functions heretofore assigned to the subdeacon are entrusted to the reader, the reader is appointed for a function proper to him, that of reading the word of God in the liturgical assembly. He may also, insofar as may be necessary, take care of preparing other faithful who are appointed on a basis to read the Scriptures in liturgical celebrations. That he may more fittingly and perfectly fulfill these functions, he is to meditate assiduously on sacred Scripture, instituted lectors, who are all men, are obliged, when proclaiming the readings at Mass, to wear an alb. Like other lay ministers, they may wear an alb or other suitable attire that has been approved by the Conference of Bishops. Neither the England and Wales episcopal conference nor that of the United States has specified a particular alternative attire, the General Instruction thus makes no distinction between men and women for proclaiming the scriptural readings in the absence of an instituted lector. In its sections the same document lists the lectors specific duties at Mass, traditionalist Catholic organizations such as the Priestly Fraternity of St.
The controversial Society of St. Pius X and other traditionalist Catholic bodies in dispute with the Holy See, such as sedevacantists, in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine tradition, the reader is the second highest of the minor orders of clergy. This order is higher than the Doorkeeper and lower than the subdeacon, due to this fact, it often falls to the reader within a parish to construct the variable parts of the divine services according to the often very complicated rules. This can lead to an intimate knowledge of the structure of. There is a service for the ordination of a reader. Immediately before ordination as a reader, the candidate is tonsured as a sign of his submission and it is a separate act from ordination
A curate is a person who is invested with the care or cure of souls of a parish. In this sense curate correctly means a parish priest, but in English-speaking countries the term curate is used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy, the term is derived from the Latin curatus. In other languages, derivations from curatus may be used differently, in French, the curé is the chief priest of a parish, as is the Italian curato, the Spanish cure, and the Filipino term kura pároko, which is derived from Spanish. In the Catholic Church, the English word curate is used for a priest assigned to a parish in a subordinate to that of the parish priest. The parish priest is the priest who has responsibility for the parish. He may be assisted by one or more priests, referred to as curates, assistant priests. In the Church of England today, curate refers to priests who are in their first post after ordination, once in possession of their benefices and vicars enjoyed a freehold, and could only be removed after due legal process, and for a restricted number of reasons.
Perpetual curates were placed on a footing in 1838 and were commonly styled vicars. Clergy who assist the curate were, and are, properly called assistant curates, a house provided for an assistant curate is sometimes colloquially called a curatage. Assistant curates are licensed by the bishop, but only at the request of the curate, for example, Geoffrey Francis Fisher served as Curate of Trent near Sherborne after retiring as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1961. With the 1968 Pastoral Measure and subsequent legislation, the Church of England has undergone a process of reform which still continues today. Ministers in the Church of England whose main income comes from sources other than their work as clergy may be termed Self Supporting Ministers or Curate. Terms like rector and curate were carried overseas with the spread of Anglicanism, in Anglican parishes with a Charismatic or evangelical tradition, the roles of curates are usually seen as being an assistant leader to the overall leader, often in a larger team of pastoral leaders.
Many of the larger Charismatic and Evangelical parishes have larger ministry teams with a number of leaders, some ordained. Originally a bishop would entrust a priest with the cure of souls of a parish, when, in medieval Europe, this included the legal freehold of church land in the parish, the parish priest was a perpetual curate, an assistant would be a curate. The words perpetuus and temporalis distinguish their appointments but not the length of service, a curate is appointed by the parish priest and paid from parish funds. A perpetual curate is a priest in charge of a parish who was appointed, as the church became more embedded into the fabric of feudal Europe, various other titles often supplanted curate for the parish priest
In the Roman Catholic Church, a lay cardinal was a cardinal who had never been given major orders, i. e. who had never been ordained a deacon, priest, or bishop. Properly speaking these cardinals were not laymen, since they were all given what was called first tonsure, by which at time one became a cleric. In addition they were given orders, which were no obstacle to marrying or to living in a marriage previously contracted. The freedom to marry and to live in marriage is doubtless the reason that cardinals who were not in major orders were popularly, though inaccurately, ferdinando I de Medici was a lay cardinal for twenty-six years. Even after he succeeded his brother Francesco I de Medici as Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1587, he nevertheless remained a cardinal until he married Christina of Lorraine two years later. Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma was created cardinal by Pope Paul V on March 26,1618, Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria was a lay cardinal for about 20 years from 1620 to his death in 1641.
Marino Carafa di Belvedere was created a cardinal in the consistory of 1801 by Pope Pius VII on the condition that he take major orders, in 1807 he resigned the cardinalate without receiving major orders to marry to produce an heir and maintain the line of descent for his family. He married Marianna Gaetani dellAquila dAragona and he became prince of Acquaviva, teodolfo Mertel, a lawyer and layman, was named cardinal by Pope Pius IX in 1858. He was not a lay cardinal for long, as he received ordination to the diaconate the same year, when he died in 1899 he was the last non-priest cardinal. In 1968 Pope Paul VI seriously considered appointing the French Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain a lay cardinal. It is perhaps commonplace to think that the title of cardinal is the order after bishop to which a man may be ordained. The original cardinals in the first Christian centuries were friends and counsellors of the Bishop of Rome, some were ordained deacons or priests and some were not. In those days of persecution these men took on the duty of standing at the door of the house where the agapē feast and they admitted or rejected people hoping to attend the Sacred Liturgy.
They kept watch for soldiers or informers who might interrupt the gathering, since the word for hinge in Latin is cardo they became known as hingemen – cardinals. Soon many bishops called their advisors cardinals but, in time, the same rule is repeated in the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which adds that those who are not already bishops are to receive episcopal ordination. For example, the dispensation was requested by the theologian Avery Dulles upon being named cardinal by Pope John Paul II in 2001 who granted it. Subsequently invited to a meeting of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops in 2002 and his quip that he was there under false pretenses was greeted by much laughter. With the motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972 Pope Paul VI ended the conferral of first tonsure, crown cardinal Cardinal protector Cardinal-Infante Cardinal-nephew Tonsure Minor orders
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. A subdeacon or hypodeacon is the highest of the orders of clergy in the Orthodox Church. This order is higher than the reader and lower than the deacon, like the reader, the clerical street-dress of the subdeacon is the cassock, which is usually black but only need be so if he is a monk. This is symbolic of his suppression of his own tastes and desires, and his obedience to God, his bishop. As a concession in countries where Orthodoxy is little known, many wear the cassock when attending services or when moving about the faithful on church business. This situation often arises if there is a need for a subdeacon, the reason for this lies in the fact that the canons prohibit subdeacons to marry after their ordination. This latter stipulation has led, in places, to the reservation of the formal ordination service as a stepping-stone for candidates for the priesthood. In the Byzantine Rite, the liturgical role is primarily that of servant to the bishop.
Outside of hierarchical services, the subdeacon serves in the altar as any other server but, in addition to the above duties, the subdeacon may read the reading from the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy if there is only one deacon. For this reason, he has a blessing to touch the Holy Table and the Table of Oblation. He is responsible for the training of new servers, the clerical street-wear of a subdeacon is the inner-cassock and outer cassock. Many wear the cassock only when present among the community or attending to church business. For services, the subdeacon is vested in a sticharion with an orar tied around his waist, up over his shoulders, and with the ends crossed over, the ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy. The reader who is to be tonsured subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave, there he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.
He is led to stand immediately before the bishop, the subdeacons present the orar to the bishop, who blesses it. The ordinand kisses the orar and the hand. The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, lays his hand upon the ordinands head. The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the blessing and kiss his hands
A military chaplain ministers to military personnel and, in most cases, their families and civilians working for the military. In some cases they work with local civilians within a military area of operations. They may liaise with local leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as both a factor in hostility and war and as a force for reconciliation and peace. Military chaplains normally represent a religion or faith group but work with military personnel of all faiths, some countries, like the Netherlands and Belgium, employ humanist chaplains who offer a non-religious approach to chaplain support. In the United Kingdom, the Ministry of Defence employs chaplains, naval chaplains called to service with the Royal Marines undertake a commando course at Commando Training Centre Royal Marines, Lympstone and if successful serve with a front-line Royal Marines unit. British Army chaplains undertake seven-weeks training at The Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House, in the United States, the term, nomination, is not generally applied to the process of becoming a military chaplain.
Individuals volunteer, and if they are accepted, they are commissioned as military officers in the Chaplain Corps. Neither the government as a whole nor the military in particular will be put into the position of determining whether an individual is a bona fide priest, rabbi, etc. Although ordination is normally required for service, some equivalent status is accepted for individuals from religious groups which do not have ordination. The Geneva Conventions are silent on whether chaplains may bear arms, the Conventions do state that chaplains are non-combatants, they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities. It is generally assumed that during World War II, chaplains were unarmed, crosby describes an incident where a US chaplain became a trained tank gunner and was removed from the military for this entirely illegal, not to mention imprudent action. Fraser asks, if the shot, what would the harvest be. Apart from three ringing cheers from the whole battalion, other nations, notably Norway and Sweden, and Australia, make it an issue of individual conscience.
Since 1909 US chaplains on operations have been accompanied by an armed chaplain assistant, perhaps on this occasion it was felt that an unarmed uniformed man would draw unwelcome attention. Captured chaplains are not considered prisoners of war and must be returned to their home nation unless retained to minister to prisoners of war, serving chaplains have died in action. The US Army and Marines lost 100 chaplains killed in action during World War II, the third highest casualty rate behind the infantry, many have been decorated for bravery in action. In 2006, training materials obtained by U. S, among the training materials, there included an insurgent sniper training manual that was posted on the Internet. Among its tips for shooting U. S. troops, there read, Killing doctors, Military chaplains are often supervised by a chaplain general or chief of chaplains, on the staff of the leader of the nations military forces
In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons. A priest, a nun, a monk, a healer, an exorcist is a person who performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or a building or even an object. In a Roman Catholic context, exorcist may refer to a cleric who has been ordained into the order of exorcist. Since at least the third century, the Latin Church has formally ordained men to the order of exorcist. These exorcists routinely performed ceremonies over adults and infants preparing to be baptised, authors such as Eusebius and Augustine provide details of these minor exorcisms, Eusebius mentions the imposition of hands and prayer. Augustine noted that rites of exorcism by exsufflation were performed for the baptism of infants, by the twentieth century, the order had become purely ceremonial. As a minor order, exorcists wore the surplice and it was left open to the Catholic bishops of individual countries to petition the Vatican to establish a ministry of exorcist if it seemed useful in that nation.
The Eastern Churches did not establish a order of exorcist. In principle, every Christian has the power to command demons, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that, Jesus performed exorcisms and from him the Church has received the power and office of exorcizing. The revised 1983 Code of Canon Law similarly stated that the bishop is to give this permission only to a presbyter who has piety, prudence, the Catholic Churchs Rite of Exorcism was revised in 1999. Paragraph 13 of its states that a priest can be appointed by the local Bishop either for a single act of exorcism. The Rite specifies that whenever it uses the word exorcist without qualification, among notable exorcists, Gabriele Amorth served as chief exorcist of the Diocese of Rome, he was the founder of the International Association of Exorcists. Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with the ancient Dravidians in the south, of the four Vedas, the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to magic and medicine.
Many of the rituals described in this book are for casting out demons and these beliefs are particularly strong and practiced in West Bengal and southern states like Kerala. Vaishnava traditions employ a recitation of names of Lord Narasimha, main Puranic resource on ghost- and death-related information is Garuda Purana. Exorcism Parapsychology Fangxiangshi, a Chinese ritual exorcist An Evening with an Exorcist, thomas J. Euteneuer Exorcisms in the Catholic Church
Before the establishment of patriarchs, metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted privileges by canon law. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city, the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, called suffragans. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops, the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds even if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see and it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, and determine the agenda. It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council, no provincial council can be called if the metropolitan see is vacant.
As of April 2006,508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops,27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, see Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, similarly, a metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province. The metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province, a major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only slightly from that regarding a patriarchal Church, there are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops, in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops.
In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, some Eastern Orthodox Churches have functioning metropolitans on the middle level of church administration. In Romanian Orthodox Church there are six regional metropolitans who are the chairmen of their respective synods of bishops, for example, Metropolitan of Oltenia has regional jurisdiction over four dioceses. On the other hand, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches title of metropolitan is only honorary, in Serbian Orthodox Church, honorary title of metropolitan is given to diocesan bishops of some important historical sees. For example, diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is given the title of metropolitan. Diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Dabar-Bosnia is given the title of metropolitan. Non-canonical Eastern Orthodox Churches generally use metropolitan title according to traditions of usage in Churches from which they were split
In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a governor with extended authority over a province at some distance from the capital Constantinople. The prevailing situation frequently involved him in military operations, in the civil administration of the Byzantine Roman Empire the exarch was, as stated above, the viceroy of a large and important province. After the dissolution of the Western Empire in the fifth century. Justinian I reconquered North Africa, Italy and finally parts of Spain for the Eastern Roman Empire, this put an incredible strain on the Empires limited resources. Subsequent emperors would not surrender the land to remedy the situation. Thus the stage was set for Emperor Maurice to establish the Exarchates to deal with the evolving situation of the provinces. In Italy the Lombards were the opposition to Byzantine power. In North Africa the Amazigh or Berber princes were ascendant due to Roman weakness outside the coastal cities, the problems associated with many enemies on various fronts forced the imperial government to decentralize and devolve power to the former provinces.
The term Exarch most commonly refers to the Exarch of Italy, the exarchates seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. Ravenna remained the seat of the Exarch until the revolt of 727 over Iconoclasm, the growing menace of the Lombards and the split between eastern and western Christendom that Iconoclasm caused made the position of the Exarch more and more untenable. The last Exarch was killed by the Lombards in 751, a second exarchate was created by Maurice to administer northern Africa, formerly a separate praetorian prefecture, the islands of the western Mediterranean and the Byzantine possessions in Spain. The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage, the exarchate proved both financially and militarily strong, and survived until the Arab Muslim conquest of Carthage in 698. The term exarch entered ecclesiastical language at first for a metropolitan with jurisdiction not only for the area that was his as a metropolitan, the advance of Constantinople put an end to these exarchates, which fell back to the state of ordinary metropolitan sees.
But the title of exarch was still used for any Metropolitan. Thus, since the Church of Cyprus was declared autocephalous, its Primate received the title of Exarch of Cyprus, the short-lived medieval Churches of Peć, Ohrid and Tirnova, were governed previously by exarchs, though these prelates assumed the title of patriarch. On the same principle the Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raithu is an exarch, though in case, as in that of Cyprus. When the Bulgarians reconstituted their national Church in 1870, they obtained from the Ottoman authorities for its head the title of Exarch, not the highest, that of Patriarch. The Bulgarian Exarch, who resided at Constantinople, was the most famous bearer of the title, adherents throughout Macedonia were called exarchists, as opposed to the Greek patriarchists
An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone who performs duties such as lighting altar candles. In others, the term is used for one who has been inducted into a particular liturgical ministry, the word acolyte is derived from the Greek word ἀκόλουθος, meaning an attendant, via Late Latin acolythus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches, the nearest equivalent of acolyte is the altar server, at one time there was a rank of minor clergy called the taper-bearer responsible for bearing lights during processions and liturgical entrances. However, this rank has long ago been subsumed by that of the reader, the functions of an acolyte or taper-bearer are therefore carried out by readers, subdeacons, or by non-tonsured men or boys who are sometimes called acolytes informally. Also, the term altar-boys is often used to refer to young altar servers, subdeacons wear their normal vestments consisting of the sticharion and crossed orarion and servers traditionally wear the sticharion alone.
In recent times, however, in many of the North American Greek Orthodox Churches, for the sake of uniformity, readers do not cross the orarion while wearing it, the uncrossed orarion being intended to slightly distinguish a reader from a subdeacon. In the Russian tradition, readers wear only the sticharion, if a server has not been tonsured, he must remove the sticharion before he can receive Holy Communion. In the early church, a taper-bearer was not permitted to enter the sanctuary, however, servers are permitted to go in, but they are not permitted either to touch the Holy Table or the Table of Oblation. Until 1972, the acolyte was the holder of the highest of four minor orders, by Pope Paul VIs motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972, the term minor orders has been replaced by that of ministries. Two such ministries, those of reader and acolyte, are to be throughout the Latin Church. A prescribed interval, as decided by the Holy See and the episcopal conference, is to be observed between receiving them.
Candidates for diaconate and for priesthood must receive both ministries and exercise them for time before receiving holy orders. The two ministries are not reserved solely for candidates for orders, but can be conferred- in their formal, institutional permanent form- only on men. The ministries are conferred by the ordinary, either a bishop or, in the case of religious institutes. The motu proprio assigned to the acolyte the functions previously reserved for the subdeacon, the functions of the acolyte are specified in the motu proprio, and have been indicated in the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, no. 98, which says, The acolyte is instituted to serve at the altar and to assist the priest and deacon. In particular, it is his responsibility to prepare the altar, in the ministry of the altar, the acolyte has his own functions, which he must perform personally
Saint Peter, known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn pronunciation, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16,18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis and his brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.
According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peters Basilica. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories. Peters original name was Shimon or Simeon and he was given the name Peter, New Testament Greek Πέτρος derived from πέτρα, which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. Another version of this name is Aramaic, , after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German Peter, French Pierre, the Italian Pietro, the Spanish and Portuguese Pedro, the Syriac or Aramaic word for rock is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, meaning rock. He is known as Simon Peter and Kepha, both Cephas and Kepha mean rock. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Simon, son of Jonah or John
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see