Three-point field goal
A three-point field goal is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw; the distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association the arc is 23 feet 9 inches from the center of the basket. In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet from each sideline. In the NCAA the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations. In 3x3, a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the same line exists, but shots from behind it are only worth 2 points with all other shots worth 1 point; the three-point line was first tested at the collegiate level in 1945, with a 21-foot line, in a game between Columbia and Fordham, but it was not kept as a rule.
There was another one-game experiment in 1958, this time with a 23-foot line, in a game between St. Francis and Siena. In 1961, Boston University and Dartmouth played one game with an experimental rule that counted all field goals as three points. At the direction of Abe Saperstein, the American Basketball League became the first basketball league to institute the rule in 1961, its three-point line was a radius of 25 feet from the baskets, except along the sides. The Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963–64 season; the three-point shot became popularized by the American Basketball Association, introduced in its inaugural 1967–68 season. ABA commissioner George Mikan stated the three-pointer "would give the smaller player a chance to score and open up the defense to make the game more enjoyable for the fans." During the 1970s, the ABA used the three-point shot, along with the slam dunk, as a marketing tool to compete with the NBA. Three years in June 1979, the NBA adopted the three-point line for a one-year trial for the 1979–80 season, despite the view of many that it was a gimmick.
Chris Ford of the Boston Celtics is credited with making the first three-point shot in NBA history on October 12, 1979. Rick Barry of the Houston Rockets, in his final season made one in the same game, Kevin Grevey of the Washington Bullets made one that Friday night as well; the sport's international governing body, FIBA, introduced the three-point line in 1984, at 6.25 m, it made its Olympic debut in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. The NCAA's Southern Conference became the first collegiate conference to use the three-point rule, adopting a 22-foot line for the 1980–81 season. Ronnie Carr of Western Carolina was the first to score a three-point field goal in college basketball history on November 29, 1980. Over the following five years, NCAA conferences differed in their use of the rule and distance required for a three-pointer; the line was as close as 17 ft 9 in in the Atlantic Coast Conference, as far away as 22 ft in the Big Sky. Used only in conference play for several years, it was adopted by the NCAA in April 1986 for the 1986–87 season at 19 ft 9 in and was first used in the NCAA Tournament in March 1987.
The NCAA adopted the three-pointer in women's basketball on an experimental basis for that season at the same distance, made its use mandatory beginning in 1987–88. In 2007, the NCAA lengthened the men's distance by a foot to 20 ft 9 in, effective with the 2008–09 season, the women's line was moved to match the men's in 2011–12. American high schools, along with elementary and middle schools, adopted a 19 ft 9 in line nationally in 1987, a year after the NCAA; the NCAA used the FIBA three-point line in the National Invitation Tournament in 2018. For three seasons beginning in 1994–95, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the distance of the line from 23 ft 9 in to a uniform 22 ft around the basket. From the 1997–98 season on, the NBA reverted the line to its original distance of 23 ft 9 in. Ray Allen is the NBA all-time leader in career made three-pointers with 2,973. In 2008, FIBA announced that the distance would be increased by 50 cm to 6.75 m, with the change being phased in beginning in October 2010.
In December 2012, the WNBA announced that it would be using the FIBA distance, starting in 2013. The NBA has discussed adding a four-point line, according to president Rod Thorn. In the NBA, three-point field goals became more frequent along the years by mid 2015 onward; the increase in latter years has been attributed to NBA player Stephen Curry, credited with revolutionizing the game by inspiring teams to employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy. The 1979–80 season had an average 0.8 three-point goals per game and 2.8 attempts. The 1989–90 season had an average 2.2 three-point goals per game and 6.6 attempts. The 1999–2000 season had an average 4.8 three-point goals
In basketball, a rebound, sometimes colloquially referred to as a board, is a statistic awarded to a player who retrieves the ball after a missed field goal or free throw. Rebounds are given to a player who tips in a missed shot on his team's offensive end. Rebounds in basketball are a routine part in the game, as most possessions change after a shot is made, or the rebound allows the defensive team to take possession. A rebound can be grabbed by either a defensive player. Rebounds are divided into two main categories: "offensive rebounds", in which the ball is recovered by the offensive side and does not change possession, "defensive rebounds", in which the defending team gains possession; the majority of rebounds are defensive because the team on defense tends to be in better position to recover missed shots. Offensive rebounds give the offensive team another opportunity to score whether right away or by resetting the offense. A block is not considered a rebound. A ball does not need to "rebound" off the rim or backboard for a rebound to be credited.
Rebounds are credited after any missed shot, including air balls. If a player takes a shot and misses and the ball bounces on the ground before someone picks it up the person who picks up the ball is credited for a rebound. Rebounds are credited to the first player that gains clear possession of the ball or to the player that deflects the ball into the basket for a score. A rebound is credited to a team when it gains possession of the ball after any missed shot, not cleared by a single player. A team rebound is never credited to any player, is considered to be a formality as according to the rules of basketball, every missed shot must be rebounded whether a single player controls the ball or not. Great rebounders tend to be strong; because height is so important, most rebounds are made by centers and power forwards, who are positioned closer to the basket. The lack of height can sometimes be compensated by the strength to box out taller players away from the ball to capture the rebound. For example, Charles Barkley once led the league in rebounding despite being much shorter than his counterparts.
Some shorter guards can be excellent rebounders as well such as point guard Jason Kidd who led the New Jersey Nets in rebounding for several years. Great rebounders must have a keen sense of timing and positioning. Great leaping ability is an important asset, but not necessary. Players such as Larry Bird and Moses Malone were excellent rebounders, but were never known for their leaping ability. Bird has stated. That's where I get mine"). Players position themselves in the best spot to get the rebound by "boxing out"—i.e. by positioning themselves between an opponent and the basket, maintaining body contact with the player he is guarding. The action can be called "blocking out". A team can be boxed out by several players using this technique to stop the other team from rebounding; because fighting for a rebound can be physical, rebounding is regarded as "grunt work" or a "hustle" play. Overly aggressive boxing out or preventing being boxed out can lead to personal fouls. Statistics of a player's "rebounds per game" or "rebounding average" measure a player's rebounding effectiveness by dividing the number of rebounds by the number of games played.
Rebound rates go beyond raw rebound totals by taking into account external factors, such as the number of shots taken in games and the percentage of those shots that are made. Rebounds were first recorded in the NBA during the 1950–51 season. Both offensive and defensive rebounds were first recorded in the NBA during the 1973–74 season and ABA during the 1967–68 season. New camera technology has been able to shed much more light on where missed shots will land. Wilt Chamberlain – led the NBA in rebounds in 11 different seasons, has the most career rebounds in the regular season, the highest career average, the single season rebounding records in total and average, most rebounds in a regular season game and playoff game in the NBA, has the most career All-Star Game rebounds. Bill Russell – first player to average over 20 rebounds per game in the regular season, ranks second to Chamberlain in regular season total and average rebounds, averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in 10 of 13 seasons played, grabbed 51 rebounds in a single game, grabbed a record 32 rebounds in one half, grabbed 40 rebounds in the NBA Finals twice, is the all-time playoff leader in total and average rebounds.
Bob Pettit – averaged 20.3 rebounds per game in the 1960-61 season, his career average of 16.2 rebounds per game is third all-time, holds the top two performances for rebounds in an NBA All-Star Game with 26 and 27. Nate Thurmond – averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in two seasons, career average of 15.0 rpg, holds the all-time NBA record for rebounds in a single quarter with 18. He is the only player besides Bill Russell, Wilt Chamberlain and Jerry Lucas to record more than 40 rebounds in a single game. Jerry Lucas – averaged more than 20 rebounds per game in two seasons, had a career average of 15.6 rpg. Along with Russell and Thurmond is one of only four players to grab at least 40 rebounds in a single game. Moses Malone – led the NBA in rebounds per game in six d
The Daily Progress
The Daily Progress is the sole daily newspaper in the vicinity of Charlottesville, Virginia. It has been published daily since September 14, 1892; the paper was founded by his brother Frank Lindsay. The Progress was published six days a week. Lindsay's family owned the paper for 78 years. On November 30, 1970, the family announced a sale to the Worrell Newspaper group, which took over on January 1, 1971. T. Eugene Worrell, of Bristol, owned about two dozen rural weekly newspapers and a few dailies, all with less circulation than the Daily Progress; the Progress became the group's flagship paper, Worrell moved his newspaper group headquarters to Charlottesville. Faced with major newspaper industry change, in 1995 Worrell sold his newspaper properties to Richmond-based Media General, purchased by Nexstar Media Group, as a part of a larger $230M deal. In the 21st century, Media General sold the Progress' printing press, reorganized its operations to print multiple newspapers from other printing plants it controlled.
On May 17, 2012 Media General, Inc. announced signed agreements with Berkshire Hathaway, Inc. whereby a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway, BH Media Group, will purchase newspapers owned by Media General, including the Progress. Following the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville in August 2017, Paul Chadwick of The Guardian wrote that the staff of the Progress "demonstrate in a practical, relatable way the importance of journalism to community, civil society and functioning democracy."Ryan M. Kelly, who worked for the newspaper at the time, took a photograph of the Aug 12 vehicular attack that resulted in the death of Heather Heyer won the 2018 Pulitzer Prize for breaking news photography. History of Media General Daily Progress and Newsplex lay off staff
Oklahoma City Thunder
The Oklahoma City Thunder is an American professional basketball team based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Thunder competes in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Western Conference Northwest Division; the team plays its home games at Chesapeake Energy Arena. The Thunder's NBA G League affiliate is the Oklahoma City Blue; the Thunder are the only team in the major professional North American sports leagues based in the state of Oklahoma. Oklahoma City hosted the New Orleans Hornets for two seasons following devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans; the team was established as the Seattle SuperSonics, an expansion team that joined the NBA for the 1967–68 season. The SuperSonics moved in 2008 after a settlement was reached between the ownership group led by Clay Bennett and lawmakers in Seattle, Washington following a lawsuit. In Seattle, the SuperSonics qualified for the NBA playoffs 22 times, won their division six times, won the 1979 NBA Championship.
In Oklahoma City, the Thunder qualified for their first playoff berth during the 2009–10 season. They won their first division title as the Thunder in the 2010–11 season and their first Western Conference championship as the Thunder in the 2011–12 season, appearing in the NBA Finals for the fourth time in franchise history and first since 1996, when the team was based in Seattle; the Thunder's previous incarnation, the Seattle SuperSonics, were formed in 1967. In their 41 seasons in Seattle, the SuperSonics compiled a 1745–1585 win–loss record in the regular season and went 107–110 in the playoffs; the franchise's titles include three Western Conference championships and one NBA title in 1979. In 2006, former Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz sold the SuperSonics and its Women's National Basketball Association sister franchise, the Seattle Storm, for $350 million to the Professional Basketball Club LLC, a group of Oklahoma City investors led by Clay Bennett; the sale of the SuperSonics and Storm was approved by NBA owners the following October.
In 2007, Bennett announced that the franchise would move to Oklahoma City as soon as the lease with KeyArena expired. In June 2008, a lawsuit brought by the city of Seattle against Bennett due to his attempts to break the final two years of the Sonics' lease at KeyArena went to federal court. Nearly a month the two sides reached a settlement agreement; the terms awarded the city $45 million to get out of the remaining lease at KeyArena, would have provided an additional $30 million payment to Seattle in 2013 if certain conditions had been met. The owners agreed to leave the SuperSonics name and colors in Seattle for a possible future NBA franchise. On September 3, 2008, the team name and colors for the Oklahoma City franchise were revealed to the public; the name "Thunder" was chosen in reference to Oklahoma's location in Tornado Alley and Oklahoma City as the home of the U. S. Army's 45th Infantry Division, the Thunderbirds; the Thunder participated in the Orlando Pro Summer League featuring their second-year players, potential free agents and rookies.
The players wore generic black and white jerseys reading "OKC-NBA" against an outline of a basketball. The Thunder's temporary practice facility was the Sawyer Center at Southern Nazarene University, used by the New Orleans Hornets when they relocated to Oklahoma City after Hurricane Katrina; the Thunder played several preseason games before the 2008–2009 regular season, but only one of those games was in Oklahoma City. The Thunder made their first appearance in Billings, Montana on October 8, 2008 in an 88–82 preseason loss against the Minnesota Timberwolves; the Thunder played their first Ford Center game on October 14 against the Los Angeles Clippers. In their regular-season home opener, the Thunder faced the Milwaukee Bucks. Earl Watson scored the first points of the season with a layup. Three nights on November 2, the Thunder won their first game by defeating the Timberwolves, improving their record to 1–3; the team went on a 10-game losing streak before deciding on November 22 to fire head coach P. J. Carlesimo and assistant Paul Westhead.
Assistant coach Scott Brooks took over on an interim basis. Oklahoma City lost its next four games to tie the franchise losing streak of 14 set in Seattle the previous season, but the team managed to prevent history by winning their next game on the road against the Memphis Grizzlies. As the season continued, the Thunder began to improve. After starting 3–29, the Thunder finished the regular season 20–30 for the remaining fifty games. Not only were they winning more they played much more competitively than in the first part of the season; the team brought their record to 23–59 and improved upon their record of 20–62 from the team's final season in Seattle. The late-season successes of the Thunder contributed to the signing of Scott Brooks as the team's official head coach. After moving to Oklahoma City from Seattle, the team's operating situation improved markedly. In December 2008, Forbes magazine estimated the team's franchise value at $300 million – a 12 percent increase from the previous year's $268 million, when the club was located in Seattle.
Forbes noted an increase in percentage of available tickets sold, from 78 percent in the team's last season in Seattle to 100 percent in 2008–09. After an inaugural season filled with many adjustments, the Thunder hoped to improve during their second season in Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City did not make any major moves in the off-season, other than drafting James Harden from Arizona State University with the third overall pick i
Atlantic Coast Conference
The Atlantic Coast Conference is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports. The ACC sponsors competition in twenty-five sports with many of its member institutions' athletic programs held in high regard nationally. Current members of the conference are Boston College, Clemson University, Duke University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Florida State University, North Carolina State University, Syracuse University, the University of Louisville, the University of Miami, the University of North Carolina, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Wake Forest University. ACC teams and athletes have claimed dozens of national championships in multiple sports throughout the conference's history.
The ACC's top athletes and teams in any particular sport in a given year are considered to be among the top collegiate competitors in the nation. The conference enjoys extensive media coverage; the ACC was one of the five collegiate power conferences, which had automatic qualifying for their football champion into the Bowl Championship Series. With the advent of the College Football Playoff in 2014, the ACC is one of five conferences with a contractual tie-in to a New Year's Six bowl game, the successors to the BCS; the ACC was founded on May 8, 1953 by seven universities located in the South Atlantic States, with the University of Virginia joining in early December 1953 to bring the membership to eight. The loss of South Carolina in 1971 dropped membership to seven, while the addition of Georgia Tech in 1979 for non-football sports and 1983 for football brought it back to eight, Florida State's arrival in 1991 for non-football sports and 1992 for football increased the membership to nine. Since 2000, with the widespread reorganization of the NCAA, seven additional schools have joined, one original member has left to bring it to the current membership of 15 schools.
The additions in recent years extended the conference's footprint into the Midwest. ACC member universities represent a range of well-regarded private and public universities of various enrollment sizes, all of which participate in the Atlantic Coast Conference Academic Consortium whose purpose is to "enrich the educational missions the undergraduate student experiences, of member universities"; the ACC has 15 member institutions located within the borders of 10 states. Listed in alphabetical order, these 10 states within the ACC's geographical footprint are Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia; the geographic domain of the conference is predominantly within the Southern and Northeastern United States along the US Atlantic coast and stretches from Florida in the south to New York in the North and from Indiana in the west to Massachusetts farthest east. In two sports and baseball, the ACC is divided into two non-geographic divisions of seven teams each, labeled the "Atlantic" and "Coastal" divisions.
Notre Dame does not participate in ACC football and Syracuse does not participate in ACC baseball, leaving 14 total ACC schools for each of those sports. For all other sports, the ACC operates as a single unified league with no divisions; when Notre Dame joined the ACC, it chose to remain a football independent. However, its football team established a special scheduling arrangement with the ACC to play a rotating selection of five ACC football teams per season. Since July 1, 2014, the 15 members of the ACC are: On July 1, 2014, The University of Maryland departed for The Big Ten Conference as The University of Louisville joined from The American Athletic Conference. In 1971, The University of South Carolina left The ACC to become an independent joining The Metro Conference in 1983 and moving to its current home, The Southeastern Conference, in 1991. Full members Non-football members The ACC was established on June 14, 1953, when seven members of the Southern Conference left to form their own conference.
These seven universities became charter members of the ACC: Clemson, Maryland, North Carolina, North Carolina State, South Carolina, Wake Forest. They left due to that league's ban on post-season football play. After drafting a set of bylaws for the creation of a new league, the seven withdrew from the Southern Conference at the spring meeting on the morning of May 8, 1953 at the Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, North Carolina; the bylaws were ratified on June 14, 1953, the ACC was created, becoming the second conference formed by schools collectively withdrawing from the SoCon, after the Southeastern Conference. On December 4, 1953, officials convened in Greensboro, North Carolina, admitted Virginia, a SoCon charter member, independent since 1937, into the conference. In 1960, the ACC implemented a minimum SAT score for incoming student-athletes of 750, the first conference to do so; this minimum was raised to 800 in 1964, but was struck down by a federal court in 1972. On July 1, 1971, South Carolina left the ACC to become an independent.
The ACC operated with seven members until the addition of Georgia Tech from the Metro Conference, announced on April 3, 1978 and taking effect on July 1, 1979 except in football, in which Tech would remain an independent until joining ACC football in 1983. The total number of member schools reached nine with the addition of Florida State formerl
NC State Wolfpack men's basketball
The NC State Wolfpack men's basketball team represents North Carolina State University in NCAA Division I men's basketball competition. The Wolfpack competes in the Atlantic Coast Conference, of which it was a founding member. Prior to joining the ACC in 1954, the Wolfpack was a member of the Southern Conference, where they won seven conference championships; as a member of the ACC, the Wolfpack has won ten conference championships, as well as two national championships in 1974 and 1983. State's unexpected 1983 title was one of the most memorable in NCAA history. Since 1999, the Pack has played most of its home games at PNC Arena, where the NCAA championship trophies are kept. Prior to 1999, they played at Reynolds Coliseum. NC State began varsity intercollegiate competition in men's basketball in 1911. In 105 years of play, the Wolfpack ranks 25th in total victories among NCAA Division I college basketball programs and 26th in winning percentage among programs that have competed at the Division I level for at least 26 years.
The team's all-time record is 1737-1067. The program saw its greatest success during the head coaching tenures of Everett Case, Norm Sloan, Jim Valvano. NC State has produced some of the ACC's best players, including Tom Burleson, Rodney Monroe, Monte Towe, Ron Shavlik. David Thompson, who led the Wolfpack to its first NCAA title in 1974, has been recognized as one of college basketball's greatest players; the Wolfpack has won a total of 17 conference tournament championships and 13 regular season conference titles. State has appeared in the NCAA Tournament 26 times, with three Final Four appearances and two national titles; the Wolfpack appeared in the Final Four of the 1947 National Invitational Tournament, during the NIT's "national championship era." NC State achieved its 1700th overall win against Presbyterian College, 86-68, becoming the 26th NCAA school to reach such an achievement. In 1910 Guy Bryan formed a special committee that proposed to the university administration the organization of the school's first basketball team.
The program played its first official intercollegiate basketball game on February 16, 1911 against a much more experienced squad from Wake Forest. NC State known as the North Carolina A&M Farmers, lost, 33–6; the two teams met again five days in Raleigh, with A&M earning its first-ever victory, 19–18. The following year, the school's athletics council recognized basketball as a sport. Before the 1920–21 season the university changed its name from North Carolina A&M to North Carolina State College. At that time the school's nickname was the "Tech." That season the program joined the fledgling Southern Conference as a charter member. State College changed its nickname yet again in 1923, this time to the "Red Terrors." The name was drawn from a combination of the play of Rochelle "Red" Johnson and the team's new bright red road uniforms. In 1923, State opened its first basketball facility, Frank Thompson Gym; the gym, named in honor of a former athlete from the school who died in action during World War I, served as the team's home until 1948.
During the first years of the program, the team had no practice facility and was forced to practice on an outdoor field in nearby Pullen Park. Gus Tebell took over the basketball team as head coach in 1924. During his tenure he led the program to a number of school firsts, including the first conference championship in 1929 and the first 20-win season, he compiled a all-time program best career coaching record at 79–36. The Wolfpack's first player to garner significant national recognition was Bud Rose, after the 1931–32 season, was named as an honorable mention All-American. In 1941 the university began construction on William Neal Reynolds Coliseum, a multi-purpose arena that would serve as the new home of Wolfpack basketball. Construction was stalled due to the involvement of the United States in World War II, the skeleton structure of the arena was left unfinished for nearly six years until its completion in 1949; the Wolfpack would play its home games at Reynolds for the next 50 years, until the men's team moved to PNC Arena in 1999.
Following the end of World War II, chancellor John W. Harrelson and athletic director H. A. Fisher set upon rebuilding the university's athletic teams. In 1946 David Clark, a former president of the NC State Alumni Association, suggested to the Athletics Council that the best place to search for a new head basketball coach would be in Indiana, a basketball hotbed at the time. Per Clark's suggestion and his father Stejem Mark met with Indiana native Chuck Taylor, in Raleigh to coach his army team in an exhibition game against NC State. Taylor's recommendation for the job was his former high school coach Everett Case; when approached by Harrelson about the job, Case was at first hesitant because of the tight restrictions under which the program had been operating. Harrelson assured Case that he would be given an expanded budget and more than enough scholarships to field a competitive team. Additionally, Case was lured by the still unfinished Reynolds Coliseum, he accepted the job immediately without visiting the campus.
Everett Case was named head coach on July 1, 1946. Case had coached high school basketball in Indiana, where in 23 seasons he compiled a 726–75 record and won four state championships. Before arriving at NC State, he spent two years as an assistant coach at the University of Southern California and spent several years coaching teams at various Naval bases during the war. In February 1947, his first season at NC State, Case defeated North Carolina in Chapel Hill, 48–46 in overtime, beginning a streak of 15 consecutive victories over the Tar He
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact