Point Atkinson Lighthouse
Point Atkinson Lighthouse was built in 1914 on granite boulders jutting out into Burrard Inlet in West Vancouver, Canada. The reinforced concrete structure replaces an earlier wood structure built in 1875; the concrete structure was considered at the time innovative in lighthouse design. It is now automated and still in use; the Point Atkinson Lighthouse may be reached by hiking the Valley Trail in Lighthouse Park. Edward Woodward 1874–1877 Robert G. Wellwood 1877–1880 Walter Erwin 1880–1910 Thomas David Grafton 1910–1933 Lawrence Walter Grafton 1933–1935 Ernest Charles Dawe 1935–1961 Gordon Odlum 1961–1976 James Barr 1976–1978 Oscar Edwards 1978–1980 Gerald D. Watson 1980–1996 Donald Graham 1980–1996 List of lighthouses in British Columbia List of lighthouses in Canada Lighthouse Park List of national historic sites of Canada Brockton Point Aids to Navigation Canadian Coast Guard
A navigational aid is any sort of marker which aids the traveler in navigation nautical or aviation travel. Common types of such aids include lighthouses, fog signals, day beacons. According to the glossary of terms in the United States Coast Guard Light list, an Aid to Navigation is any device external to a vessel or aircraft intended to assist navigators in determining their position or safe course, or to warn them of dangers or obstructions to navigation. Red ATONs always have numbers, green ATONs have odd numbers. Under the IALA B standard used in North and South America, when you are going to sea, the red ATON is on your left, the green on your right. Under the IALA A standard used in Europe and most of Asia, the colors are reversed. In the IALA B system, the red ATONs are on your right when you return from sea and the green on your left. Red daybeacons are triangles and green daybeacons are squares. All of these ATONs are Lateral Markers where it is safe to travel. For waters where the direction of the related fairway is not obvious, such as where there are fairways leading in several directions or where there is navigable water outside designated fairways, cardinal marks are used instead of lateral ones.
These give the direction of safe water as a cardinal direction relative to the mark. There are other markers that give information other than the edges of safe waters. Most are white with black lettering, they are used to give direction and information, warn of hazards and destructions, mark controlled areas, mark off-limits areas. These ATONs do not mark traffic channels. On non-lateral markers, there are some shapes that show certain things: Squares show information, including places to find food and repairs, they sometimes show directions. Diamonds warn about dangers like rocks, dams, or stumps. Circles mark a controlled area such as idles speed, speed limit, or ski zone. Crossed diamonds show areas like swimming areas and dams. There are some special colored ATONs; when there are red and green horizontal stripes, you are at the junction of two channels. The ATONs indicate the primary channel. If the green is on the top, the preferred channel is to the right. If the red is on top, the preferred channel is to the left.
The light matches the top stripe color. These ATONs are sometimes called "junction buoys". ATONs are integrated with Automatic Identification System, e.g. a lighthouse can be equipped with an AIS transmitter. Sometimes it is impractical to equip the ATON with an AIS transponder; this is known as a synthetic ATON. In other cases, such as marking a wreck until a physical buoy can be deployed, a so-called virtual ATON is created: A shore-based AIS system is configured to transmit AIS messages indicating the existence of an ATON at a specified location. Lead marks and lights are fixed markers that are laterally displaced to allow a mariner to navigate a fixed channel along the preferred route, they are known as "channel markers". They can be used coming into and out of the channel; when lit, they are usable at night. Customarily, the upper mark is up-hill from the lower mark; the mariner will know the geometry of the marks/lights from the navigational chart and can understand that when "open" the ship needs to be navigated to "close" the marks and be in the preferred line of the channel.
In some cases, the lead marks/lights are provided by lasers, as in the laser channel under the Tasman Bridge on the Derwent River at Hobart, Tasmania. USCG aids to navigation boat Buoy Daymark Distance Measuring Equipment Foghorn Global Positioning System Instrument Landing System landmark Lighthouse LORAN Non-Directional Beacon Racon Radio navigation Range light Sea mark Signal station Tactical Air Navigation VHF Omni-directional Range International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea United States Coast Guard. Aids to Navigation. Scott T. Price. "U. S. Coast Guard Aids to Navigation: A Historical Bibliography". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. UK Department for Transport. UK Government Strategy for AIS. IALA. IALA Standard A-126: On the Use of the Automatic Identification System in Marine Aids to Navigation Service. Trevor Diamond's Aviation Navaid Gallery. Terry Pepper. Aids to Navigation in the Gulf of Gdansk
Cape Mudge Lighthouse
Cape Mudge Lighthouse is located on Quadra Island, off Campbell River, on the east coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. List of lighthouses in British Columbia List of lighthouses in Canada Aids to Navigation Canadian Coast Guard
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs and safe entries to harbors. Once used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance and use of electronic navigational systems. Before the development of defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as an entrance marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories, unlike many modern lighthouses; the most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, which collapsed following a series of earthquakes between 956 and 1323. The intact Tower of Hercules at A Coruña, Spain gives insight into ancient lighthouse construction.
Coins from Alexandria and Laodicea in Syria exist. The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, as lighthouse construction boomed in lockstep with burgeoning levels of transatlantic commerce. Advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea; the function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a visible warning against shipping hazards, such as rocks or reefs. The Eddystone Rocks were a major shipwreck hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel; the first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock, was built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been exposed to the open sea; the civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree.
He rediscovered and used "hydraulic lime," a form of concrete that will set under water used by the Romans, developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. The dovetailing feature served to improve the structural stability, although Smeaton had to taper the thickness of the tower towards the top, for which he curved the tower inwards on a gentle gradient; this profile had the added advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse influenced all subsequent engineers. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a seminal figure in the development of lighthouse design and construction, his greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810, one of the most impressive feats of engineering of the age. This structure was based upon Smeaton's design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.
Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and improvement of numerous lighthouses. He innovated in the choice of light sources, reflector design, the use of Fresnel lenses, in rotation and shuttering systems providing lighthouses with individual signatures allowing them to be identified by seafarers, he invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed. Construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, first lit in 1841. Although its construction began the Wyre Light in Fleetwood, was the first to be lit; the source of illumination had been wood pyres or burning coal. The Argand lamp, invented in 1782 by the Swiss scientist, Aimé Argand, revolutionized lighthouse illumination with its steady smokeless flame.
Early models used ground glass, sometimes tinted around the wick. Models used a mantle of thorium dioxide suspended over the flame, creating a bright, steady light; the Argand lamp used whale oil, olive oil or other vegetable oil as fuel, supplied by a gravity feed from a reservoir mounted above the burner. The lamp was first produced by Matthew Boulton, in partnership with Argand, in 1784 and became the standard for lighthouses for over a century. South Foreland Lighthouse was the first tower to use an electric light in 1875; the lighthouse's carbon arc lamps were powered by a steam-driven magneto. John Richardson Wigham was the first to develop a system for gas illumination of lighthouses, his improved gas'crocus' burner at the Baily Lighthouse near Dublin was 13 times more powerful than the most brilliant light known. The vaporized oil burner was invented in 1901 by Arthur Kitson, improved by David Hood at Trinity House; the fuel was vaporized at high pressure and burned to heat the mantle, giving an output of over six times the luminosity of traditional oil lights.
The use of gas as illuminant became available with the invention of the Dalén light by Swedish engineer, Gustaf Dalén. He used Agamassan, a substrate, to absorb the gas allowing safe storage and hence
Devils Island (Nova Scotia)
Devils Island, Nova Scotia is located on the northeast entrance of Halifax Harbour part of the Halifax Regional Municipality off the coast of the community of Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia. The name was first spelled Deville's Island; the first permanent settlement on this 12 hectare island was established in 1830, by 1850 there were three houses and a school. By 1901 the settlement had grown to 18 houses. A number of Devil's Island residents, notably Ben Henneberry, provided valuable folklore to pioneering Canadian folklorist Helen Creighton. Most of the residents were moved to the mainland during World War II; the last permanent resident, a Norwegian artist, moved off in 2000. The island is owned by Halifax entrepreneur Bill Mont; the Devil's Island Lighthouse built in 1877, replacing an earlier tower built in 1852, is still standing but is not functional and is threatened. The island was the base for a rescue lifeboat until the 1950s which saved the crews of many vessels stranded on the shoals approaching Halifax Harbour.
Friends of Mcnabs Island Society Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Society
Boat Bluff lighthouse
Boat Bluff lighthouse is located near Klemtu on the scenic south end of Sarah Island in Tolmie Channel on the Inside Passage of British Columbia. The lighthouse was established in 1907; the skeleton tower is 24 feet high giving it a focal plane 38 feet above sea level. The station is still staffed by resident keepers. John William Webster 1932-1934 Tom White 1934–at least 1937 H. Shorson at least 1960 Clayton Ralph Marshall 1966–1967 Ken Wallace 1967– 1971 D. L. White 1971–1973 Charles Redhead 1974–1975 P. Brown 1974–1978 Clayton Restall 1979–1980 Dieter Losel 1980– 983 James A. Abram 1984-1985 Robert Akerstrom 1985–1987 Larry Douglas 1985–1987 Lance Barrett-Lennard 1987–1988 Andrew Findlay 1988–1996 Frank Dwyer 1996–1998 Mike Higgins 2003–2008 Gerry LaRose 2008-2010 Howard Munn 2010-at least 2015 List of lighthouses in British Columbia List of lighthouses in Canada Aids to Navigation Canadian Coast Guard Lighthouse Depot Entry