Santa Cruz Island
Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the eight islands in the Channel Islands and the largest island in California, located off the coast of California. The island, in the northern group of the Channel Islands, is 22 miles long and from 2 to 6 miles wide with an area of 61,764.6 acres. Santa Cruz Island is located within California; the coastline has steep cliffs, gigantic sea caves and sandy beaches. Defined by the United States Census Bureau as Block 3000, Block Group 3, Census Tract 29.10 of Santa Barbara County, the 2000 census showed an official population of two persons. The highest peak is Devils Peak, at 2450+ feet, it was the largest owned island off the continental United States but is jointly owned by the National Park Service, the Nature Conservancy. A central valley splits the island along the Santa Cruz Island Fault, with volcanic rock on the north and older sedimentary rock on the south; this volcanic rock was fractured during the uplift phase that formed the island and over a hundred large sea caves have been carved into the resulting faults.
One of these, Painted Cave, is among the world's largest. Santa Cruz Island is home to some animals and plants found nowhere else on earth, including for instance the Santa Cruz Island fox, a subspecies of the island fox. Archaeological investigations indicate that Santa Cruz Island has been occupied for at least 10,000 years, it was known as Michumash in the Chumash language. The people of the Chumash Indian tribe who lived on the island developed a complex society dependent on marine harvest, craft specialization and trade with the mainland population. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo first observed the island in 1542 estimated to be inhabited by 2000 to 3000 Chumash on the three northern channel islands, with 11 villages on Santa Cruz. In 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno led the last Spanish expedition to California, his map named Santa Cruz Island the Isla de Gente Barbuda. Between 1602 and 1769 there was no recorded European contact with the island. In 1769, the land-and-sea expedition of Don Gaspar de Portolà reached Santa Cruz Island.
Traveling with him were Father Juan González Vizcaíno and Father Francisco Palóu. Father Palóu wrote of Father Vizcaíno's visit to the Santa Cruz village of Xaxas that the missionaries on ship went ashore and "they were well received by the heathen and presented with fish, in return for which the Indians were given some strings of beads." The island was considered for establishment of a Catholic mission to serve the large Chumash population. When Mission San Buenaventura was founded across the channel in 1782, it commenced the slow religious conversion of the Santa Cruz Chumash. Beset by diseases such as measles, the Chumash declined in numbers until, in 1822, the last of the Chumash left the island for mainland California missions; the name of Santa Cruz for the island came about when Gaspar de Portola expedition visited the Chumash village Xaxas on the island. The Chumash on the next day returned a staff, topped by an iron cross, inadvertently left behind by the Spanish. Hence, the name La Isla de la Santa Cruz appeared on their exploration map of 1770.
George Vancouver used the same name on his 1793 map. With Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government asserted its control over California. In an effort to increase the Mexican presence, the government began sending convicted criminals to California in 1830. Around 80 prisoners were sent to Santa Barbara where, upon arrival, 31 incorrigibles were sent to Santa Cruz Island, they lived for a short time in an area now known as Prisoners Harbor before escaping to the mainland. Governor Juan Alvarado made a Mexican land grant of the Island of Santa Cruz to his aide Captain Andrés Castillero in 1839; when California became a state in 1850, the United States government, through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, required that land granted by Spanish and Mexican governments be proved before the Board of Land Commissioners. A claim was filed with the Land Commission in 1852, confirmed by the US Supreme Court in 1860, the grant was patented to Andrés Castillero in 1867. Castillero transferred title to his agent William Barron in 1857.
William Baron was a San Francisco co-owner of the company Barron, Forbes & Co.. Dr. James Barron Shaw was hired to manage things, charged by Barron to start a sheep operation, he expanded the road system. He imported cattle and sheep to the island and erected one of the earliest wharves along the California coast at Prisoners Harbor. Shaw was the first rancher to ship sheep to San Francisco by steamer, some selling at $30 per animal. By 1869, the year he left Santa Cruz, Shaw's island sheep ranch was well known, some 24,000 sheep grazed the hills and valleys of Santa Cruz Island. At that time, the gross proceeds from the ranch on Santa Cruz Island were $50,000. Barron sold the island for $150,000 in 1869, Shaw left for San Francisco and Los Alamos where he continued ranching; the island was purchased by ten investors from San Francisco, headed by Gustave Mahé, One of the investors, Justinian Caire, was a French immigrant and founder of a successful San Francisco hardware business that sold equipment to miners.
