States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
The Bareilly district pronunciation belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Its capital is Bareilly city and it is divided in six administrative division or tehsils: Aonla, Bareilly city, Faridpur and Nawabganj; the Bareilly district is a part of the Bareilly Division and occupies an area of 4120 km² with a population of 4,448,359 people according to the census of 2011. The region was a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire; the modern City of Bareilly was founded by Mukrand Rai in 1657. It became the capital of the Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and to the East India Company, becoming an integral part of India; the region was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Panchala. The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganges; the country was divided into Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Ahichatra tehsil of Bareilly district, while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad district.
The famous city of Kannauj or Kanyakubja was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. The last two Panchala clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas are mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married to the Pandavas belonged to the Somaka clan. However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan. Divodasa, Srinjaya and Drupada were the most notable rulers of this clan. During 176 -- 166 BC, Panchala coins were minted at the surrounding areas, it was the Gupta kings who established mints here. The city's continued status as a mint town since the beginning of the Christian era was helped by the fact that Bareilly was never a disturbed area. Found at Ganga Ghati in abundance were the Adi Vigraha and Shree Vigraha coins of the Pratihara Kings that were minted here between the 4th to the 9th centuries. Dating to this period are the silver coins — similar to those of Firoz Second — known as Indo-Sasanian.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Panchala, the City was under the rule of local rulers. In the twelfth century, it was ruled by different clans of Rajputs referred to by the general name of Katehriyas Rajputs. According to British historian Matthew Atmore Sherring the district of Bareilly was a dense jungle inhabited by a race of Ahirs and was called Tappa Ahiran. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the Delhi Sultanate was established, Katehr was divided into the provinces of Sambhal and Budaun, but the thickly forested country infested with wild animals provided just the right kind of shelter for rebels. And indeed, Katehr was famous for rebellions against imperial authority. During the Sultanate rule, there were frequent rebellions in Katehr. All were ruthlessly crushed. Sultan Balban ordered vast tracts of jungle to be cleared so as to make the area unsafe for the insurgents; the slightest weakening of the central authority provoked acts of defiance from the Katehriya Rajputs. Thus the Mughals initiated the policy of allotting lands for Afghan settlements in Katiher.
Afghan settlements continued to be encouraged throughout the reign of Aurangzeb and after his death. These Afghans, known as the Rohilla Afghans, caused the area to be known as Rohilkhand; the city of Bareilly was founded in 1537 by a Katehriya Rajput. The city is mentioned in the histories for the first time by Budayuni, who he writes that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of Bareilly and Sambhal in 1568; the divisions and revenue of the district fixed by Todar Mal were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. In 1658, Bareilly was made the headquarters of the province of Budaun; the foundation of the'modern' City of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. The tract of land forming the subah or province of Rohilkhand was called Katehr/Katiher; the Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements for keeping the Katehriyas in check worked only as long as the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans, having themselves become local potentates, began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.
In 1623 two Afghan brothers of the Barech tribe, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, settled in the region, bringing with them many other Pashtun settlers. The Rohilla Daud Khan was awarded the Katehr region in the northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir to suppress Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region; some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun Tribes were hired by Mughals to provide soldiers to the Mughal armies and this was appreciated by Aurangzeb Alamgir, an additional force of 25,000 men was given respected positions in Mughal army. However most of them settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739 increasing their population up to 100,0000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, the Katehar region gained fame as Rohilkhand. Meanwhile, Ali Muhammad Khan, grandson of Shah Alam, captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital uniting the Rohillas to form the state of'Rohilkhand', between 1707 and 1720, making Bareilly his capital.
