St Antony's College, Oxford
St Antony's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1950 as the result of the gift of French merchant Sir Antonin Besse of Aden, St Antony's specialises in international relations, economics and area studies relative to Europe, former Soviet states, Latin America, the Middle East, Japan and South and South East Asia, it is consecutively ranked in the top five worldwide. The college is located in North Oxford, with Woodstock Road to the west, Bevington Road to the south and Winchester Road to the east; as of 2018, St Antony's had an estimated financial endowment of £43.8m. A men's college, it has been coeducational since 1962. St Antony's was founded in 1950 as the result of the gift of Sir Antonin Besse of Aden, a merchant of French descent. In 1947, Besse was considering giving around £2 million to the University of Oxford to found a new college. On the advice of his solicitor, R Clyde, who had attended New College, Besse decided to go ahead with the plan and permitted Clyde to approach the university with the offer.
The university was unreceptive to the offer, recommended that Besse instead devote his funds to improving the finances of some of the poorer existing colleges. Besse acquiesced, contributing a total of £250,000 in varied amounts to the following colleges: Keble, Worcester, St Peter's, Exeter, Lincoln and St Edmund Hall. After this large contribution, the university decided to reconsider Besse's offer to help found a new college and, recognising the need to provide for the ever-growing number of postgraduate students coming to Oxford, gave the venture their blessing; the attention of the university turned to providing the new college, by called St Antony's, with a permanent home. Ripon Hall was considered as a good option for a building in which to house the college, but its owners refused to sell, forcing the university to continue its search for premises, they looked at several properties in quick succession, including Youlbury, the Wytham Abbey estate, Manchester College, known to be in financial difficulties and which might thus consider the sale of its 19th-century Mansfield Road buildings.
None of these options proved tenable, the college began to look elsewhere. It is said that Besse became frustrated with the university and its apparent lack of interest in his project at this point, gave up any hope of its completion; however the college acquired its current premises at 62 Woodstock Road in 1950. The College first admitted students in Michaelmas Term 1950 and received its Royal Charter in 1953. A supplementary charter was granted in 1962 to allow the College to admit women as well as men, in 1963 the College became a full member of the University of Oxford. By 1952 the number of students at St Antony's had increased to 27 and by the end of the decade that number had risen to 260, amongst whom 34 different nationalities were represented; the college struggled due to a lack of funding, in the late 1960s serious consideration was given to uniting St Antony's with All Souls College when All Souls announced its intention to take a more active role in the education of graduate students.
The plan did not come to fruition. St Antony's lack of funds was solved under the wardenship of William Deakin, who devoted himself to college fund-raising and secured a number of generous loans from the Ford and Volkswagen foundations. Since St Antony's has constantly been financially insecure; this led to the cancellation of a number of proposed physical developments at its site on Woodstock Road. Not until the 1990s was it feasible for the college to embark upon a new building programme; the college is now recognised as one of the world's foremost centres for such studies. And houses centres for the study of Africa, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Russia and Eurasia. From the beginning Besse had expressed his hope that the new college, which he intended to open to men "irrespective of origin, race or creed", would prove instrumental in improving international cooperation and intercultural understanding; the college soon announced its primary role as such: "to be a centre of advanced study and research in the fields of modern international history, philosophy and politics and to provide an international centre within the University where graduate students from all over the world can live and work together in close contact with senior members of the University who are specialists in their fields".
The college is still true to its founding principle, remaining one of the most international colleges of the university, home to many of Oxford's region-specific study departments. This latter feature, combined with the wardenship of William Deakin and St Antony's reputation as a key centre for the study of Soviet affairs during the Cold War, led to rumours of links between the college and the British intelligence services; the official annals of the university state that St Antony's was one of four colleges, along with All Souls and Christ Church, which made a concerted effort to establish external links. In St Antony's case, the college established wide-ranging connections with diplomats
Mark Mazzetti is a two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist for the New York Times. He serves as a Washington Investigative Correspondent for the Times. Mazzetti was born in Washington, D. C, he attended Regis High School in New York City. He graduated from Duke University with a bachelor's degree in History, he earned a master's degree in history from Oxford University. Mazzetti is a two-time winner of The Pulitzer Prize. In 2009, he was part of a team of reporters to win the International Reporting prize for coverage of the rising violence in Afghanistan and Pakistan and Washington's response. In 2018, he shared the prize for National Reporting for groundbreaking coverage of the connections between Donald Trump's advisers and Russia and the widening investigation into Russia's sabotage of the 2016 presidential election. In 2008, he was a Pulitzer finalist for reporting on the C. I. A's detention and interrogation program. In 1998, shortly after receiving a master's degree from Oxford University, Mazzetti began reporting on national politics as a correspondent for The Economist.
After leaving The Economist in 2001, Mazzetti joined the staff of US News & World Report and began reporting on defense and national security as its Pentagon correspondent. In 2004 Mazzetti joined the staff of the Los Angeles Times, continued working with the Pentagon as a military affairs correspondent, his book, "The Way of the Knife: The C. I. A. A Secret Army, a War at the Ends of the Earth," was published in 2013, it has been translated into more than 10 languages. The book is an account of the secret wars waged by the C. I. A and Pentagon in the years after the Sept. 11 attacks. In 2003 Mazzetti spent two months reporting in Baghdad while traveling with the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. In late 2007, he broke the story of the CIA's destruction of interrogation video tapes depicting torture of Al Qaeda detainees; the story launched a Justice Department investigation into the episode, he won the Livingston Prize for National Reporting for his work on this story. The story about the tapes destruction led to an investigation into the C.
I. A.'s detention and interrogation program by the Senate Intelligence Committee. The committee's final report, released in December 2014, found widespread abuses in the program and regular use of torture. In addition to sharing the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting in 2009, he won the George Polk award with colleague Dexter Filkins for coverage of the secret wars being waged in Pakistan and Afghanistan. A 2007 article by Joseph Palermo said that Mazzetti and David Sanger were insufficiently skeptical of anonymous government and military sources in an article they co-wrote in the October 14, 2007, issue of the New York Times. Shortly afterwards, American intelligence agencies confirmed the New York Times' reporting, stating publicly that the Israeli military had struck an Israeli military reactor. In May 2011, Charles Kaiser cited a story written by Mazzetti in collaboration with Helene Cooper and Peter Baker “which credulously adopted the line of former Bush administration officials who were trying to convince the world that torture was the main reason that Bin Laden had been located.”The Puntland Government criticized a piece by Mazzetti and Eric Schmitt that portrayed the Puntland Maritime Police Force as a “private army”, “abandoned” by its major donors.
The article exposed how mercenaries hired by Erik Prince, the former head of Blackwater, training Somalis to combat piracy by the abandoned the program. Puntland officials clarified that the PMPF still is "part and parcel of Puntland Government’s security forces" and that they still receive the financial support from their backers, they criticized the authors for not acknowledging any of the PMPF's success and for neglecting to contact any Puntland Government officials to comment on the story. In 2011, he furnished the pre-publication text of an opinion column written by Maureen Dowd concerning the making of the movie "Zero Dark Thirty" to CIA spokesperson Marie Harf for review. Dowd had asked Mazzetti to fact-check a detail in the column for her. Times managing editor Dean Baquet dismissed the incident as "much ado about nothing," but the Times' public editor expressed strong disapproval of Mazzetti's actions. In 2016, he was part of a team of reporters who won the George Polk Award for an investigation into operations by Navy SEALs and for a lengthy examination of the operations of SEAL Team 6.
In December 2016, Mazzetti was named Washington Investigations editor, leading a team of reporters to look into all parts of the government and Washington. On May 30, 2010, Mazzetti and Lindsay Friedman were married in Virginia. In 2018, Mazzetti shared a Pulitzer Prize for reporting on Donald Trump's advisers and their connections to Russia. In 2009 Mazzetti shared a 2009 Pulitzer Prize for international reporting with Jane Perlez, Eric P. Schmitt and Pir Zubair Shah In 2008 Mazzetti received the Livingston award for national reporting, for an exposé revealing the CIA's destruction of controversial video tapes which exposed the United States' interrogation tactics for Al Qaeda detainees In 2006 Mazzetti received the Gerald R. Ford Prize for Distinguished Reporting on National Defense The Way of the Knife: The CIA, a Secret Army, a War at the Ends of the Earth, Penguin Press, 2013 ISBN 9781594204807 New York Times Index of Mark Mazzetti Articles Mark Mazzetti on Charlie Rose Appearances on C-SPAN
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
National Magazine Awards
The National Magazine Awards known as the Ellie Awards, honor print and digital publications that demonstrate superior execution of editorial objectives, innovative techniques, noteworthy enterprise and imaginative design. Limited to print magazines, the awards now recognize magazine-quality journalism published in any medium, they are sponsored by the American Society of Magazine Editors in association with Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and are administered by ASME in New York City. The awards have been presented annually since 1966; the Ellie Awards are judged by magazine journalists and journalism educators selected by the administrators of the awards. More than 300 judges participate every year; each judge is assigned to a judging group. Each judging group chooses five finalists. Judging results are subject to the approval of the National Magazine Awards Board, composed of current and former officers of ASME, the dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and veteran judges.
The current categories are: Finalists in each of the 20 Ellie Award categories receive certificates of recognition. The winner in each category receives a reproduction of Alexander Calder’s stabile "Elephant," the symbol of the awards since 1970. Among the notable changes for 2017 are the expansion of the Design and Photography categories to include digital entries and the suspension of the Fiction award. Honors print and digital magazines in six categories based on audience. Bloomberg Businessweek received the first award in 1973. No award was given from 1974 through 1980; when General Excellence returned as a category in 1981, it was given to four magazines per year until 1998, when five magazines received General Excellence awards. Six magazines received awards in 2002. From 2003 to 2010, the award went to eight. Since 2012, the award has gone to six magazines. Known as Visual Excellence. Honors overall excellence in print magazine design. Honors overall excellence in print magazine photography.
Known as Photo Portfolio/Photo Essay and Photo Portfolio. Honors the use of original photography in a feature story, photo-essay or photo portfolio. Honors magazines that have devoted a single issue to the comprehensive examination of one subject. No award was given in 2000 or 2001. Honors a published front- or back-of-the-book department or section. Known as Service to the Individual. Honors the use of print to serve aspirations. No award was given in 1981. Known as Special Interests. Honors the use of print to provide practical information about recreational activities and special interests. Honors magazine websites and online-only magazines. Known as Multimedia Feature or Package and Multimedia Package. Honors digital storytelling and the integration of magazine media. Honors the outstanding use of video by magazines published on digital platforms. Known as Public Service. Honors magazine journalism that illuminates issues of national importance. No award was given in 1973. Known as Reporting Excellence and New Reporting in 1988.
Honors reporting excellence as exemplified by a series of articles. Honors original, stylish storytelling. Incorporates Profile writing as of 2013. Category known as "Criticism & Belle-Lettres" and Essays. Honors "long-form journalism that presents the opinions of the writer on topics ranging from the personal to the political". Honors political and social commentary. Honors magazines for editorial excellence as demonstrated in print and on digital platforms for the quality and consistency of magazine-branded content and services produced by or associated with the publication, including but not limited to conferences and events. For the first four years of the National Magazine Awards, only one award was given. 1966 Look "for its skillful editing and editorial integrity, all of which were reflected in its treatment of the racial issue during 1965."1967 LIFE "in recognition of skillful and constructive editing as reflected in vivid photo reporting of the war in Vietnam, outstanding coverage of the civil rights issue, effective support for the preservation of great works of art—in keeping with an admirable tradition of public education on cultural subjects."1968 Newsweek "in recognition of that magazine's development of a new form of editorial analysis and advocacy in its major effort to present America's racial problems.
The'program of action,' published in Newsweek's issue of November 20, 1967, was a 23 page article combining reportage and opinion under the title'The Negro in America: What Must Be Done.' The judges considered the project labeled as a departure from Newsweek’s standard policy, to have been skillfully and responsibly executed. They consider it a useful and important form, when sparingly used, in the news magazine field."1969 American Machinist, a McGraw-Hill trade publication, recognized for its special issue, "Will John Garth Make It?" The study of U. S. industry’s role in combating unemployment among those that companies might consider unemployable, included Mr. Garth, a 26-year-old high school dropout and parolee. Identifying one winner was no doubt a challenge for the judges in the first years of the National Magazine
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872; the newspaper has won a total of 26 Pulitzer Prizes as of 2016, with a total paid circulation of 245,824 from September 2015 to August 2016, it is the 25th most read newspaper in the United States. The Boston Globe is the largest daily newspaper in Boston. Founded in the late 19th century, the paper was controlled by Irish Catholic interests before being sold to Charles H. Taylor and his family. After being held until 1973, it was sold to The New York Times in 1993 for $1.1 billion, making it one of the most expensive print purchases in U. S. history. The newspaper was purchased in 2013 by Boston Red Sox and Liverpool F. C. owner John W. Henry for $70 million from The New York Times Company, having lost 93.64% of its value in twenty years. The newspaper has been noted as "one of the nation’s most prestigious papers." The paper's coverage of the 2001–2003 Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal received international media attention and served as the basis of the 2015 American drama, Spotlight.
In 1967, The Globe became the first major paper in the United States to come out against the Vietnam War. The chief print rival of The Boston Globe is the Boston Herald; as of 2013, The Globe circulates the entire press run of its rival. The editor-in-chief, otherwise known as the editor, of the paper is Brian McGrory who took the helm in December 2012; the Boston Globe was founded in 1872 by six Boston businessmen, including Charles H. Taylor and Eben Jordan, who jointly invested $150,000; the first issue was published on March 4, 1872, cost four cents. A morning daily, it began a Sunday edition in 1877, which absorbed the rival Boston Weekly Globe in 1892. In 1878, The Boston Globe started an afternoon edition called The Boston Evening Globe, which ceased publication in 1979. By the 1890s, The Boston Globe had become a stronghold, with an editorial staff dominated by Irish American Catholics. In 1912, the Globe was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the Chicago Daily News, The New York Globe, the Philadelphia Bulletin, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate.
In 1965, Thomas Winship succeeded Larry Winship, as editor. The younger Winship transformed The Globe from a mediocre local paper into a regional paper of national distinction, he served as editor until 1984, during which time the paper won a dozen Pulitzer Prizes, the first in the paper's history. The Boston Globe was a private company until 1973 when it went public under the name Affiliated Publications, it continued to be managed by the descendants of Charles H. Taylor. In 1993, The New York Times Company purchased Affiliated Publications for US$1.1 billion, making The Boston Globe a wholly owned subsidiary of The New York Times' parent. The Jordan and Taylor families received substantial New York Times Company stock, but the last Taylor family members have since left management. Boston.com, the online edition of The Boston Globe, was launched on the World Wide Web in 1995. Ranked among the top ten newspaper websites in America, it has won numerous national awards and took two regional Emmy Awards in 2009 for its video work.
Under the helm of editor Martin Baron and Brian McGrory, The Globe shifted away from coverage of international news in favor of Boston-area news. Globe reporters Michael Rezendes, Matt Carroll, Sacha Pfeiffer and Walter Robinson and editor Ben Bradlee Jr. were an instrumental part of uncovering the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal in 2001–2003 in relation to Massachusetts churches. They were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for their work, one of several the paper has received for its investigative journalism, their work was dramatized in the 2015 Academy Award-winning film Spotlight, named after the paper's in-depth investigative division; the Boston Globe is credited with allowing Peter Gammons to start his Notes section on baseball, which has become a mainstay in all major newspapers nationwide. In 2004, Gammons was selected as the 56th recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for outstanding baseball writing, given by the BBWAA, was honored at the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 31, 2005.
In 2007, Charlie Savage, whose reports on President Bush's use of signing statements made national news, won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. The Boston Globe has been ranked in the forefront of American journalism. Time magazine listed it as one of the ten best US daily newspapers in 1974 and 1984, the Globe tied for sixth in a national survey of top editors who chose "America's Best Newspapers" in the Columbia Journalism Review in 1999; the Boston Globe hosts 28 blogs covering a variety of topics including Boston sports, local politics and a blog made up of posts from the paper's opinion writers. On April 2, 2009, The New York Times Company threatened to close the paper if its unions did not agree to $20,000,000 of cost savings; some of the cost savings include reducing union employees' pay by 5%, ending pension contributions, ending certain employees' tenures. The Boston Globe eliminated the equivalent of fifty full-time jobs. However, early on the morning of May 5, 2009, The New York Times Company announced it had reached a tentative deal with the Boston Newspaper Guild, which represents most of the Globe's editorial staff, that allowed it to get the concessions it demanded.
The paper's other three major unions had agreed to concessions on May 3, 2009, after The New York Times Company threatened to give