John Cassaday is an American comic book artist and television director, best known for his work on Planetary, Astonishing X-Men, Captain America and Star Wars. He has received multiple Eisner Awards and nominations for his work. Both Marvel Comics and DC Comics include many of Cassaday's iconic images in their marketing, in their art and poster book collections. Marvel Comics-based animated films have made extensive use of his art. A self-taught illustrator, Cassaday directed TV news for five years, he spent one summer working a construction job while working on his portfolio. In 1995, Cassaday's first published work appeared in Caliber Comics Negative Burn. Other early work includes Flowers on the Razorwire #5-6, No Profit for the Wise, he showed his portfolio to popular comic book writer and editor Mark Waid at San Diego Comic-Con International 1996. Soon after, Cassaday began receiving job offers from bigger publishers, he left Texas for New York. In December 1996 he produced art for Dark Horse Comics' Ghost.
Within a year, he was hired to be the regular artist on Desperadoes. In late 1997 was hired by DC and Marvel as artist on the Teen Titans and Flash annuals, X-Men/Alpha Flight, Union Jack, his work on X-Men made him one of its most popular artists. Cassady became an in-demand artist working on many top titles including Gen 13, Superman/Batman, The Hulk, The Avengers, he is best known for his work on the critically acclaimed Planetary with writer Warren Ellis, Astonishing X-Men with Joss Whedon and Captain America with John Ney Rieber. Cassaday worked on multiple Captain America projects, including an issue of Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America written by Jeph Loeb, "Captain America Lives Again" and "Captain America: The New Deal", he based his cover art on World War II propaganda posters. The art was popular with fans and critics alike and Marvel released the works in a series of poster art books, he has created covers for comic books featuring The Phantom, for US publisher Moonstone Books and the European Egmont, as well as covers for Joss Whedon's Firefly spinoff comic Serenity: Those Left Behind, Guy Ritchie's Gamekeeper.
He handled covers and art direction on Dynamite Entertainment's The Lone Ranger comic-book series. Books featuring his art include Wizard's PosterMania!, Women of Marvel Poster Book, Wolverine Poster Book, New Avengers Poster Book, three editions of the Captain America Poster Book, DC Comics Covergirls. From 2004 to 2008, Cassaday illustrated the graphic novel trilogy Je suis légion by Fabien Nury from Les Humanoïdes Associés; the English language edition was published as an eight issue comic series I Am Legion by Devil's Due Publishing. In July 2006, Humanoïdes announced a co-production deal with Pierre Spengler for a screen adaptation of the work. At the 2015 Cannes Film Festival, it was announced that the three picture series would be directed by Nacho Cerda with a screenplay by Richard Stanley. Cassaday has written stories for Hellboy: Weird Tales, Little Nemo: Dream Another Dream, Rocketeer Adventures, X-Men: Alpha Flight, Bela Lugosi: Takes from the Grave, Union Jack, he wrote drawing instruction articles for Wizard Magazine's Wizard: How to Draw.
Cassaday directed "The Attic", the December 18, 2009 episode of the TV show Dollhouse, which aired as the tenth episode of that series' second season. His art appeared in an episode of HBO First Look, a 2003 documentary about the making of the Daredevil film; the Astonishing X-Men animated dvd series was adapted as a motion comic from John's art for the comic book series written by Joss Whedon. Cassaday appeared in Generation X: The Comic Book History of the X-Men, a 2006 dvd documentary about the X-Men franchise. Cassaday worked on the film adaptation of Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' classic graphic novel Watchmen as a concept artist, he appeared in a Wizard World sponsored documentary in 2002, his art was used extensively in Adventures into Digital Comics. As an actor, Cassaday appeared in small roles in the 2012 horror film House on the Hill and ITV Playhouse. John Cassaday appeared in the Captain America 75th Anniversary television special on ABC in 2016, he is the artist of the upcoming Captain America comics special anniversary issue.
Cassaday and Joss Whedon will team up on a new story featuring Sam Wilson. Cassaday headlined the successful 2015 Star Wars revival at Marvel Comics; the book became the #1 selling comic for 2015. According to Forbes magazine, it was the top-selling comic of the last 20 years, it sold one million copies. Comics art is created by a team, but Cassaday, well known as a perfectionist, draws his art himself in pencil creates the final ink art by hand, he digitally colors most of his cover art over his hand-drawn work. He does cover art in ink and charcoal, he credits the challenges of working on complicated books like Planetary with making him a better artist. His influences include NC Wyeth, classic pulp magazine-culture iconography, popular music. 2005 Eisner Award for Best Penciller/Inker for Astonishing X-Men, I Am Legion: The Dancing Faun 2006 Eisner Award for Best Penciller/Inker for Astonishing X-Men and Planetary 2006 Eisner Award for Best Ongoing Series for Astonishing X-Men 2006 Eagle Award for Favourite Comics Artist: Pencils 2007 Spike TV Scream Award for Best Comic-Book Artist 2000 Eisner Award Best Cover Artist for Planetary 2002 Eisner Award Best Penciler/Inker for Planetary 2004 Eagle Award Favourite Comics Artist: Pencils 2007 Eisner Award Best Cover Artist Astonishing X-Men and Lone Ranger 2008 Eisner Award for Best Cover Artist Astonishing X-Men and Lone Ranger 2010 Eisner Award f
Image Comics is an American comic book publisher. It was founded in 1992 by several high-profile illustrators as a venue for creator-owned properties, in which comics creators could publish material of their own creation without giving up the copyrights to those properties, as is the case in the work for hire-dominated American comics industry, in which the legal author is a publisher, such as Marvel Comics or DC Comics, the creator is an employee of that publisher. Image Comics was successful, remains one of the largest comic book publishers in North America, its output was dominated by superhero and fantasy series from the studios of the founding Image partners, but now includes comics in many genres by numerous independent creators. Its best-known series include The Walking Dead, Savage Dragon, The Darkness, Saga and Bone. In the early 1990s, comics creators Erik Larsen, Rob Liefeld, Jim Valentino had dinner with Malibu Comics editor-in-chief Dave Olbrich. Malibu was a small but established publishing company sympathetic to creator-ownership, Olbrich expressed interest in publishing comics created by them.
These and several other freelance illustrators doing popular work for Marvel Comics were growing frustrated with the company's work for hire policies and practices, which they felt did not sufficiently reward the talent that produced them, as the company merchandised their artwork, compensated them with modest royalties. According to Todd McFarlane, he, Jim Lee and Liefeld met with Marvel president Terry Stewart and editor Tom DeFalco in late December 1991. Larsen and Silvestri, who joined the group the night before, were not present, but the group that met with Stewart indicated that they were representing them as well. Contrary to what has been reported by other sources, McFarlane says that they made no demands of Stewart or Marvel, but informed him that they were leaving, gave their reasons why, cautioned Stewart to heed those reasons, lest the company suffer future exoduses; the creators had the same meeting with DC Comics the next day. After Whilce Portacio returned from his yearly trip to the Philippines, his Homage Studios colleague Lee asked him to join the group.
A group of eight creators announced the founding of Image Comics: illustrators Todd McFarlane, Jim Lee, Rob Liefeld, Marc Silvestri, Erik Larsen, Jim Valentino, Whilce Portacio. This development was nicknamed the "X-odus", because several of the creators involved were famous for their work on the X-Men franchise. Marvel's stock fell $3.25 / share. Image's organizing charter had two key provisions: Image would not own any creator's work. No Image partner would interfere – creatively or financially – with any other partner's work. Image itself would own no intellectual property except the company trademarks: its name and its logo, designed by writer Hank Kanalz; each Image partner founded his own studio, which published under the Image banner but was autonomous from any central editorial control. Claremont was not part of the partnership, Portacio withdrew during the formative stages to deal with his sister's illness, so Image consisted of six studios: Todd McFarlane Productions, owned by Todd McFarlane WildStorm Productions, owned by Jim Lee Highbrow Entertainment, owned by Erik Larsen Shadowline, owned by Jim Valentino Top Cow Productions, owned by Marc Silvestri Extreme Studios, owned by Rob Liefeld Their initial titles were produced under the Image imprint, but published through Malibu Comics, which provided administrative, production and marketing support for the launch of them.
The first Image comic books to arrive in stores were Liefeld's Youngblood, Larsen's The Savage Dragon, McFarlane's Spawn, Lee's WildC. A. T.s. Propelled by the artists' popularity and the eagerness of comic book collectors to get in on the "next big thing", these series sold in numbers that no publisher other than Marvel, DC, or Valiant Comics had achieved in the years since the market's decline in the 1970s. Within a few months, the Image titles' success led to Malibu having 10% of the North American comics market share exceeding that of industry giant DC Comics. By the beginning of 1993, Image's financial situation was secure enough to publish its titles independently, it left Malibu; some of the founders' studios came to resemble separate publishers, each with several ongoing series set in a shared universe. The use of freelancers to write or illustrate series that were owned by the Image partners led to criticism that some of them had reproduced the system they had rebelled against, but with them in charge instead of a corporation.
Image partners such as Larsen and Valentino, who did not take this approach, assumed a neutral position on it, in keeping with the requirement that none of them had any say in how the others' studios were run. Some of the Image partners used their studios to publish new works produced by independent creators, allowing them to retain ownership and editorial control over those series, an arrangement, t
Pat Broderick is an American comics artist, known for his work on the Micronauts and Alpha Flight for Marvel Comics, Legion of Super-Heroes, Captain Atom and Green Lantern for DC Comics. Broderick pencilled the four-part "Batman: Year Three" storyline, written by Marv Wolfman, which detailed the first meeting of Batman and Dick Grayson as well as Tim Drake's first appearance. Soon after graduating from high school in Tampa, Broderick flew to New York in the early 1970s to compete in DC Comics' junior bullpen program, a nationwide art and writing contest held at the July 4 convention at the Commodore Hotel. Presenting his work to DC editors Sol Harrison and Joe Orlando, Broderick was immediately placed in the junior bullpen program and drew filler pages and short stories for various 100 Page Super Spectaculars. During this period, Broderick worked for Neal Adams and Dick Giordano's Continuity Associates as a member of the Crusty Bunkers. In 1975, after sporadic work with DC and Marvel, Broderick joined the team at Atlas Comics.
His time at Atlas was short-lived, Broderick soon found himself back at Marvel, working on various titles for their black-and-white line, Curtis Magazines. This led to working on Captain Marvel and The Micronauts, he drew the Micronauts series from #19 to #34. Writer J. M. DeMatteis and Broderick created the Creature Commandos in Weird War Tales #93. In 1981, he abruptly left Marvel for DC; as he said in a 2003 interview, "Jim Shooter had all but informed me that, in his opinion, my art sucked and that I would never get another raise there, regardless of how well my books were selling. So one quick phone call to DC and I was in." Broderick was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200. He and writer Gerry Conway launched The Fury of Firestorm in June 1982. Broderick drew the Batman feature in Detective Comics in 1985. Captain Atom, a Charlton Comics character purchased by DC, was given an ongoing series in March 1987, written by Cary Bates and drawn by Broderick. Writer Marv Wolfman and Broderick created Tim Drake in the "Batman: Year Three" story.
