Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site is a 745-acre park near Perryville in Boyle County, Kentucky. An interpretive museum is located near the site where many Confederate soldiers killed in the Battle of Perryville were buried, monuments, interpretive signage, and cannons mark notable events that occurred during the battle. The site became part of the Kentucky State Park System in 1936. The battle was fought on October 8,1862, between the Union Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, perryvilles homes and farms were left in shambles by the battle. During the battle Bottom had significant damage to his farm, other accounts note that nearly all residents of the area suffered some losses as well as having their homes and outbuildings used as field hospitals. The main force of the Union army had buried most of their dead in long trenches before pursuing Bragg, Union soldiers finally forced local residents to help them lay the dead in shallow trenches carved in the dry soil.
Two months later,347 were reburied in a grave on Bottoms land. In 1886 a total of 435 Confederates were buried on Bottoms land, although Bottom claimed that about 100 were identified, the only remnants of the cemetery were a corner of a stone wall and one headstone—that of Samuel H. Ransom of the 1st Tennessee Infantry CSA. At the end of the war in 1865, Union soldiers reburied the remains of 969 Federal dead in a cemetery at Perryville with a stone wall. Around the time of the centennial, numerous scholars worked to establish the importance of the Western campaigns. In recent years, appreciation for what happened at Perryville and other battlefields in Kentucky, more than 7,000 acres at Perryville are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and the site averages around 100,000 visitors per year. A reenactment of the battle occurs each October, the Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association was created in 1991 to preserve and protect the park. The acquisition of 149 acres of farmland from a descendant of Henry Bottom more than doubled the size of the park, the Civil War Trust has as of 2013 saved 954 acres of the battlefield.
Numerous acres of this land have been incorporated in the state park yearly. Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville, This Grand Havoc of Battle, University Press of Kentucky,2001, Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site Kentucky Department of Parks
Carter Caves State Resort Park
Carter Caves State Resort Park is located in Carter County, United States, along Tygarts Creek. It is formed by Carter Caves, and nearby Cascade Caves, on December 16,1981,146 acres of the park were designated as nature preserves. Bat Cave and Cascade Caverns State Nature Preserves were dedicated for the protection of the Indiana bat, mountain maple, the purchase of the caves and surrounding land was driven by Governor William Jason Fields, a native of Carter County. Carter Caves is a resort park that features a lodge, cottages, 18-hole putt-putt course, 9-hole golf course, full-service campground. It has various tours available year-round that displays and explains the wonders of the underground world. It has horse riding stables. It is well known for its splendor above and below ground, there are several different Cave Tours offered. Guided tours of Cascade Cave and X-Cave are available year-round, Cascade Cave is the name for three different caves in the same area and is together the largest cave in the park.
It features an underground room and an 30-foot underground waterfall. X Cave, named for the pattern of its passages, features some of the largest rock formations in the park. Saltpetre Cave was mined during the War of 1812 because saltpetre, historic activities are a major part of the Saltpetre Cave tour. Bat Cave is toured in the months, between Memorial Day and Labor Day, and is considered a wild cave tour since the cave has not been improved for walking tours. The cave is unique in that it is a hibernaculum for the endangered Indiana Bat in the winter months, Laurel Cave is the most visited of the non-commercial caves in the park, and contains some of the most interesting passages. Laurel Cave is open to the public during business hours in the summer months only. All that is required is a permit available at the Welcome Center/Gift Shop, the permit gives you legal access to Laurel Cave, Horn Hollow Caves and the connected Rimstone Cave. Over thirty miles of hiking trails encounter seven natural bridges throughout the park, the Cascade Trail is a three-quarter mile trail passing through Box Canyon.
The Three Bridges Trail winds three and a quarter miles and includes the parks largest natural bridge, the Smokey Bridge and this trail passes by Fern Bridge and Raven Bridge as it meanders through the park. The half-mile Natural Bridge Trail passes beneath a natural bridge
E. P. "Tom" Sawyer State Park
E. P. Tom Sawyer State Park is a 550-acre Kentucky state park located in the Freys Hill area of Louisville, Kentucky, on former land of Kentuckys Central State Hospital. Sawyer was the father of journalist Diane Sawyer, the parks amenities include an activities center with a gymnasium that has indoor courts for badminton and volleyball as well as an Olympic-sized swimming pool and weight room. The park is the site of the Louisville Astronomical Societys Urban Astronomy Center, in 2010, the state took over Otter Creek Park in a separate deal and it reopened in 2011 as an outdoor recreation area operated by the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area List of parks in the Louisville metropolitan area Kleber, John E. et al
Jenny Wiley State Resort Park
Jenny Wiley State Resort Park was at first named Jenny Wiley State Park on January 1,1954 with Dewey Lake near Prestonsburg, Kentucky as its centerpiece. It is named for Virginia Jenny Wiley, a woman who is remembered as a survivor of Indian captivity. Taken captive October 1,1789, by Indians of the area, Shawnees and Delawares and she escaped after 11 months of captivity. Jenny Wiley became pregnant and gave birth during the captivity, and her dramatic escape in the spring of 1790 is now a legendary tale of early American frontier life in the Levisa Fork River area and the Big Sandy Valley. Of the parks 2,871 acres,1,100 acres is Dewey Lake, the Kentucky record for largest tiger muskie was at Dewey Lake. Dewey Lake was named for the hero of the Battle of Manila Bay, Admiral George Dewey, the park lies in a Moist Appalachian environment, dominated by maple and tulip poplars. The parks hotel, May Lodge, has 49 rooms, many rental cabins, the Music Highway Grill uses locally grown produce and dairy.
The Jenny Wiley Amphitheater produces numerous plays, such as The Wizard of Oz and A Chorus Line, fishing is very popular, with many boat launches as well as a full service boat dock at the May Lodge. The Jenny Wiley Trail marks the path Wiley took to escape her Cherokee tormentors, the beautiful scenery and low traffic make this one of the best kept secrets among Bicycle Tourists and Randoneers. Multiday bicycle camping and touring clinics are offered in fall and winter during the turning of the leaves, an 18-hole golf course is available among other outdoor activities. Dawkins Line Rail Trail Jenny Wiley State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Jenny Wiley Theatre
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
Floyd County, Kentucky
Floyd County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,451, the county, founded in 1800, is named for Colonel John Floyd. On December 13,1799, the Kentucky General Assembly passed legislation to form Floyd County as the 40th county of Kentucky, the county was made from parts of Fleming and Mason County, Kentucky. The legislation became effective on June 1,1800, the county was named for James John Floyd, a pioneer surveyor who helped lay out the city of Louisville. The county seat was Prestons Station, renamed Prestonsburg, the first court house burned down on April 8,1808, destroying all the early records, so the earliest records of government activity do not date prior to 1808. In 1958, the county was the site of one of the deadliest bus accidents in U. S. history. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 396 square miles. Johnson County Martin County Pike County Knott County Magoffin County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,451 people residing in the county. 98.
2% were White,0. 7% Black or African American,0. 2% Asian,0. 1% Native American,0. 2% of some other race and 0. 6% of two or more races. As of the census of 2000, there were 42,441 people,16,881 households, the population density was 108 per square mile. There were 18,551 housing units at a density of 47 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97. 73% White,1. 29% Black or African American,0. 12% Native American,0. 24% Asian,0. 08% Pacific Islander,0. 12% from other races, and 0. 42% from two or more races. 0. 61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, the Kentucky Melungeons live primarily in Floyd and Magoffin counties, especially in a valley known as Big Lick in Floyd County. 25. 20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was out with 23. 60% under the age of 18,9. 40% from 18 to 24,30. 30% from 25 to 44,24. 50% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $21,168, and the median income for a family was $25,717. Males had an income of $30,242 versus $20,569 for females
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park
Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park is a Kentucky state park located on the northern shore of Kentucky Lake in Marshall County. The park encompasses 1,351 acres and is one of the more popular resort parks. The park features a center, 18-hole golf course. The park received a rating from two diamonds to three diamonds from the American Automobile Association in 2007. Cumberland Falls State Resort Park received the upgraded rating, the two facilities were the first state resort parks to achieve the three-diamond rating following AAAs revision of its rating system in 2001