By 1886 Caire had acquired all of the shares of the Santa Cruz Island Company which he and his colleagues had founded in 1869. He implemented his vision of building a self-sustaining sheep and cattle ranch, vineyard and fruit grove operation on the island. Main Ranch was augmented with nine ot
Mount Constitution is a mountain on Orcas Island, the highest point in the San Juan Islands and the second highest mountain on an ocean island in the contiguous 48 states. Only Devils Peak in the Channel Islands of California is higher. A stone observation tower patterned after a medieval watch tower stands at the summit, it was designed by architect Ellsworth Storey and built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1936. The tower offers panoramic views of the surrounding islands, the Cascade Mountains, many Canadian and American cities. On a clear day, the view encompasses locations as diverse as Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Saturna Island, the cities of Vancouver, Victoria, British Columbia. Mount Constitution lies within the 5,000-acre Moran State Park; the prominence was named by Charles Wilkes during the Wilkes Expedition of 1838-1842 for the USS Constitution. Media related to Views from Mt. Constitution at Wikimedia Commons "Mount Constitution". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
"All Washington Peaks with 2000 Feet of Prominence". Jeff Howbert
Channel Islands (California)
The Channel Islands form an eight-island archipelago along the Santa Barbara Channel in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary; the islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were displaced by Spaniards who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U. S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, as a strategic defensive location. The Channel Islands and the surrounding waters house a diverse ecosystem with many endemic species and subspecies; the islands harbor 150 unique species of plant that are found only on the Islands and nowhere else in the world. The eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties: Santa Barbara County, Ventura County, Los Angeles County; the islands are divided into two groups. The four northern Islands used to be a single landmass known as Santa Rosae.
The archipelago extends for 160 miles between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south. Together, the islands' land area totals about 346 square miles. Five of the islands were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980; the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles off these islands. Santa Catalina Island is the only one of the eight islands with a significant permanent civilian settlement—the resort city of Avalon and the unincorporated town of Two Harbors. University of Southern California houses its USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies marine lab in Two Harbors. Natural seepage of oil occurs at several places in the Santa Barbara Channel. Tar balls or pieces of tar in small numbers are found on the beaches. Native Americans used occurring tar, for a variety of purposes which include roofing, waterproofing and some ceremonial purposes; the Channel Islands at low elevations are frost-free and constitute one of the few such areas in the 48 contiguous US states.
It snows only on higher mountain peaks. Separated from the California mainland throughout recent geological history, the Channel Islands provide the earliest evidence for human seafaring in the Americas, it is the site of the discovery of the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America. The northern Channel Islands are now known to have been settled by maritime Paleo-Indian peoples at least 13,000 years ago. Archaeological sites on the island provide a unique and invaluable record of human interaction with Channel Island marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the late Pleistocene to historic times; the Anacapa Island Archeological District is a 700-acre historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. The northern islands were occupied by the island Chumash, while the southern islands were occupied by the Tongva. Author Scott O'Dell wrote about the indigenous peoples living on the island in his novel Island of the Blue Dolphins. Aleut hunters visited the islands to hunt otters in the early 1800s.
The Aleuts purportedly clashed with the native Chumash. Aleut interactions with the natives were detailed in O'Dell's book; the Chumash and Tongva were removed from the islands in the early 19th century and taken to Spanish missions and pueblos on the adjacent mainland. For a century, the Channel Islands were used for ranching and fishing activities, which had significant impacts on island ecosystems, including the local extinction of sea otters, bald eagles, other species. Several of the islands were used by whalers in the 1930s to hunt for sperm whales. With most of the Channel Islands now managed by federal agencies or conservation groups, the restoration of the island ecosystems has made significant progress. An example of conservation progress has been the bald eagle, threatened due to DDT contamination, but whose populations are now recovering. With the help of scientists from the USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, the Catalina Island Fox has recovered from a low of 100 individual foxes to over 1,500 foxes in 2018.
In 1972, in "a bit of political theater”, twenty-six Brown Berets sailed to Catalina Island on tourist boats, set up a small encampment near the town of Avalon, put up a Mexican flag and claimed the island on behalf of all Chicanos, citing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Twenty-four days sheriff's deputies took everyone back to the mainland. Channel Islands National Park's mainland visitor center received 342,000 visitors in 2014; the islands attract around 70,000 tourists a year, most during the summer. Visitors can travel to the islands via public airplane transportation. Camping grounds are available on Anacapa, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, Santa Barbara Islands in the Channel Islands National Park. Attractions include whale watching, snorkeling and camping; the United States Navy controls San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, has installations elsewhere in the chain. During World War II all of southern California’s Channel Islands were put under military control, including the civilian-populated Santa Catalina where tourism was halted and established residents needed permits to travel to and from the mainland.
San Miguel Island was used as a bombing range and Santa Barbara Island as an early warning outpost under the presumed threat of a
The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, United States. Its mission is to "conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends." The Conservancy pursues non confrontational, pragmatic solutions to conservation's challenges working with partners including indigenous communities, governments, multilateral institutions, other non-profits. The Conservancy's work focuses on the global priorities of Lands, Climate and Cities. Founded in Arlington, Virginia, in 1951, The Nature Conservancy now impacts conservation in 72 countries, including all 50 states of the United States; the Conservancy has over one million members, has protected more than 119,000,000 acres of land and thousands of miles of rivers worldwide. The Nature Conservancy operates more than 100 marine conservation projects globally; the organization's assets total $6.71 billion as of 2015. The Nature Conservancy is the largest environmental nonprofit by assets and by revenue in the Americas.
The Nature Conservancy rates as one of the most trusted national organizations in Harris Interactive polls every year since 2005. Forbes magazine rated The Nature Conservancy's fundraising efficiency at 88 percent in its 2005 survey of the largest U. S. charities. The Conservancy received a three-star rating from Charity Navigator in 2016; the American Institute of Philanthropy gives the Conservancy a B+ rating and includes it on its list of "Top-Rated Charities". The Nature Conservancy is led by President and CEO Mark Tercek, a former managing director at Goldman Sachs, he is the author of the book Nature’s Fortune: How Business and Society Thrive by Investing in Nature. The Nature Conservancy's Chief Scientist is Australian Hugh Possingham, named to this position in 2016; the current board chairman is Craig the Chairman & CEO of Eagle River Inc.. Other current members include former U. S. Senator Bill Frist, chairman of the Alibaba Group Jack Ma, Chairman and Co-founder of The Bridgespan Group Thomas J. Tierney.
The Nature Conservancy developed out of a scholarly organization known as the Ecological Society of America. The ESA was founded in 1915 and two years formed a Committee on Preservation of Natural Areas for Ecological Study, headed by Victor Shelford. Whereas the Society focused on promoting research, in the course of the 1930s Shelford and his colleagues sought to advocate for conservation; the divide in viewpoints regarding scholarship or advocacy led the Society to dissolve the committee, and, in 1946, Shelford and his colleagues formed the Ecologists' Union. The latter group took the name "The Nature Conservancy", in emulation of the British agency of that name, which pursued a mission of conserving open space and wildlife preserves; the Nature Conservancy was incorporated in the United States as a non-profit organization on October 22, 1951. The Nature Conservancy takes a scientific approach to conservation, setting goals that describe the results it wants to achieve for biodiversity; the Nature Conservancy sets both long-term and near-term goals for conserving the abundance and geographic distribution of critical species and ecological systems.
The organization's overall goal is to ensure the long-term survival of all biodiversity on Earth. The Nature Conservancy works with all sectors of society including businesses, communities, partner organizations, government agencies to achieve its goals; the Nature Conservancy is known for working and collaboratively with traditional land owners such as farmers and ranchers, with whom it partners when such a partnership provides an opportunity to advance mutual goals. The Nature Conservancy is in the forefront of private conservation groups implementing prescribed fire to restore and maintain healthy ecosystems and working to address the threats to biodiversity posed by non-native and invasive plants and animals; the Nature Conservancy has pioneered new land preservation techniques such as the conservation easement and debt for nature swaps. A conservation easement is a way for land owners to ensure that their land remains in its natural state while capitalizing on some of the land's potential development value.
Debt for nature swaps are tools used to encourage natural area preservation in third world countries while assisting the country economically as well: in exchange for setting aside land, some of the country's foreign debt is forgiven. The Conservancy believes that the private sector has an important role to play in advancing its conservation mission; the organization works to help businesses make better decisions, understand the value of nature, protect it. Among the companies it works with are: 3M/3M Foundation, Alcoa Foundation, AmazonSmile, AT&T, Bank of America, Barrick Gold, BHP Billiton, Inc. Caterpillar/Caterpillar Foundation, The Coca-Cola Company, Delta Air Lines, Discovery Channel: North America, The Dow Chemical Company, FEMSA, General Mills, Goldman Sachs, Harley-Davidson, IBM, JPMorgan Chase & Co. Lowe's/Lowe's Charitable and Educational Foundation, Oracle, PepsiCo Recycle for Nature, Swiss Re, UPS, Whole Foods Market; the Nature Conservancy's expanding international conservation efforts include work in North America, Central America, South America, the Pacific Rim, the Caribbean, Asia.
The Conservancy focuses on developing global solutions at the intersection of nature's and people's needs. The solutions are areas where it aims to develop specific strategies and link them to its place-based work at the system scale. Below are a few examples of such work: The Nature Conservancy was instrumental in the creation in 2004 of the Great
Orcas Island is the largest of the San Juan Islands, which are located in the northwestern corner of Washington state in San Juan County, United States. The name "Orcas" is a shortened form of Horcasitas, or Juan Vicente de Güemes Padilla Horcasitas y Aguayo, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, the Viceroy of Mexico who sent an exploration expedition under Francisco de Eliza to the Pacific Northwest in 1791. During the voyage, Eliza explored part of the San Juan Islands, he did not apply the name Orcas to Orcas Island, but rather to part of the archipelago. In 1847, Henry Kellett assigned the name Orcas to Orcas Island during his reorganization of the British Admiralty charts. Kellett's work eliminated the patriotically American names that Charles Wilkes had given to many features of the San Juans during the Wilkes Expedition of 1838–1842. Wilkes had named Orcas Island "Hull Island", after Commodore Isaac Hull. Other features of Orcas Island named by Wilkes include "Ironsides Inlet" for East Sound and "Guerrier Bay" for West Sound.
One of the names Wilkes gave remains: Mount Constitution. Wilkes' names follow a pattern: Isaac Hull was the commander of "Old Ironsides" and won fame after capturing the British warship Guerriere in the War of 1812; the islands were first claimed by Spain by England, who agreed that all below the 49th parallel was part of the US, in the treaty signed after the War of 1812. The Oregon territory, which included Washington state and this island. Was used jointly by the US and England until 1848, but border disputes concerning the San Juan Islands, including the Pig War, were not settled until 1871. With a land area of 57.3 square miles and a population of 5,387, Orcas Island is larger, but less populous, than neighboring San Juan Island. Orcas is shaped like a pair of saddlebags, separated by fjord-like Eastsound, with Massacre Bay on the south side, tiny Skull Island just off the coast. At the northern end of the island is the village of Eastsound, the largest population center on Orcas and the second largest in San Juan County.
In 1989, the people of San Juan County asked the federal government to purchase a Lummi Nation site on Orcas Island's Madrona Point in Eastsound. The land was given to the Lummi who agreed to operate it as Madrona Point Park, a private preserve characterized by hundreds of twisting madrona trees sprouting from the rocky shoreline. Several years ago, the Lummi tribe declared the land sacred ancestral burial grounds and the park was closed following incidents of vandalism. Public access has been denied since that time. Other, smaller towns - or hamlets - on the island include Orcas, West Sound, Deer Harbor, Rosario and Doe Bay. There are a number of former settlements that no longer exist, which were built up around the lime kiln industry, including Ocean and Dolphin Bay. Orcas Island is accessible by air via Orcas Island Airport or water landings by seaplane as well as by water via the Washington State Ferry system or private watercraft. During the summer season, there is an island shuttle that runs from the ferry landing to Eastsound and other points.
The state supports island access through the Washington State Ferries system. In addition, the island can be accessed through a variety of private sea charter services; the Orcas Island Historical Museum is located down town Eastsound and is the only object-based, interpretive heritage facility for the island, with a permanent collection containing 6000 objects, paper documents and photographs. Orcas Island is home to three historic camps: Camp Orkila, Four Winds Westward Ho and Camp Indralaya; the Lambiel Museum is a small private collection in the home of local resident Leo Lambiel. Lambiel's museum contains a collection of works inspired by the San Juan Islands, including works by Helen Loggie; the museum is open to the public by appointment. The Orcas Island School District operates three schools: Orcas Island Elementary School housed in the island's historic Nellie S. Milton school building. All of the island's public schools are located in Eastsound; the Orcas Island Public Library is located in Eastsound and serves a population of 6,000 card holders.
The Orcas Island Library District is a junior-taxing district that funds the Orcas Island Public Library's operating budget through property taxes. The annual Library Fair sells books donated by Orcas Island residents and visitors, the proceeds of which are donated back to the Library's operating budget. Mount Constitution is the highest point in the San Juan islands; the mountain is part of Moran State Park, the largest public recreation area in the San Juan Islands. Moran State Park encompasses over 5,000 acres of woodland and has several lakes and numerous waterfalls; the park was given to the Island. Moran State Park on Orcas Island Deer Harbor Orcas Island Chamber of Commerce Orcas Island Heritage Orcas Island Historical Museum Orcas Island at Curlie Orcas Island Orcas Today
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
U.S. National Geodetic Survey
"United States Coast Survey" and "United States Coast and Geodetic Survey" redirect here. They are former scientific agencies of the United States government which should not be confused with the United States Coast Guard, a seagoing U. S. government law enforcement and safety agency, the modern Coast Survey, a U. S. government agency that makes nautical charts, or the United States Geological Survey, a U. S. government agency that studies earth science and makes topographical maps. The National Geodetic Survey the United States Survey of the Coast, United States Coast Survey, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, of the United States Department of Commerce; the National Geodetic Survey's history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA offices.
As the U. S. Coast Survey and U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the agency operated a fleet of survey ships, from 1917 the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the uniformed services of the United States with its own corps of commissioned officers. Upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration in 1965, the commissioned corps was separated from the Survey to become the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps. Upon the creation of NOAA in 1970, the ESSA Corps became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. Thus, the National Geodetic Survey's ancestor organizations are the ancestors of today's NOAA Corps and Office of Coast Survey and are among the ancestors of today's NOAA fleet. In addition, today's National Institute of Standards and Technology, although long since separated from the Survey, got its start as the Survey's Office of Weights and Measures; the National Geodetic Survey is an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service.
Its core function is to maintain the National Spatial Reference System, "a consistent coordinate system that defines latitude, height, scale and orientation throughout the United States." NGS is responsible for defining the NSRS and its relationship with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The NSRS enables precise and accessible knowledge of where things are in the United States and its territories; the NSRS may be divided into its geometric and physical components. The official geodetic datum of the United States, NAD83 defines the geometric relationship between points within the United States in three-dimensional space; the datum may be accessed via NGS's network of survey marks or through the Continuously Operating Reference Station network of GPS reference antennas. NGS is responsible for computing the relationship between NAD83 and the ITRF; the physical components of the NSRS are reflected in its height system, defined by the vertical datum NAVD88. This datum is a network of orthometric heights obtained through spirit leveling.
Because of the close relationship between height and Earth's gravity field, NGS collects and curates terrestrial gravity measurements and develops regional models of the geoid and its slope, the deflection of the vertical. NGS is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the NSRS over time as the North American plate rotates and deforms over time due to crustal strain, post-glacial rebound, elastic deformation of the crust, other geophysical phenomena. NGS will release new datums in 2022; the North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 will supersede NAD83 in defining the geometric relationship between the North American plate and the ITRF. United States territories on the Pacific and Mariana plates will have their own respective geodetic datums; the North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 will separately define the height system of the United States and its territories, replacing NAVD88. It will use a geoid model accurate to 1 centimeter to relate orthometric height to ellipsoidal height measured by GPS, eliminating the need for future leveling projects.
This geoid model will be based on airborne and terrestrial gravity measurements collected by NGS's GRAV-D program as well as satellite-based gravity models derived from observations collected by GRACE, GOCE, satellite altimetry missions. NGS provides a number of other public services, it maps changing shorelines in the United States and provides aerial imagery of regions affected by natural disasters, enabling rapid damage assessment by emergency managers and members of the public. The Online Positioning and User Service processes user-input GPS data and outputs position solutions within the NSRS; the agency offers other tools for conversion between datums. The original predecessor agency of the National Geodetic Survey was the United States Survey of the Coast, created within the United States Department of the Treasury by an Act of Congress on February 10, 1807, to conduct a "Survey of the Coast." The Survey of the Coast, the United States government's first scientific agency, represented the interest of the administration of President Thomas Jefferson in science and the stimulation of international trade by using scientific surveying methods to chart t