Broderick drew the Swamp Thing series from 1989 to 1990 and launched the Green Lantern volume 3 series with Gerard Jones. After ten years at DC, Broderick's relationship with that company soured. According to him, he "was being abused by editors, Andy Helfer and Kevin Dooley, was just fed up with their attitude." Shooter was no longer at Marvel which offered him work again and Broderick returned, where he worked as the regular penciller first on Alpha Flight and Doom 2099. In 1995, Broderick turned to advertising full-time, moving to Dallas to lead the in-house creative department at Tracy Locke and Partnership; the company handled packaging and television ads for PepsiCo, Frito-Lay, Pizza Hut, Federal Express, Harrah's Casinos, Hasbro. This led to design work for DNA Productions on Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius. In 2003, Broderick returned to comics with the short-lived Future Comics, he was scheduled to work on the title Peacekeepers, but it was never published, Future went out of business shortly thereafter.
In 2004, Devil's Due Publishing revived Micronauts, with Broderick returning to the title. He drew three issues; that same year, Broderick was a member of the animation department faculty at Tampa's International Academy of Design and Technology. Broderick was elected an Inkwell Awards Ambassador in January 2018. In August 2018, Broderick was elevated to Special Ambassador status. Broderick is known for his detailed, expressive art, his characters' large eyes. There is some resemblance between Michael Golden's late 1970s style. Broderick has acknowledged his admiration of Golden's work. Through his career, Broderick has teamed with inker Bruce Patterson on such titles as Alpha Flight, Green Lantern, Detective Comics, Legion of Super-Heroes, Captain Planet and the Planeteers. Pat Broderick at the Comic Book DB Pat Broderick at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Pat Broderick at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators Innerspace Online part 1 Innerspace Online part 2
Tim Seeley is an American comic book artist and writer known for his work on books such as Grayson, G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero, G. I. Joe vs. Transformers and New Exiles, he is the co-creator of the Image Comics titles Hack/Slash and Revival. Seeley has illustrated a variety of comics, including Kore, G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero, G. I. Joe vs. Transformers, Forgotten Realms: The Dark Elf Trilogy. Seeley is the author of the comic Hack/Slash series, will participate in the production of the Hack/Slash feature film, it was due to be released by Universal Pictures in 2009. His Image Comics series, Loaded Bible, gained a great deal of attention for its political theme of Jesus vs. Vampires in a post-apocalyptic Christian-run society. Seeley's webcomic Colt Noble and the Megalords debuted on Nerd City Online on August 3, 2009, he is writing Wild Game, a comic about werewolves. Seeley shares a studio with fellow comics creator and frequent collaborator Mike Norton. G. I. Joe: Frontline #18 Image Comics G.
I. Joe vs. Transformers vol. 3 #1-5 Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe vs. Transformers vol. 4 #1, 2 Devil's Due Publishing The Occultist Ongoing Series Dark Horse Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Volume 1 Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Secret Origin - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell A Day In The Love Life - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Savage Love - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Granny What Big Teeth You Have - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Ready To Wear - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Too Much To Dream - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Colt Noble & The Mega Lords 44-page one-shot Independent Revival #1-47 - Image Comics Sundowners #1-8 - Dark Horse Comics Batman Eternal collected as: Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Nightwing #30, "Setting Son" Grayson #1–17 Volume 1: Agent of Spyral collects: "Grayson" "Gut Feeling" "The Gun Goes Off" "The Raid" Grayson: Future's End #1: "Only A Place For Dying" "The Candidate" Volume 2: We All Die At Dawn collects: "We All Die at Dawn" "The Brains of the Operation" "Sin by Silence" "Cross My Heart and Hope to Die" "A Story of Giants Big and Small" Batman and Robin Eternal collected as: Volume 1 Volume 2 New Suicide Squad #17–21 Nightwing vol. 4 #1–34 Green Lanterns vol. 1 #32–48 Shatterstar #1– G.
I. Joe: A Real American Hero vol. 2 #16, 23-37, 39-43 Image Comics G. I. Joe: America's Elite #19-20 Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe: Battle Files #1 Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe: Frontline #17 Image Comics G. I. Joe Special Missions: Antarctica Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe Special Missions: Brazil Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe Special Missions: Manhattan Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe Special Missions: Tokyo Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe vs. Transformers vol. 2 #1, 2, 4 Devil's Due Publishing Halloween: 30 Years Of Terror Devil's Due Publishing, "Repetition Compulsion" segment Halloween: Nightdance #1-4 Devil's Due Publishing Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Secret Origin - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Savage Love - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Granny What Big Teeth You Have - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Ready To Wear - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics Lovebunny & Mr. Hell Too Much To Dream - Devil's Due Publishing/Image Comics G.
I. Joe: A Real American Hero vol. 2 #14, 19 Image Comics G. I. Joe: America's Elite #11, 16-20 Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe: Frontline #17, 18 Image Comics G. I. Joe: Reloaded #10 Image Comics G. I. Joe Special Missions: Tokyo Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe vs. Transformers vol. 2 #1 Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe vs. Transformers vol. 3 #1 Devil's Due Publishing G. I. Joe vs. Transformers vol. 4 #1 Devil's Due Publishing Reanimator vol. 1 #1 Dynamite Comics Official website Tim Seeley at the Comic Book DB
Rumble Pak (comics)
Rumble Pak is an Original English-language manga anthology series published by eigoMANGA. Rumble Pak showcases original comics created by artists from around the world including a line-up of original stories written and produced by predominantly independent American comics artists. Rumble Pak is eigoMANGA's first commercial comic book publication and is considered its flagship product. After its release, Rumble Pak became a recognized Amerimanga publication within the comic book industry; the first edition of Rumble Pak was released to comic book stores domestically and internationally on February 2004 and the publication was re-released to North American mainstream media stores on October 2004. Rumble Pak Issue #1 was featured in an exhibition at the San Jose Museum of Art from July through October 2004. In October, eigoMANGA launched a rock concert event celebrating the mainstream re-release of Rumble Pak at a Tower Records store in San Mateo, California called Rumble Invasion; the rock band Ludo headlined the inaugural event.
Rumble Invasion has become a regular event for eigoMANGA. The December 2005 Rumble Invasion event was hosted by the comic book franchise store "Things From Another World" at two store locations in San Francisco and Universal City. Rumble Pak spawned a spin-off publication featuring stories catered toward female readers called Sakura Pakk. On October 2005, eigoMANGA formed a joint-venture with Devil's Due Publishing to publish an ongoing series for Rumble Pak. Volume 2 of the Rumble Pak series was released to stores on April 6, 2006. In December 2009, eigoMANGA announced an upcoming release of a special graphic novel publication — Sakura Pakk Versus Rumble Pak Graphic Novel — for the first time features a combination of shonen and shojo stories from Sakura Pakk and Rumble Pak. "We never thought about EVER combining Sakura Pakk and Rumble Pak into one", states eigoMANGA's publisher Austin Osueke. "For years everyone of us within our editor to creator teams bitterly wanted to separate both imprints and create distinct identities for them.
From time to time there were bitter rivalries between the Sakura Pakk camp and the Rumble Pak camps. A local fan asked us to combine our best works into one book. So just for laughs, we put a sample book together and it looked good. So here we are". List of Devil's Due Publishing publications Rumble Pak Website eigoMANGA Website
Richard Johnston is a British comics creator and founder of the comics news site Bleeding Cool. The Comics Journal described Johnston as having claimed to be "the oldest extant comics news reporter on the Internet." His past columns include "All The Rage", "Lying in the Gutters". Johnston grew up in West Yorkshire, he subsequently moved to London. Johnston began writing gossip on USENET newsgroups in 1994 as "Rich's Ramblings", he took the column onto the burgeoning World Wide Web, with "Rich's Revelations" on the now-defunct Twist And Shout Comics website. He started the comics gossip column "All The Rage" for Silver Bullet Comic Books Comics Bulletin. Johnston wrote the column "Lying in the Gutters" for Comic Book Resources, posting rumours and gossip, with a traffic light icon imparting advisory caution as to the possible credibility of each rumour: a red light denoting the least likelihood of accuracy, a green light for the most credible reports, a yellow light for those that fall somewhere in between.
Johnston's writing does not impart sources. About that, Johnston said, "I obfuscate sources to hide their identity—even deny that a story has sources on many occasions." Johnston sees himself as part of a tradition established by the "British tabloid press, one that seeks to entertain rather than inform." On 27 March 2009, Johnston announced his launch of the website BleedingCool.com. Bleeding Cool was nominated for the "Favourite Comics Related Website" Eagle Award in 2010 and 2011 and won in 2012, it was named as one of PC Magazine's top blogs of 2010. and Technorati gave it a perfect 1000 score for influence in the comics category. Johnston was awarded the Shel Dorf Award for Best Comics Blogger for his work on Bleeding Cool in 2012. Johnston has written a number of comics consisting of one-shots and graphic novella; the first consists of parodies, such as Civil Wardrobe. The second include his original work, both creator-owned and those based on licensed properties, like Doctor Who: A Room With A Deja View, The Flying Friar and Chase Variant which started life at Mam Tor Publishing's Event Horizon.
In 2007, he wrote the IDW trading card set the Weapons of Mass Distraction. He wrote and drew a number of pages for the Popbitch book and curated the Harrods Comic Timing exhibition of original comic book artwork. In 2009, he had a story scheduled for the Spearmint anthology from Image Comics with Sleaze Castle writer-artist Terry Wiley, he wrote a short story, "Rustlin Up Business," for the second volume of Outlaw Territory, published in February 2011. He has written Kate and William: A Very Public Love Story, a comic commemorating the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, published by Markosia. In 2012, he wrote a comic serialised in Dark Horse Presents entitled The Many Murders of Miss Cranbourne, with art from Simon Rohrmüller, he wrote a series of parody comics for Boom! Studios, taking on Marvel Studios films, with Iron Man, Captain America, The Avengers reinterpreted as "Iron Muslim", "Scienthorlogy," "Captain American Idol," and "The Avengefuls," respectively. Johnston writes and draws weekly cartoons for the UK blogger Guido Fawkes, appearing each Monday and collected at RichAndMark.com.
Johnston wrote for newspapers like The Guardian and magazines like PlayStation World. The now-closed publication Punch Magazine named him Young Writer of the Year Award in 2001, his poster campaign for the Churches Advertising Network in December 2006 generated coverage, including a leader in the Times Newspaper and an appearance on BBC's The One Show. He was an advertising copywriter until 2009. Johnston contributed to the British Channel 4 sketch show Smack the Pony as well as for BBC Radio 4's satirical sketch show Week Ending and the stage/TV show The Sitcom Trials, he appeared as an interviewee in After the Chalk Dust Settled, a documentary included on the DVD release of Steven Moffat's sitcom Chalk. He was a zombie extra in Shaun of the Dead and a congregation member in the movie Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. In 2006, he appeared as a character in the comic book CSI: Dying in the Gutters as a source of "inside joke" humour by featuring him as the victim in a murder mystery set at a comic book convention and using other notable real-world comics creators as suspects in the crime.
He appeared as a character in the Jodie Picoult novel, The Tenth Circle and made a more major appearance in the Leverage novel The Con Job. Johnston's daughter Eve was born in March 2005; as of 2019 he has two daughters. Dirtbag The X-Files Rich Johnston's Holed Up The Flying Friar Civil Wardrobe Watchmensch Doctor Who: A Room With A Deja View "A Trip into Space" Chase Variant Kate and William: A Very Public Love Story collects: William Windsor: A Very Public Prince Kate Middleton: A Very Private Princess The Many Murders of Miss Cranbourne, with Simon Rohrmuller, Dark Horse Presents The Avengefuls, (Boom! Stud
As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture