The Weald is an area of South East England between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs. It crosses the counties of Sussex, Hampshire and Surrey and has three separate parts: the sandstone "High Weald" in the centre; the Weald once was covered with forest, its name, Old English in origin, signifies "woodland". The term is still used today, as scattered farms and villages sometimes refer to the Weald in their names; the name "Weald" is derived from the Old English weald, meaning "forest". This comes from a Germanic root of the same meaning, from Indo-European. Weald is a West Saxon form; the Middle English form of the word is wēld, the modern spelling is a reintroduction of the Anglo-Saxon form attributed to its use by William Lambarde in his A Perambulation of Kent of 1576. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the area had the name Andredes weald, meaning "the forest of Andred", the latter derived from Anderida, the Roman name of present-day Pevensey; the area is referred to in Anglo-Saxon texts as Andredesleage, where the second element, leage, is another Old English word for "woodland", represented by the modern leigh.
The adjective for "Weald" is "wealden". The Weald is the eroded remains of a geological structure, an anticline, a dome of layered Lower Cretaceous rocks cut through by weathering to expose the layers as sandstone ridges and clay valleys; the oldest rocks exposed at the centre of the anticline are correlated with the Purbeck Beds of the Upper Jurassic. Above these, the Cretaceous rocks, include the Wealden Group of alternating sands and clays – the Ashdown Sand Formation, Wadhurst Clay Formation, Tunbridge Wells Sand Formation and the Weald Clay; the Wealden Group is overlain by the Lower Greensand and the Gault Formation, consisting of the Gault and the Upper Greensand. The rocks of the central part of the anticline include hard sandstones, these form hills now called the High Weald; the peripheral areas are of softer sandstones and clays and form a gentler rolling landscape, the Low Weald. The Weald–Artois Anticline continues some 40 miles further south-eastwards under the Straits of Dover, includes the Boulonnais of France.
Many important fossils have been found in the sandstones and clays of the Weald, for example, Baryonyx. The famous scientific hoax of Piltdown Man was claimed to have come from a gravel pit at Piltdown near Uckfield; the first Iguanodon was identified after a Mary Mantell unearthed some fossilised teeth by a road in Sussex in 1822. Her husband, Gideon Mantell, noticed they were many times larger; the area contains significant reserves of shale oil, totalling 4.4 billion barrels of oil in the Wealden basin according to a 2014 study, which Business and Energy Minister Michael Fallon said "will bring jobs and business opportunities" and help with UK energy self-sufficiency. Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives, opposed by environmental groups; some of the following notes in the early part of this section are taken from the High Weald website. Prehistoric evidence suggests that, following the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, the Neolithic inhabitants had turned to farming, with the resultant clearance of the forest.
With the Iron Age came the first use of the Weald as an industrial area. Wealden sandstones contain ironstone, with the additional presence of large amounts of timber for making charcoal for fuel, the area was the centre of the Wealden iron industry from through the Roman times, until the last forge was closed in 1813; the index to the Ordnance Survey Map of Roman Britain lists 33 iron mines. The entire Weald was heavily forested. According to the 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Weald measured 120 miles or longer by 30 miles in the Saxon era, stretching from Lympne, near Romney Marsh in Kent, to the Forest of Bere or the New Forest in Hampshire; the area was sparsely inhabited and inhospitable, being used as a resource by people living on its fringes, much as in other places in Britain such as Dartmoor, the Fens and the Forest of Arden. The Weald was used for centuries since the Iron Age, for transhumance of animals along droveways in the summer months. Over the centuries, deforestation for the shipbuilding, forest glass, brickmaking industries has left the Low Weald with only remnants of that woodland cover.
While most of the Weald was used for transhumance by communities at the edge of the Weald, several parts of the forest on the higher ridges in the interior seem to have been used for hunting by the kings of Sussex. The pattern of droveways which occurs across the rest of the Weald is absent from these areas; these areas include Ashdown Forest and Dallington Forest. The forests of the Weald were used as a place of refuge and sanctuary; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates events during the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Sussex when the native Britons were driven from the coastal towns into the recesses of the forest for sanctuary,: A. D. 477. This year came Ælle to Britain, with his three sons and Wlenking, Cissa, in three ships. There they slew many of the Welsh; until the Late Middle Ag
The South Downs are a range of chalk hills that extends for about 260 square miles across the south-eastern coastal counties of England from the Itchen Valley of Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, in the Eastbourne Downland Estate, East Sussex, in the east. The Downs are bounded on the northern side by a steep escarpment, from whose crest there are extensive views northwards across the Weald; the South Downs National Park forms a much larger area than the chalk range of the South Downs and includes large parts of the Weald. The South Downs are characterised by rolling chalk downland with close-cropped turf and dry valleys, are recognised as one of the most important chalk landscapes in England; the range is one of the four main areas of chalk downland in southern England. The South Downs are less populated compared to South East England as a whole, although there has been large-scale urban encroachment onto the chalk downland by major seaside resorts, including most notably Brighton and Hove.
The South Downs have been inhabited since ancient times and at periods the area has supported a large population during Romano-British times. There is a rich heritage of historical features and archaeological remains, including defensive sites, burial mounds and field boundaries. Within the South Downs Environmentally Sensitive Area there are thirty-seven Sites of Special Scientific Interest, including large areas of chalk grassland; the grazing of sheep on the thin, well-drained chalk soils of the Downs over many centuries and browsing by rabbits resulted in the fine, springy turf, known as old chalk grassland, that has come to epitomise the South Downs today. Until the middle of the 20th century, an agricultural system operated by downland farmers known as'sheep-and-corn farming' underpinned this: the sheep of villagers would be systematically confined to certain corn fields to improve their fertility with their droppings and they would be let out onto the downland to graze. However, starting in 1940 with government measures during World War II to increase domestic food production and continuing into the 1950s, much grassland was ploughed up for arable farming, fundamentally changing the landscape and ecology, with the loss of much biodiversity.
As a result, while old chalk grassland accounted for 40-50% of the eastern Downs before the war, only 3-4% survives. This and development pressures from the surrounding population centres led to the decision to create the South Downs National Park, which came into full operation on 1 April 2011, to protect and restore the Downs; the South Downs have been designated as a National Character Area by Natural England. It is bordered by the Hampshire Downs, the Wealden Greensand, the Low Weald and the Pevensey Levels to the north and the South Hampshire Lowlands and South Coast Plain to the south; the downland is a popular recreational destination for walkers and mountain bikers. A long distance footpath and bridleway, the South Downs Way, follows the entire length of the chalk ridge from Winchester to Eastbourne, complemented by many interconnecting public footpaths and bridleways; the term'downs' is from Old English dūn, meaning'hill'. The word acquired the sense of'elevated rolling grassland' around the fourteenth century.
These hills are prefixed'south' to distinguish them from another chalk escarpment, the North Downs, which runs parallel to them about 30 miles away on the northern edge of the Weald. The South Downs are formed from a thick band of chalk, deposited during the Cretaceous Period around sixty million years ago within a shallow sea which extended across much of northwest Europe; the rock is composed of the microscopic skeletons of plankton which lived in the sea, hence its colour. The chalk has many fossils, bands of flint occur throughout the formation; the Chalk is divided into the Lower and Upper Chalk, a thin band of cream-coloured nodular chalk known as the Melbourn Rock marking the boundary between the Lower and Middle units. The strata of southeast England, including the Chalk, were folded during a phase of the Alpine Orogeny to produce the Weald-Artois Anticline, a dome-like structure with a long east-west axis. Erosion has removed the central part of the dome, leaving the north-facing escarpment of the South Downs along its southern margin with the south-facing chalk escarpment of the North Downs as its counterpart on the northern side, as shown on the diagram.
Between these two escarpments the anticline has been subject to differential erosion so that geologically distinct areas of hills and vales lie in concentric circles towards the centre. The chalk, being porous, allows water to soak through; the South Downs are a long chalk escarpment that stretches for over 110 kilometres, rising from the valley of the River Itchen near Winchester, Hampshire, in the west to Beachy Head near Eastbourne, East Sussex, in the east. Behind the steep north-facing scarp slope, the inclined dip slope of undulating chalk downland extends for a distance of up to 7 miles southwards. Viewed from high points further north in the High Weald and on the North Downs, the scarp of the South Downs presents itself as a steep wall that bounds the horizon, with its grassland heights punctuat
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
South Downs Way
The South Downs Way is a long distance footpath and bridleway running along the South Downs in southern England. It is one of 15 National Trails in Wales; the trail runs for 160 km from Winchester in Hampshire to Eastbourne in East Sussex, with about 4,150 m of ascent and descent. People have been using the paths and tracks that have been linked to form the South Downs Way for 8000 years, they were a safer and dryer alternative to those in the wetter lowlands throughout the mesolithic era. Early occupation in the area began 2000 years after that in the neolithic era. Early inhabitants built tumuli in places on the hills and hill forts once tribal fighting became more common. Old Winchester Hill is an example of one of these hill forts along the path; the trail was used by the Romans, despite the fact that they built one of their roads across the path at Stane Street, this use evidenced by the existence of Bignor Roman Villa near Bury, nearby the path. Of medieval historical interest, the village of Lomer, now only visible as a few small bumps in the ground, was most abandoned during the plague in the 14th century.
The flat plain to the north of the South Downs Way, where it passes Lewes, is the site of the Battle of Lewes fought by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Henry III during the Second Barons' War. Ditchling Beacon due to its height, had for centuries been used to warn local inhabitants of pending invasion. Again during the Tudor period the beacon was utilized to warn Queen Elizabeth I of the Spanish Armada which could be seen coming up the channel. One particular oddity, The Long Man of Wilmington, can be found only a few metres off the path and down the hill as the path nears one end in Eastbourne. Recent study has shown that it was most created in the sixteenth or seventeenth century AD posing more questions than it answers regarding its meaning, yet still it attracts its fair share of Neo-Druidism and other pagan interest with rituals and festival held there commonly. During the Second World War much of the south coast of England was fortified with pillboxes, tank obstacles and machine gun posts in anticipation of a Nazi invasion, the plan for, known to the Nazis as Operation Sealion.
These objects can require a diversion. The closest and best site is Newhaven Fort, a 5-mile diversion from the path, an attraction that houses many World War II artefacts and documents with impressive examples of the huge cannons used in coastal defence; the undulating path begins in Winchester Hampshire, passes Cheesefoot Head, the towns of Petersfield and Arundel, the villages of Storrington and Steyning, Devil's Dyke viewpoint near Brighton, followed by Ditchling Beacon and miles of chalk downland across to Beachy Head, ending in Eastbourne, East Sussex. Some through walkers walk the trail west to east, some choose to walk it east to west; the trail is popular with a wide array of walkers, including day walkers and through hikers. Several youth hostels are along the route to accommodate walkers, it passes Birling Gap, a beach area with hotel and restaurant. Most of the route is on bridleways, permitting access for walkers and horse riders. Occasional short sections are on roads or byways, these are the only parts on which motor vehicles are permitted.
Some sections are on footpath, in these places an alternative signed route via road or bridleway is provided for cyclists. The footpath sections are short, but between Alfriston and Eastbourne there is an extended footpath section including the Seven Sisters cliffs, for which the bridleway alternative is several miles inland; the South Downs Way lies within the South Downs National Park on high chalk downland of the Hampshire Downs and the South Downs. The easternmost section is on the high chalk cliffs of Sussex. Apart from at the end points, the way keeps to isolated rural areas and some villages, although it passes within a few miles of Brighton and Lewes. Various running and cycling events are held along the route. Part or all of the 100 miles is cycled to raise funds for heart disease research, the fastest times are sub 8 hours with most riders taking under 14 hours. Part of the South Downs Way is used for Oxfam's Trailwalker, the UK's'toughest team charity challenge', it is a non-stop 100 km endurance event along the South Downs Way to raise money for Oxfam and the Gurkha Welfare Trust.
The full 100 miles is run non-stop on foot as part of the'Centurion South Downs Way 100'. North Downs Way Pennine Way Long-distance footpaths List of long-distance footpaths in the United Kingdom Pilgrims' Way Sussex Border Path The Four Men: a Farrago Millmore, South Downs Way, London: Aurum Press, ISBN 1845135652. Route indicated using OS maps. OS Explorer Maps 120, 121, 122, 123, 132 OS Landranger Maps 185, 197, 198, 199 The South Downs Way from NationalTrail.co.uk South Downs Way from southdownsway.co.uk - describes route broken into sections
A dry valley may develop on many kinds of permeable rock, such as limestone and chalk, or sandy terrains that do not sustain surface water flow. Such valleys do not hold surface water. There are many examples of chalk dry valleys along the South Downs in southern England. Notably the National Trust-owned Devil's Dyke near Brighton covers some 200 acres of downland scarp, includes the deepest dry valley in the world – created when melting water eroded the chalk downland to the permafrost layer after the last ice age; the three-quarter mile long curved dry valley is around 700 feet in height and attracts tourists with its views of Sussex and Kent. Other examples include the Alkham Valley near Dover, the Hartley Bottom and Fawkham valleys near Dartford in north Kent. There are many examples of limestone dry valleys in the Yorkshire Wolds. A notable example is the valley of the River Manifold, dry, except in spate, from Wetton south for several miles. Many hypotheses have been advanced to explain dry valley development.
Some may have developed during periods of higher water table, others in periglacial conditions during which permeable bedrock would have been made impervious by permafrost, thus allowing flowing water to erode it. McMurdo Dry Valleys Media related to Dry valleys at Wikimedia Commons
A funicular is one of the modes of transportation which uses a cable traction for movement on steep inclined slopes. A funicular railway employs a pair of passenger vehicles which are pulled on a slope by the same cable which loops over a pulley wheel at the upper end of a track; the vehicles counterbalance each other. They move synchronously: while one vehicle is ascending, the other one is descending the track; these particularities distinguish funiculars from other types of cable railways. For example, a funicular is distinguished from an inclined elevator by the presence of two vehicles which counterbalance each other; the name "funicular" itself is derived from the Latin word funiculus, the diminutive of funis, which translates as "rope". The basic idea of funicular operation is that two cars are always attached to each other by a cable, which runs through a pulley at the top of the slope. Counterbalancing of the two cars, with one going up and one going down, minimizes the energy needed to lift the car going up.
Winching is done by an electric drive that turns the pulley. Sheave wheels guide the cable to and from the slope cars. Early funiculars used two parallel straight tracks, four rails, with separate station platforms for each vehicle; the tracks are laid with sufficient space between them for the two cars to pass at the midpoint. Three-rail arrangement was used to overcome the half-way passing problem; the wheels of the cars are single-flanged, as on standard railway vehicles. Examples of this type of track layout are the Duquesne Incline in Pittsburgh and most cliff railways in the UK; the Swiss engineer Carl Roman Abt invented the method that allows cars to be used with a two-rail configuration: the outboard wheels have flanges on both sides, which keeps them aligned with the outer rail, thereby holding each car in position, whereas the inboard wheels are unflanged and ride on top of the opposite rail crossing over the rails at the passing track. Two-rail configurations of this type avoid the need for switches and crossings, since the cars have the flanged wheels on opposite sides and will automatically follow different tracks, in general reduce costs.
In layouts using three rails, the middle rail is shared by both cars. The three-rail layout is wider than the two-rail layout, but the passing section is simpler to build. If a rack for braking is used, that rack can be mounted higher in a three-rail layout, making it less sensitive to choking in snowy conditions; some four-rail funiculars have the upper and lower sections interlaced and a single platform at each station. The Hill Train at Legoland, Windsor, is an example of this configuration; the track layout can be changed during the renovation of a funicular, four-rail layouts have been rebuilt as two- or three-rail layouts. The cars can be attached to a second cable running through a pulley at the bottom of the incline in case the gravity force acting on the vehicles is too low to operate them on the slope. One of the pulleys must be designed as a tensioning wheel to avoid slack in the ropes. In this case, the winching can be done at the lower end of the incline; this practice is used for funiculars with gradients below 6%, funiculars using sledges instead of cars, or any other case where it is not ensured that the descending car is always able to pull out the cable from the pulley in the station on the top of the incline.
Another reason for a bottom cable is that the cable supporting the lower car at the extent of its travel will weigh several tons, whereas that supporting the upper car weighs nothing. The lower cable adds an equal amount of cable weight to the upper car while deducting the same weight from the lower, thereby keeping the cars in equilibrium. A few funiculars have been built using water tanks under the floor of each car that are filled or emptied until just sufficient imbalance is achieved to allow movement; the car at the top of the hill is loaded with water until it is heavier than the car at the bottom, causing it to descend the hill and pulling up the other car. The water is drained at the bottom, the process repeats with the cars exchanging roles; the movement is controlled by a brakeman. The Giessbachbahn in the Swiss canton of Berne, opened in 1879 was powered by water ballast. On it was converted to electrical power; the Bom Jesus funicular built in 1882 near Braga, Portugal is another example.
The funicular Neuveville - St-Pierre in Fribourg, Switzerland, is of a particular interest as for counterbalancing it utilizes waste water, coming from a sewage plant at the upper part of the city. Funicular railways operating in urban areas date from the 1860s; the first line of the Funiculars of Lyon opened in 1862, followed by other lines in 1878, 1891 and 1900. The Budapest Castle Hill Funicular was built in 1868–69, with the first test run on 23 October 1869. In Istanbul, the Tünel has been in continuous operation since 1875 and is both the first underground funicular and the second-oldest underground railway; the oldest funicular railway operating in Britain dates from 1875 and is in Scarborough, North Yorkshire. Until the end of the 1870s, the four-rail parallel-track funicular was the normal configuration. Carl Roman Abt developed the Abt Switch allowing the two-rail layout, used for the first time in 1879 when the Giessbach Funicular opened in Switzerland. In the United States, the first funicular to use a two-rail layout was the Telegraph Hill Railroad in San Francisco, in operation from 1884 until 1886.
The Mount Lowe Railway in Altadena, was the fir