The Challenger Mountains are a mountain range on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. The range is the most northern range of the Arctic Cordillera; the highest mountain in the range is Commonwealth Mountain 2,225 m. The United States Range is to the east of the Challenger Mountains; the range lies within Quttinirpaaq National Park, one of the two most northerly park on Earth with Northeast Greenland National Park in Greenland. Low elevation lakes located along Taconite Inlet are part of the Challenger Mountains and local relief exceeds 1,250 m. "Challenger Mountains". Peakbagger.com
The Conger Range called the Conger Mountains, is a mountain range in Quttinirpaaq National Park on Ellesmere Island, Canada, beginning about 16 km west of Mount Osborne. It is part of the Arctic Cordillera, a vast dissected mountain system extending from Ellesmere Island to the northernmost tip of Labrador and northeastern Quebec; the Conger Range is a structural extension of the Garfield Range and continues into the highlands north of the head of Hare Fiord. The overall extent of the range is about 180 km. Most of its peaks are ice-covered. Many of the valleys between the peaks are filled with glacial tongues spilling out to the south from the Grand Land Ice Cap, its highest point is Mount Biederbick at 1,542 m. The Conger Range was named by American Polar explorer Adolphus Greely, who sighted them during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island in 1882
Nunavut is the newest and most northerly territory of Canada. It was separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the boundaries had been drawn in 1993; the creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland in 1949. Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, as well as North America's second-largest. The capital Iqaluit, on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Cambridge Bay. Nunavut includes Ellesmere Island to the far north, as well as the eastern and southern portions of Victoria Island in the west, all islands in Hudson and Ungava Bays, including Akimiski Island far to the southeast of the rest of the territory.
It is Canada's only geo-political region, not connected to the rest of North America by highway. Nunavut is the second-least populous of Canada's provinces and territories. One of the world's most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944 Inuit, spread over a land area of just over 1,750,000 km2, or smaller than Mexico. Nunavut is home to the world's northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert. Eureka, a weather station on Ellesmere Island, has the lowest average annual temperature of any Canadian weather station. Nunavut means "our land" in the native language Inuktitut. Nunavut covers 160,935 km2 of water in Northern Canada; the territory includes part of the mainland, most of the Arctic Archipelago, all of the islands in Hudson Bay, James Bay, Ungava Bay, including the Belcher Islands, all of which belonged to the Northwest Territories from which Nunavut was separated. This makes it the fifth-largest subnational entity in the world. If Nunavut were a country, it would rank 15th in area.
Nunavut has long land borders with the Northwest Territories on the mainland and a few Arctic islands, with Manitoba to the south of the Nunavut mainland. Through its small satellite territories in the southeast, it has short land borders with Newfoundland and Labrador on Killiniq Island, with Ontario in two locations in James Bay – the larger located west of Akimiski Island, the smaller around the Albany River near Fafard Island – and with Quebec in many locations, such as near Eastmain and near Inukjuak, it shares maritime borders with Greenland and the provinces of Quebec and Manitoba. Nunavut's highest point is Barbeau Peak on Ellesmere Island; the population density is one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland has the same area and nearly twice the population. Nunavut experiences a polar climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude and lower continental summertime influence than areas to the west. In more southerly continental areas cold subarctic climates can be found, due to July being milder than the required 10 °C.
The region now known as Nunavut has supported a continuous indigenous population for 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island with the Helluland described in Norse sagas, so it is possible that the inhabitants of the region had occasional contact with Norse sailors. In September 2008, researchers reported on the evaluation of existing and newly excavated archaeological remains, including yarn spun from a hare, tally sticks, a carved wooden face mask that depicts Caucasian features, possible architectural material; the materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and settlers on Baffin Island, not than 1000 CE, they seem to indicate prolonged contact up to 1450. The origin of the Old World contact is unclear. So... you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
The written historical accounts of Nunavut begin in 1576, with an account by English explorer Martin Frobisher. While leading an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, Frobisher thought he had discovered gold ore around the body of water now known as Frobisher Bay on the coast of Baffin Island; the ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the Inuit. Other explorers in search of the elusive Northwest Passage followed in the 17th century, including Henry Hudson, William Baffin and Robert Bylot. Cornwallis and Ellesmere Islands featured in the history of the Cold War in the 1950s. Concerned about the area's strategic geopolitical position, the federal government relocated Inuit from Nunavik to Resolute and Grise Fiord. In the unfamiliar and hostile conditions, they were forced to stay. Forty years the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report titled The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–
The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera; the mountains form a peninsula. The Torngat Mountains have a substantial geographical extent. About 56% of the range is located in Quebec, 44% is in Labrador, the remainder, less than 1%, is located on Killiniq Island in Nunavut. At least 2% of the mountain chain is under water, poorly surveyed; the Torngat Mountains cover 30,067 square kilometres, including lowland areas and extend over 300 km from Cape Chidley in the north to Hebron Fjord in the south. The Torngat Mountains have the highest peaks of eastern continental Canada; the highest point is Mount Caubvick at 1,652 m. There are no trees in the Torngat Mountains because the mountains lie in an arctic tundra climate and are therefore above the tree line. Permafrost is continuous on the Quebec side of the border, it is extensive but discontinuous on the eastern Atlantic side.
The terrain is predominantly rocky desert. Precambrian gneisses that comprise the Torngat Mountains are among the oldest on Earth and have been dated at 3.6 to 3.9 billion years old. Geologists recognize the gneisses of the Torngats as a part of the Canadian Shield or Laurentian Upland, composing the old North American Craton, split from the continent of Rodinia 750 million years ago to form the geologic core of North America. However, the mountain-building or orogeny of the Torngats took place much more and is characteristic of the folding and faulting that defines the series of geological events known as Arctic Cordillera. This, according to some, makes the Torngats, as mountains, "distinct compared to the surrounding Precambrian Canadian Shield," though they are composed of shield rock. Evidence of this dramatic cordilleran folding and faulting characterizing the Torngat Mountains can be seen distinctly in rocks where the North American Craton long ago collided with the Nain Craton exposed in cross-section by glacial scouring at Saglek Fjord.
The ranges of the Torngat Mountains are separated by deep fjords and finger lakes surrounded by sheer rock walls. The fjords were produced by glaciation; the Laurentide ice sheet covered most of the mountains at least once, however during the last ice age the coverage was more limited. There are over 100 active small mountain glaciers in the Torngat Mountains with a total of about 195 ice masses in the region. Caribou travel through the Torngat Mountains, polar bears roam along the coast. Numerous species of vegetation common to the Arctic region of Canada are found in the Torngat Mountains; the name Torngat is derived from an Inuktitut word meaning place of spirits, sometimes interpreted as place of evil spirits. The Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve was announced on 1 December 2005, it aims to protect wildlife. In the CBC Series Geological Journey the Torngat mountains are featured. Notably, a billion-year-old coal seam was discovered in the Torngat mountains on the Newfoundland Coast as part of the filming of the series.
Backcountry Magazine ran a feature story written by Drew Pogge in 2009 on steep skiing in the Torngat Mountains, notably first descents in Nachvak and Saglek fjords, as well as on the Caubvick massif. Arctic Cordillera List of mountain ranges Torngat Mountains National Park Torngat Mountains Great photos of the mountain range Statistics Canada Principal heights by range or region Tales from the Torngats, August 2004 Alexander Forbes Collection: Aerial photo survey of Labrador from 1931, 1932, 1935 expeditions - University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries Digital Collections Torngat Mountains: Canada's newest national park
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
British Empire Range
The British Empire Range is a mountain range on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. The range is one of the most northern ranges in the world and the Arctic Cordillera, surpassed only by the Challenger Mountains which lies to the northwest and the United States Range further east; the highest mountain in the range is Barbeau Peak. The range was named by Gordon Noel Humphreys during the Oxford University Ellesmere Land Expedition. Edward Shackleton a member of the party, claimed, in 1937, that Humphreys had done so because he was "a great imperialist". Peaks of the range include: Geographical Names of the Ellesmere Island National Park Reserve and Vicinity by Geoffrey Hattersley-Smith ISBN 0-919034-96-9
Sawtooth Range (Nunavut)
The Sawtooth Range is a jagged snow-capped mountain range on central Ellesmere Island, Canada. It lies between the Wolf Valley; the Sawtooth Range is a subrange of the Arctic Cordillera. It runs through a Canadian Forces Station, called Eureka, a base used to study atmospheric changes. Widespread clastic deposits, 80–1,800 m long, on the eastern side of the Sawtooth Range are the result of debris flows and slushflows. List of mountain ranges