He rose to power and got confirmed in possession of the lands he had seized. The Emperor made him a Nawab in 1737, he was recognised as the governor of Rohilkhand in 1740. According to 1901 cen
Gonda district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city of Gonda is the district headquarters, the administrative centre for the Devipatan Division. With an area of 3,404 square kilometres, Gonda has borders with Shrawasti district to the north and Siddharthnagar districts to the northeast, Basti district to the east, Faizabad district to the south, Bara Banki district to the southwest, Bahraich district to the northwest; the district lies between 26 ° 47' and 81 ° 30' and 82 ° 46' east longitude. The territory covered by the present district of Gonda formed part of the ancient Kosala Kingdom. After the going of lord Rama, the celebrated sovereign of the Solar line who ruled Kosala, the kingdom was divided into two portions defined by the Ghaghara river; the northern portion was ruled by his son, Lava with the city of Sravasti as his capital. More ancient Buddhist remains dating to the early days of Buddhism have been found throughout the region, including at Sravasti. Gonda played a significant part in the Indian struggle for independence, with many people from the region involved: including Maharaja Aksh Valmikan, who escaped to Nepal, freedom fighters like Sh.
Chandra Shekhar Azad took shelter in the district, Rajendra Lahiri was incarcerated and hanged in the Gonda Jail. India's 5th president Hon'ble Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was educated at the Government High School in Gonda district. In more recent times, the district received media attention throughout India due to the protracted court case surrounding the murder of 13 people known as the 1982 Gonda Encounter. There are rice mills and many other small industries and handicraft industry. One of the India's six Indian Telephone Industries is situated at Mankapur, the largest sugar mill in India is situated at Kundarkhi. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Gonda one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to the 2011 census Gonda district has a population of 3,433,919 equal to the nation of Panama or the US state of Connecticut; this gives it a ranking of 95th in India.
The district has a population density of 857 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 24.17%, higher than the average of Uttar Pradesh. Gonda has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males, a sex ratio among children 0–6 years old of 926, both higher than the state average; the human development index of the Gonda district is low. Languages spoken in the district include Awadhi, a tongue of the Hindi continuum spoken by over 38 million people in the Awadh region; the literacy rate is 58.71%, much behind the state average. The backwardness of the region and slow developmental rate is reflected by literacy gap of 23.10% in the district as compared to 19.98% gap for the state. The government of India has created a special scheme for such district through the backward region grant fund. Gonda is one of the recipients of this fund; the primary schools of Gonda District are functioning well, which provides a path to raising the education standard of the district.
All colleges of Gonda are affiliated with Faizabad University. Meena Shah Degree College - First Regular Profession Degree College of Gonda City. Generation Next Place For Computer Education Gonda City. Baba Gayadeen Vaidya Babu Ram Mahavidyalaya Baikunth Nath Mahavidyalaya Bhagirathi Singh Memorial Mahavidyalaya, Gonda Chandra Shekhar Shyamraji Mahavidyalaya Dashrath Singh Memorial Mahavidyalay Dr. Bheem Rao Ambedkar Mahavidyalaya Hakikullah Chaudhary Mahavidyalaya Jagdamba Sharan Singh Educational Institute Kamta Prasad Mathura Prasad Janta Mahavidyalaya Kisan Degree College L. B. S. Mahavidyalaya Lakhan Lal Sharan Singh Mahavidyalaya Maa Gayatri Ram Sukh Pandey Mahavidyalaya Mahakavi Tulsidas Mahavidyalaya Nandini Nagar Mahavidyalaya Nawabgang Nandini Nagar Vidhi Mahavidyalaya Nawabgang Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gramoday Mahavidyalaya Pt. Jag Narain Shukla Gramoday Mahavidyalaya Pt. Ram Dutt Shukla Mahavidyalaya Raghoram Diwakar Dutt Gyanoday Mahavidyalaya Raja Raghuraj Singh Mahavidyalaya Mankapur Ram Nath Memorial Mahavidyalaya Ravindra Singh Memorial Mahavidyalaya Saraswati Devi Nari Gyansthali Mahavidyalaya Sardar Mohar Singh Memorial Mahila Mahavidyalaya Mankapur Saryu Degree College situated in tehshil Colonelganj of Gonda district.
Smt. J. Devi Mahila Mahavidyalaya Sri Raghukul Mahila Vidyapeeth Subhash Chandra Bose Memorial MahavidyalayaVipin Bihari Sharan Singh Mahavidyalaya Tarabganj Gonda India Guru Vashishth Mahavidyalaya Mankapur GONDA Gonda has 15 hospitals, 27 Ayurvedic hospitals, 11 Homeopathic hospitals and 2 Unani hospitals, in addition to 66 Government Primary Health Centres. Gonda is one of the districts in the list of top 100 districts in order of Infant Mortality Rate in 2011 census data, it comes in the top 57 districts with the highest maternal mortality rateGonda has been listed as the dirtiest city in India according to the Swachh Sarvekshan 2017. Official website Alternative Web Site Of the Gonda District Gonda District at The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908, v. 12, p. 311-319
Agra Division is one of the divisions of Uttar Pradesh, India. It contains Agra, Firozabad and Mathura districts; the Population of Agra Division was 11,304,646 as of 2011
Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters; the District is part of Agra division. Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District, on the southeast by Hathras District, on the south by Agra District, on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus. Many towns in the district Mathura have banned non-vegetarian food. Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded Madhupura and Mathura. In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada; the city was ruled by the Maurya empire and the Shunga dynasty.
It may have come under the control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BCE and 100 BC. It reverted to local rule before being conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BC. Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura; the dynasty had kings with the names of Kujula Kadphises, Kanishka and Vasudeva I. Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BC, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα; the Indo-Scythians conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. The findings of ancient stone inscriptions in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres from Mathura, provide historical artifacts giving more details on this era of Mathura; the opening of the 3 line text of these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were translated as: "In the 116th year of the Greek kings..."The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa.
After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans. Mathura served as one of the Kushan Empire's two capitals from the first to the third centuries. Fa Xian mentions the city, as a centre of Buddhism about AD 400, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and Mathura, on the Yamuna river. The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517. Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of'But Shikan', the'Destroyer of Hindu deities'; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the city's Jami Masjid. The noteworthy fact is that the exact place of birth of Lord Krishna, according to historians, is in the place of worship of the Hindus, though the mosque was built near the birthplace of Lord Krishna.
The bigger Krishna shrine, better known as Dwarkadeesh temple is a few metres away from what is believed to be the actual birthplace of Krishna, was built in 1815 by Seth Gokuldas Parikh, Treasurer of Gwalior. According to the 2011 census Mathura district has a population of 2,541,894 equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada; this gives it a ranking of 167th in India. The district has a population density of 761 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.53%. Mathura has a sex ratio of 858 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 72.65%. Mathura is a Jat dominated region with around 5.30 lakh Jat. Mathura receives a large number of daily visitors besides pilgrims who stay for an average of 3 days. Mathura's urban area's floating population on normal days is between 100,000 and 125,000 per day, whereas on festive and auspicious days it is over twice the population of urban area. People in Mathura and nearby areas speak Braj.
Braj Bhasha called Brij Bhasha, Braj Bhakha, or Dehaati Zabaan, is a Western Hindi language related to Hindustani. In fact, it is considered to be a dialect of Western Hindi, along with Awadhi was one of the two predominant literary languages of North-Central India before the switch to Hindustani in the 19th century. Braj Bhasha language spelled Braj Bhasa, Braj Bhakha, or Brij Bhasa, language descended from Shauraseni Prakrit and viewed as a western dialect of Hindi, it is spoken by some 575,000 people in India. Its purest forms are spoken in the cities of Mathura, Agra and Aligarh. Most speakers of Braj Bhasha worship the Hindu deity Krishna, their bhakti finds expression in the language, which has a firm base in folk literature and songs. All of the enactments of episodes from Krishna's life that are performed during the Janmashtami festival are presented in Braj Bhasha. Mathura is located at 27.28°N 77.41°E / 27.28. It has an average elevation of 174 metres; the climate of Mathura is tropical extreme with hot summers with tempe
Balrampur district is one of the districts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is a part of Devipatan division as well as the historic Awadh regions. Located on the banks of the West Rapti River, Balrampur town is the district headquarter. Balrampur is known for the temple of Pateshwari Devi, a Shakti Pitha, for the ruins of the nearby ancient city of Sravasti, now a pilgrimage site for Buddhists and Jains; the nearest airport is Shravasti airport 23.3 kilometres from the town but it is not an international and regular airport. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and is 162 kilometres from Balrampur district headquarters; the creation of Balrampur District was done by G. D. No. 1428/1-5/97/172/85-R-5 Lucknow dated May 25, 1997 by the division of District Gonda. Siddharth Nagar, Gonda District, are situated in the east-west and south sides and Nepal State are Situated in its northern side; the area of the district is 336917 Hectares. In which the agriculture irrigated area is 221432 Hectares.
In the north of the district is situated the Shivalics ranges of the Himalayas, called Tarai Region. According to Government of India, the district Balrampur is one of the Minority Concentrated District in India on the basis of the 2001 census data on population, socio-economic indicators and basic amenities indicators; the district is named after its capital, Balrampur. The name of this estate was derived from its founder Balram Das, who founded it in c. 1600 CE. The territory which the present Balrampur district covers was a part of the ancient Kosala kingdom. Sravasti was the capital of Uttara Kosala; the ruins of Sahet, ancient Sravasti, spread an area of 400 acres. Towards the Rapti River, a little north of Sahet, lies the ancient city of Mahet. Gautam Buddha spent 21 rainy season under the sacred Peepal tree; the famous incident of Angulimal happened in the forest of Sravasti, where the dacoit who used to kill people and wear a garland of their fingers, was enlightened by Gautam Buddha. The area covered by the district was a part of Bahraich Sarkar of Awadh Subah during the Mughal rule.
It came under the control of the ruler of Awadh till its annexation in February, 1856 by the British government. British government separated Balrampur from Bahraich and it became a part of Gonda. During the British rule a commissionary was made for the administration of this area with its headquarters at Gonda and military command at Sakraura Colonelganj. During this period Balrampur was an Estate in Utraula tehsil of Gonda district, which consisted 3 tehsils, Gonda Sadar and Utraula. After independence, Balrampur estate was merged with Utraula tehsil of Gonda district. On 1 July 1953 the tehsil of Utraula was bifurcated into two tehsils and Utraula. In 1987 three new tehsils were created from Gonda Sadar tehsil, Tulsipur and Colonelganj. In 1997 Gonda district was bifurcated into two parts and a new district, Balrampur was born consisting of three tehsils of the northern part of the erstwhile Gonda district, Balrampur and Tulsipur; the district's northern border with Nepal's Dang Deukhuri District follows the southern edge of the Dudhwa Range of the Siwaliks.
To the northeast lies Kapilvastu District, Nepal. The rest of Balrampur is surrounded by Uttar Pradesh: on the east by Siddarthnagar, Basti on the south, Gonda on the southwest, Shravasti on the west. Balrampur's area is 3,457 km2. Balrampur town is known for Balrampur Chini Mills, one of the largest sugar manufacturing industry in the country. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Balrampur one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The district comprises 3 tehsils, Balrampur and Utraula, which are further divided into 9 blocks: Balrampur, Gaindas bujurg, Harya satgharwa, Rehera bazar, Shriduttganj and Utraula Sadullaah Nagar According to the 2011 census Balrampur district has a population of 2,149,066 equal to the nation of Namibia or the US state of New Mexico; this gives it a ranking of 213th in India. The district has a population density of 642 inhabitants per square kilometre.
Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 27.74%. Balrampur has a sex ratio of 922 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 51.76%. The Khanzada community form the largest ethnic group in the district; the fortified entrance to Mahet is made of mud, constructed in a crescent shape. The Sobhnath temple houses the great Stupas; these Stupas reflect the Buddhist tradition and boast of the history of the monasteries in Balrampur. Jeetavana monastery, one of the oldest monasteries in the country, is said to be one of the favorite sites of Gautam Buddha, it contains the 12th century inscriptions. There is a sacred tree of Peepal nearby, it is said. Another site of religious importance in the city is Sravasti, it is said that Mahavira Jain, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism,'influenced' this place. It houses the Shwetambar temple. M. L. K College, Balrampur Kendriya Vidyalaya Balrampur St. Xavier's High school Jesus & Mary school Emmanuel Church School, Utraula Scholars Academy, Utraula M.
J. Activity Inter College, Utraula Sharada Public School Blooming Buds Public School Gonda road Balrampur Balrampur Modern school Balrampur City Montessori Inter College Balrampur Shara
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle