Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
A cricket net is a practice net used by batsmen and bowlers to warm up and/or improve their cricketing techniques. Cricket nets consist of a cricket pitch, enclosed by cricket nets on either side, to the rear and optionally the roof; the bowling end of the net is left open. Cricket nets are the cricket equivalent of baseball's batting cages, though fundamentally different, as baseball cages provide complete ball containment, whereas cricket nets do not. Cricket nets serve to stop the ball travelling across a field when the batsman plays a shot – saving time and eliminating the need for fielders, they negate the need for a wicket-keeper should ball travel past the bat. They allow greater intensity of training when multiple lane cricket nets are used. Cricket nets allow solitary batting practise. Cricket nets are used at every level of cricket. Professional cricket establishments are to have over 10 lanes of nets, have the capacity to practise indoors and outdoor. Cricket nets are very prevalent in educational establishments.
They are desirable in these fields as they allow safe and efficient training with a high volume of pupils where there are significant constraints on time. Completing the spectrum is their use as garden cricket nets. Cricket nets are common site in the gardens of keen cricketers and are rightfully considered important to the development of young cricket players. There is a safety element that cricket nets bring. By containing the majority of aerial cricket balls, cricket nets nullify the danger of potential injury occurring from 4¾ oz and 5½ oz cricket balls striking people who are within range of the batsman. Though due to the practical requirement of having an opening in the net it is still common for balls to exit the net, as such shouts of heads up are heard. Indoor cricket nets differ from outdoor nets, they are suspended on an aluminium track way which are fixed to the ceiling of sports hall or gymnasium. The nets can drop 8–4 metres to reach the ground, before travelling at least 20 metres laterally, which provides a substantial practise enclosure.
Indoors nets are multi lane, with 2 or 4 bay nets being common. Unlike outdoor cricket nets where the netting is black, indoor nets tend to be white, they have a separate canvas screen which enclose the area surrounding the batsman and rise to a height of 3 metres. The purpose of this is twofold; the second is from a privacy aspect – the impression of seclusion allows for more focused batsman and reduces the risk of distractions. Indoor cricket nets will be found in all sports halls and gyms where the suspension on runners provides a curtain type system for the nets and allows the nets to be pulled in and out of use; the flexible nature of these nets allows for multi sport use of sports halls, fundamental to the success of all commercially operated sports centres. Outdoor cricket nets are most common form of practise nets, they take shape and form in many different guises, with some nets being homemade whilst others are professional manufactured and installed, this is reflected throughout the world.
Regardless of their design and construction, outdoor crickets all have the same purpose of allowing batting and bowling practise within an enclosed space where the ball is contained. The design and construction of outdoor cricket nets tends to be based around two factors. In schools and cricket clubs where levels of use will be high the construction of the cricket cage will be tailored to suit these requirements. A further unfortunate consideration has to be made into the likelihood that the cricket nets will be subject to misuse or vandalism. Therefore, the frames of cricket cages are constructed out of heavy duty galvanised steel with an overall diameter ranging from 34mm – 50mm, the steel tube is joined by galvanised key-clamp brackets; this system requires ground sockets to be concreted into the ground, although these cannot be removed the actual frame of the cage can still be dismantled. There are variations in the design of outdoor nets such as a pulley and ratchet system where the net is mounted on a cable which spans posts located at either end of the practise net.
Garden cricket nets are DIY and quite take the form of a professional design with locally sourced components. This occurs due to cost implications, but due to the fact cricket nets are fundamentally simple in design and purpose and thus increase the feasibility of constructing a homemade cricket net. There are few rules of thumb to follow with size; the width should be no less than 9 ft, with 12 ft being optimum. The height should be no less than 9 ft if the length of net is longer than 24 ft, this is increased to 10 ft up to a length of 36 ft and nets with roof lengths beyond 36 ft should have a net height of 12 ft – this is to prevent balls ending up on the roof of the cricket net after being bowled; the length of the net is flexible, however the longer the net the more ball containment and the safer the surround training area is. There is a further type of outdoor cricket nets, this is a mobile cricket net. A steel framed cricket cage can be adapted with wheels to allow them to be become completel
A Twenty20 International is a form of cricket, played between two of the international members of the International Cricket Council, in which each team faces twenty overs. The matches are the highest T20 standard; the game is played under the rules of Twenty20 cricket. Starting from the format's inception in 2005, T20I status only applied to Full Members and some Associate Member teams. However, in April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all its 105 members from 1 January 2019; the shortened format was introduced to bolster crowds for the domestic game, was not intended to be played internationally, but the first Twenty20 International took place on 17 February 2005 when Australia defeated New Zealand, the first tournament was played two years with the introduction of the ICC T20 World Cup. In 2016, for the first time in a calendar year, more Twenty20 International matches were played than ODI matches. There remain limits on how many Twenty20 Internationals a team can play each year, in order to protect Test cricket and One Day Internationals.
As of 1 January 2019, 17 nations feature in ICC T20I team rankings. Twenty20 International format sees one mandatory powerplay taken in the first six overs; this shorter format of the game makes reaching the traditional milestones of scoring a century or taking five wickets in an innings more difficult, few players have achieved these. The highest individual score in a Twenty20 International is 172, made by Australia's Aaron Finch against Zimbabwe in 2018, while Sri Lanka's Ajantha Mendis and India's Yuzvendra Chahal are the only bowlers to have taken two six wickets in an innings, fewer than twenty players have taken five wickets in an innings. Cricket itself was first played in England in the Late Middle Ages, but it did not rise to prominence until the eighteenth century. A set of laws were drawn up in 1744, the game achieved a level of relative standardisation by the late nineteenth century. One-day cricket was trialled in 1962, the first domestic tournament played the following year, in 1971, England and Australia contested the first One Day International.
The match consisted with 40 eight-ball overs. In the 1990s, a number of countries were exploring the possibility of a shorter game still: in New Zealand, Martin Crowe developed Cricket Max, in which each team bats for 10 eight-ball overs, while in Australia they considered an eight-a-side contest they dubbed "Super 8s". At the same time, the England and Wales Cricket Board conducted consumer research, proposed the idea of a 20 overs-per-side contest, which would last for about three hours; the first match was played in 2003 between Sussex. The first Twenty20 International match between two men's sides was played on 17 February 2005, involving Australia and New Zealand. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack reported that "neither side took the game seriously", it was noted by ESPNcricinfo that but for a large score for Ricky Ponting, "the concept would have shuddered". However, Ponting himself said "if it does become an international game I'm sure the novelty won't be there all the time". Two further matches were played that year.
Early the following year, a contest between New Zealand and the West Indies finished as the first tied match, a tiebreak was played for the first time in men's international cricket: the two sides took part in a bowl-out to determine a winner. The game had been developed to boost the interest in domestic cricket, to aid this the international teams were only allowed to host three T20Is each year; the cricket manager for the ICC, David Richardson commented that "Part of the success of Twenty20 cricket is making sure it can coexist with Test cricket and one-dayers." Despite this, the first international tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa. That tournament was won by India. Writing for The Guardian, Dilip Premachandran suggested that the competition's success meant that "the format is here to stay"; the next tournament was scheduled for 2009, it was decided that they would take place biannually. In the opening match of the 2007 World Twenty20, Chris Gayle scored the first century in a T20I, the achievement being reached in the twentieth match of the format.
The 500th T20I match was contested between Ireland and the United Arab Emirates at the Sheikh Zayed Stadium, Abu Dhabi on 16 February 2016. ICC decided to use Umpire Decision Review System in Twenty20 Internationals from the end of September 2017, with its first use in the India-Australia T20I series in October 2017. Prior to 2019, permanent T20I status was limited to the 12 Test-playing nations; these nations are listed below, with the date of their first T20I after gaining permanent T20I status shown in brackets: New Zealand Australia England South Africa West Indies Sri Lanka Pakistan Bangladesh Zimbabwe India Afghanistan Ireland In April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all of its 105 members from 1 January 2019. The following countries have now played T20 Internationals from 1 January 2019: Bahrain Saudi Arabia (20 Janua
One Day International
A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format, held every four years. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one-day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one-day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.
The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each; the Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings.
The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result is determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method, a method with statistical approach.
It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate. In other words, a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; the original DL-method however had a few inherent flaws. For example, Tony Lewis, one of the formulators of this method recognized after the match between India and Kenya during the 1999 World Cup held in Bristol, that the original method gave an unfair advantage to the team chasing scores above 350 runs in a 50 overs match. Hence, the method was revised and a new version was released in 2004. There was one more such change made, first implemented on 2009.
Off late, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method is used, a modification of the DL-Method suggested by Prof. Steven Stern, it was first implemented during the 2015 World Cup. One of the major changes made to DLS from DL method was based on a historic analysis by Prof. Stern that a team with higher run rate in their initial stages has a greater chance to get to a high score than a team with slow initial run rate, but more wickets in hand; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cu
In the sport of cricket, a century is a score of 100 or more runs in a single innings by a batsman. The term is included in "century partnership" which occurs when two batsmen add 100 runs to the team total when they are batting together. A century is regarded as a landmark score for batsmen and a player's number of centuries is recorded in his career statistics. Scoring a century is loosely equivalent in merit to a bowler taking five wickets in an innings, is referred to as a ton or hundred. Scores of more than 200 runs are still statistically counted as a century, although these scores are referred as double and quadruple centuries, so on. Accordingly, reaching 50 runs in an innings is known as a half-century. Chris Gayle holds the record of fastest hundred in the history of cricket when he smashed 100 in just 30 balls and scored 175* runs off 66 balls overall in 20 overs in IPL against Pune Warriors India in 2013. Centuries were uncommon until the late 19th century because of the difficulties in batting on pitches that had only rudimentary preparation and were exposed to the elements.
There is doubt about the earliest known century, but the most definite claim belongs to John Minshull who scored 107 for the Duke of Dorset's XI v Wrotham at Sevenoaks Vine on 31 August 1769. This was a minor match; the first definite century in a top-class match was scored by John Small when he made 136 for Hampshire v Surrey at Broadhalfpenny Down in July 1775. The earliest known century partnership was recorded in 1767 between two Hambledon batsmen who added 192 for the first wicket against Caterham, it is believed they were Edward "Curry" Aburrow. When Hambledon played Kent at Broadhalfpenny in August 1768, the Reading Mercury reported: "what is remarkable, one Mr Small, of Petersfield, fetched above seven score notches off his own bat", it is not known if Small did this in one innings or if it was his match total. Hambledon batsmen Tom Sueter and George Leer are the first two players known to have shared a century partnership when they made 128 for the first wicket against Surrey at Broadhalfpenny Down in September 1769.
W. G. Grace was the first batsman to score 100 career centuries in first-class cricket, reaching the milestone in 1895, his career total of 124 centuries was subsequently passed by Jack Hobbs, whose total of 199 first-class centuries is the current record. The first century in Test cricket was scored by Charles Bannerman who scored 165 in the first Test between Australia and England; the first century partnership in Test cricket was between W. G. Grace and A. P. Lucas, batting for England, in the first innings of the only Test match between England and Australia on the Australians 1880 tour of England, played at the Kennington Oval; the current holder of the record for most centuries in Test cricket is Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has scored 51 centuries. The first One Day International century was scored by Denis Amiss who amassed 103 runs against Australia at Old Trafford in 1972.. Sachin Tendulkar holds the record for most ODI centuries, having scored 49 ODI Centuries; the first Twenty20 International century was scored by Chris Gayle who amassed 117 runs against South Africa at Johannesburg in the first match of ICC World Twenty20 tournament in 2007.
Rohit Sharma holds the record for most T20I centuries, having scored 4 T20I Centuries. The fastest recorded century in Test cricket terms of balls faced is held by Brendon McCullum who scored 100 runs from 54 balls against Australia at Christchurch, New Zealand in 2016, beating the previous record of 56 held jointly by Viv Richards and Misbah-ul-Haq; the record for the fastest recorded century in terms of balls faced in first-class cricket is held by David Hookes who scored 102 runs from 34 balls for South Australia vs Victoria in a Sheffield Shield match in 1982. Chris Gayle holds the record for the fastest century in Twenty20, during an Indian Premier League in April 2013, reaching the milestone off only 30 balls. In One day International cricket the fastest century is held by South African batsman AB De Villiers. De Villiers' century came up in just 31 balls against the West Indies in the 2nd ODI at Johannesburg on 18 January 2015. De Villiers' hundred included 10 sixes. Corey Anderson is second with 36 balls century against West Indies in Queenstown on 1 January 2014 and Shahid Afridi is third with 37 balls century against Sri Lanka in Nairobi on 4 October 1996.
2 back to back One Day international centuries were scored for the West Indies in the Caribbean in 2 home series against Bangladesh and England When Guyana's Shimron Hetmyer scored 125 off 93 balls against Bangladesh in the 2nd one day international of the 3-match one day international series which Bangladesh won 2-1 and 104 not out off 83 balls against England in the 2nd one day international of the 5- match one day international series which ended in A 2-2 draw David Miller of South Africa hit the fastest century in Twenty20 international cricket against Bangladesh on 29 October 2017. Miller brought up his century in just 35 balls. Rohit Sharma of India equalled the record of the fastest century in T20 international cricket against Sri Lanka on 22 December 2017. Rohit Sharma got his century in 35 balls equalling the record. List of cricketers by number of international centuries scored Nervous nineties
In cricket a boundary is the edge or boundary of the playing field, or a scoring shot where the ball is hit to or beyond that point. The boundary is the edge of the playing field, or the physical object marking the edge of the field, such as a rope or fence. In low-level matches, a series of plastic cones are used. Since the early 2000s the boundaries at professional matches are a series of padded cushions carrying sponsors' logos strung along a rope. If it is moved during play the boundary is considered to remain at the point where that object first stood; when the cricket ball is inside the boundary, it is live. When the ball is touching the boundary, grounded beyond the boundary, or being touched by a fielder, himself either touching the boundary or grounded beyond it, it is dead and the batting side scores 4 or 6 runs for hitting the ball over the boundary; because of this rule, fielders near the boundary attempting to intercept the ball while running or diving flick the ball back in to the field of play rather than pick it up directly, because their momentum could carry them beyond the rope while holding the ball.
They return to the field to pick the ball up and throw it back to the bowler. A law change in 2010 declared that a fielder could not jump from behind the boundary and, while airborne, parry the ball back on to the field. A boundary is the scoring of four or six runs from a single delivery with the ball reaching or crossing the boundary of the playing field. There is an erroneous use of the term boundary as a synonym for a "four". For example, sometimes commentators say such as "There were seven boundaries and three sixes in the innings." The correct terminology would be "There were ten boundaries in the innings of which seven were fours and three were sixes." Four runs are scored if the ball bounces before touching or going over the edge of the field and six runs if it does not bounce before passing over the boundary in the air. These events are known as a four or a six respectively; when this happens the runs are automatically added to the batsman's and his team's score and the ball becomes dead.
If the ball did not touch the bat or a hand holding the bat, four runs are scored as the relevant type of extra instead. Prior to 1910, six runs were only awarded for hits out of the ground. Four runs can be scored by hitting the ball into the outfield and running between the wickets. Four runs scored in this way is referred to as an "all run four" and is not counted as a boundary. Four runs are scored as overthrows if a fielder gathers the ball and throws it so that no other fielder can gather it before it reaches the boundary. In this case, the batsman who hit the ball scores however many runs the batsmen had run up to that time, plus four additional runs, it is counted as a boundary. If the ball has not come off the bat or hand holding the bat the runs are classified as'extras' and are added to the team's score but not to the score of any individual batsman; the scoring of a four or six by a good aggressive shot displays a certain amount of mastery by the batsman over the bowler, is greeted by applause from the spectators.
Fours resulting from an edged stroke, or from a shot that did not come off as the batsman intended, are considered bad luck to the bowler. As a batsman plays himself in and becomes more confident as his innings progresses, the proportion of his runs scored in boundaries rises. An average first-class match sees between 50 and 150 boundary fours. Sixes are less common, fewer than 10 will be scored in the course of a match; the record for most sixes in a Test match innings is 12, achieved by Pakistani all-rounder Wasim Akram during an innings of 257 not out against Zimbabwe in October 1996 at Sheikhupura. The One Day International record for most sixes hit in an innings is held by Rohit Sharma who hit 16 sixes against Australia in Bengaluru on 2 November 2013 in his innings of 209 off 158 balls. Brendon McCullum holds the record for most sixes in a Test career with 107. Shahid Afridi holds the record for most sixes in an ODI career; the record for the most sixes in a Test match is 27, which occurred during a 2006 Test match between Pakistan and India at the Iqbal Stadium in Faisalabad.
In their first innings, Pakistan hit. India hit nine in their first innings. Pakistan hit seven more sixes in their second innings; the record for most sixes in a One Day International is 38, achieved in a match between India and Australia at M Chinnaswamy Stadium on 2 November 2013. India and Australia hit 19 sixes each; the equivalent record in Twenty20 Internationals was set on the AMI Stadium, 24 sixes were hit during the Twenty20 International match between India and New Zealand on 25 February 2009. In 2012, during the First Test against Bangladesh in Dhaka, West Indies cricketer Chris Gayle became the first player to hit a six off the first ball in a Test cricket match. On 31 August 1968, Garfield Sobers became the first man to hit six sixes off a single six-ball over in first-class cricket; the over was bowled by Malcolm Nash in Nottinghamshire's first innings against Glamorgan at St Helen's in Swansea. Nash was a seam bowler but decided to try his arm at spin bowling; this achievement was caught on film.
On 10 January 1985, Ravi Shastri equaled Garry Sobers's record of hitting six sixes in an over in first class cricket. On 19 September 2007, during a match between England and India in the inaugural T20 World Cup, Yuvraj Singh became the first Indian ba
Grenada is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island, it is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres, it had an estimated population of 107,317 in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters; the national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove. Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued until 1974. From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974. Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, without breaking formal ties with the Commonwealth, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government, headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister.
On 19 October 1983, hard-line Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. Bishop was freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but he was captured and executed by soldiers, replaced with a military council chaired by Hudson Austin. On 25 October 1983, forces from the United States and the Barbados-based Regional Security System invaded Grenada in a U. S.-led operation code-named Operation Urgent Fury. The invasion was criticised by the governments of Britain and Tobago and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989; the origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada. By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use.
On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named "Assumpción" and Grenada he named "La Concepción". In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years. In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo disappeared from Spanish maps and an island called "Granada" took its place. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
After French settlement and colonisation in 1652, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris; the British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time. About 2 million years ago, Grenada was formed as an underwater volcano. Grenada was inhabited by Arawaks and, Island Caribs before it was invaded and colonized by Europeans. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the new world. In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique led by Jacques du Parquet founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. Within months this led to conflict with the local islanders which lasted until 1654 when the island was subjugated by the French; the indigenous islanders who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada where they were marginalised—the last distinct communities disappeared during the 1700s.
Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; the French named their new colony La Grenade, the economy was based on sugar cane and indigo. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal. To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby Fren