Zabul is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the south of the country. It has a rural population of about 289,300. Zabul became an independent province from neighbouring Kandahar in 1963, it was part of the Zabulistan region. Qalat serves as the capital of the province. Zabul borders Oruzgan in the north, Kandahar in the west and in the south and Paktika in the east, it borders Pakistan in the east. The province covers an area of 17293 km2. Two-fifths of the province is mountainous or semi mountainous terrain while more than one quarter of the area is made up of flat land; the primary ecoregion of the province is the central Afghan mountains xeric woodlands. Common vegetation is listed as dry pistachio; the high mountains of the northern portion of the province are in the Ghor-Hazarajat alpine meadow ecoregion, characterized by meadows and sea buckthorn. The current governor of the province is Bismillah Afghanmal; the city of Qalat is the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are controlled by the Afghan National Police.
Zabul's border with neighboring Balochistan province of Pakistan is monitored the Afghan Border Police. Plans are underway to construct new border stations in the near future; the provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces, including the National Directorate of Security and NATO-led forces; the province has struggled with retaining NGO's and teachers in the face of Taliban attacks and threats. Until 2006, the only major international presence was an American Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul based in Qalat District 32°07′47″N 066°55′41″E, when it was joined by a UNAMA & USAID/DAI branch. In 2006, the province's first airstrip was opened near Qalat, to be operated by the Afghan National Army, but for use by commercial aviation. Twice weekly service was scheduled by PRT Air between Kabul; the airstrip is not paved. The ANA Chief in Zabul is Major General Jamaluddin SayedZabul Province is bisected by Highway 1 and travelers going between Kandahar and Kabul via road pass through the province.
On 4 September 2016, at least 38 people were killed and 28 were injured during the September 2016 Afghanistan road crash. The percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 0% in 2005 to 32% in 2011; the percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 1% in 2005 to 5% in 2011. The overall literacy rate increased from 1% in 2005 to 19% in 2011; the overall net enrolment rate fell from 31.3% in 2005 to 5% in 2011. The total population of the province is about 289,300, a rural tribal society. According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the population is Pashtun, sprinkled throughout around 2,500 remote villages. Major tribal groups include the Noorzai and Panjpai Durrani. Pashto is the dominant language in the area; the people of Zabul are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim. Primary occupations within Zabul are animal husbandry; the province is represented in Afghan domestic cricket by the Zabul Province cricket team. Provinces of Afghanistan Zabulistan Zabol Abu Ali Lawik
Badakhshan Province is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the farthest northeastern part of the country between Tajikistan and northern Pakistan. It shares a 56.5-mile border with China. It is part of a broader historical Badakhshan region; the province contains 22 to 28 districts, over 1,200 villages, 904,700 people. Feyzabad serves as the provincial capital. Badakhshan is bordered by Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province and Khatlon Province in Tajikistan to the north and east. In the east of the province a long spur called the Wakhan Corridor extends above northern Pakistan's Chitral and Northern Areas to a border with China; the province has a total area of 44,059 square kilometres, most of, occupied by the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges. Badakhshan was a stopover on the ancient Silk Road trading path, China has shown great interest in the province after the fall of the Taliban, helping to reconstruct roads and infrastructure. According to the World Wildlife Fund, Badakhshan contains temperate grasslands and shrublands, as well as Gissaro-Alai open woodlands along the Pamir River.
Common plants found in these areas include pistachio, walnut, apple and sagebrush. Montane grasslands and shrublands are existent in the province, with the Hindu Kush alpine meadow in the high mountains in the northern and southwestern regions; the Wakhan corridor contains two montane grassland and shrubland regions: the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe and in the Pamir Mountains and Kuh-e Safed Khers in Darwaz region. South of Fayzabad the terrain becomes dominated by xeric shrublands. Common vegetation includes thorny bushes, zizyphus and Amygdatus. Paropamisus xeric woodlands can be found in central areas. Common vegetation includes almond, pistachio and sea-buckthorn; the area has a long history like the rest of Afghanistan, dating to its conquering by the Achaemenid Empire and beyond. Badakhshan etymologically derives from an official title; the suffix of the name, -ān, means the region belonged to someone with the title badaxš. The territory was ruled by the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century.
It was given to Ahmad Shah Durrani by Murad Beg of Bukhara after a treaty of friendship was reached in or about 1750 and became part of the Durrani Empire. It was ruled by the Durranis followed by the Barakzai dynasty, was untouched by the British during the three Anglo-Afghan wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries, it remained peaceful for about 100 years until the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War at which point the Mujahideen began a rebellion against the central Afghan government. During the 1990s, much of the area was controlled by forces loyal to Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Massoud, who were de facto the national government until 1996. Badakhshan was the only province that the Taliban did not conquer during their rule from 1996 to 2001. However, during the course of the wars a non-Taliban Islamic emirate was established in Badakhshan by Mawlawi Shariqi, paralleling the Islamic Revolutionary State of Afghanistan in neighboring Nuristan. Rabbani, a Badakhshan native, Massoud, were the last remnants of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance during the peak of Taliban control in 2001.
Badakhshan was thus one of the few provinces of the country that witnessed little insurgency in the Afghan wars - however during the 2010s Taliban insurgents managed to attack and take control of several districts in the province. On 26 October 2015, the 7.5 Mw Hindu Kush earthquake shook northern Afghanistan with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII. This earthquake destroyed 30,000 homes, left several hundred dead, more than 1,700 injured; the current Governor of the province is Shah Waliullah Adeeb. His predecessors were Baz Mohammad Ahmadi; the borders with neighboring Tajikistan and Pakistan are monitored by the Afghan Border Police. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police. A provincial Police Chief is assigned to lead both the ANP and the ABP; the Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by the military, including the NATO-led forces. Fayzabad, the capital of Badakhshan province, sits on the Kokcha River and has an approximate population of 50,000.
The chief commercial and administrative center of northeast Afghanistan and the Pamir region, Fayzabad has rice and flour mills. Fayzabad Airport serves the province with regular direct flights to Kabul; the percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 13% in 2005 to 21% in 2011. The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 1.5% in 2003 to 2% in 2011. The overall literacy rate fell from 31% in 2005 to 26% in 2011; the overall net enrolment rate increased from 46% in 2005 to 68% in 2011. Despite massive mineral reserves, Badakhshan is one of the most destitute areas in the world. Opium poppy growing is the only real source of income in the province and Badakhshan has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, due to the complete lack of health infrastructure, inaccessible locations, bitter winters of the province. BORNA Institute of Higher Education being the first private university located on the bank of Kokcha river. Lapis lazuli has been mined in the Sar-e-Sang mines, located in the Kuran wa Munjan District of Badakhshan, for over 6,000 years.
The mines were the largest and most well-known source in ancient times. Most recent
Wakhan District is one of the 28 districts of Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. The total population for the district is about 13,000 residents; the district has three international borders: Tajikistan to the north, Pakistan to the south, Afghanistan's only border with China to the east. The capital of the district is the village of Khandud, which has a population of 1,244. Wakhan Wakhan Corridor Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services
Dushi district is located in the central part of Baghlan Province, Afghanistan. It lies on the major Kabul-Kunduz highway; the population of the district was estimated to be around 57,160 in 2004. Hazaras are around 88% of the population and make up the majority in the district, followed by small minorities of Tajiks and Pashtuns The centre of the district is Dushi. Dushi is home to an overhead power line carrying imported electricity from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; the 300 MegaWatt supply was the subject of a grant for expansion in 2013 from the Asian Development Bank. The line supplies the capital, Kabul. On April 13, 2018, Taliban insurgents used explosives to destroy a pylon, disrupting power supplies to the region. Districts of Afghanistan Map of Settlements United Nations, AIMS, May 2002
Qalāti Ghiljī called Qalāti Zābul or Qalāti Khaljī, or Qalāt or Kalat, is a city in southern Afghanistan and the capital of Zabul Province. It is linked by Highway 1 with Kandahar to Ghazni and Kabul to the northeast; the population of the town are ethnic Pashtuns from the Ghilji tribe, after whom the city is named. The Khalji dynasty of India had origin from this city; the total population of Qalati Ghilji is 49,158. The city has 4 police districts with a total land area of 4,820 Hectares and 5,462 total number of dwellings. Qalati Ghilji is a Provincial Centre located in southern Afghanistan. Barren land is the dominant land use classification 59% of total land. While built-up land use only accounts for 19% of total land use, within that classification there is a large proportion of institutional land. Qalati Ghilji has two distinct industrial areas in Districts 2 and 3. In 2006, Zabul's first airport was built near Qalat. Qalat became home to the U. S.-led Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul, which began assisting in development projects and building governance throughout the province.
Qalati Ghilji has been known as Qalāt-i Khaljī, Qalāt-i Tokhī, or Qalāt or Kalāt. The history of the area is not well documented by western sources and is marred with periods of tribal conflict, leading the area to change hands many times over the course of many years. A political mission came through the city April 16, 1857 en route to Kandahar to broker a new treaty of friendship between the British government at Peshawar and the Amir of Kabul; the party was greeted by a group sent out by the heir-apparent to welcome them and check on the party's supplies. Two companies of infantry were formed. Afterwards, a shura was held. Sher Ali Khan captured the city on January 22, 1867. In the battle, he lost Mahomed Ali, killed in single combat by his uncle, his uncle was subsequently killed. With a mild and warm and temperate climate, Qalati Ghilji features a hot-summer mediterranean climate under the Köppen climate classification; the average temperature in Qalat is 13.6 °C. July is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 27.5 °C.
The coldest month January has an average temperature of -2.9 °C. In an effort to bring economic development to the area, Zabul province's first air strip was built just outside the city in 2006, it is a dirt runway. The first flight brought in supplies for PRT Zabul and other organizations trying to rebuild the area. Three years a girls school was built to attempt to improve education in the area. An initial school supply and prayer mat donation was made, regular book drops and school supply donations were made until the PRT left in 2013. Clean water programs around the city improved the availability of clean water sources. In 2009, efforts were completed to improve the water system at the old Qalat City Hospital to bring clean drinking water to patients there. Not all the reconstruction efforts were successful, however. In 2006, construction began on a new economic district for the city. Meant to be an area of commerce and development, ten million dollars and three years most of the buildings are unoccupied, unusable either due to lack of the skills to maintain the buildings or due to a lack of need for the building.
Zabul province's governor refused citing the lack of security. Anne Smedinghoff, a 25 year-old U. S. diplomat, was killed by a suicide car inside the city in the spring of 2013. The local skyline is dominated by a fortress constructed by the forces of Alexander the Great. Ghar Bolan Baba, a 730m deep cave used for religious purposes. Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul Zabul Province
Balkh is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 20 km northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, some 74 km south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border. It was an ancient centre of Buddhism and Zoroastrianism and one of the major cities of Khorasan, since the latter's earliest history; the ancient city of Balkh was known to the Ancient Greeks as Bactra. It was known as the centre and capital of Bactria or Tokharistan. Marco Polo described Balkh as a "noble and great city". Balkh is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situated some 12 km from the right bank of the seasonally flowing Balkh River, at an elevation of about 365 m. French Buddhist Alexandra David-Néel associated Shambhala with Balkh offering the Persian Sham-i-Bala as an etymology of its name. In a similar vein, the Gurdjieffian J. G. Bennett published speculation that Shambalha was Shams-i-Balkh, a Bactrian sun temple; the Bactrian language name of the city was βαχλο. In Middle Persian texts was named Baxl.
The name of the province or country appears in the Old Persian inscriptions as Bāxtri, i.e. Bakhtri, it is written in the Avesta as Bāxδi. From this came the intermediate form Bāxli, Sanskrit Bahlīka for "Bactrian", by transposition the modern Persian Balx, i.e. Balkh, Armenian Bahl. Balkh is considered to be the first city to which the Indo-Iranian tribes moved from north of the Amu Darya, between 2000 and 1500 BC; the Arabs called it Umm Mother of Cities on account of its antiquity. The city was traditionally a center of Zoroastrianism; the name Zariaspa, either an alternate name for Balkh or a term for part of the city, may derive from the important Zoroastrian fire temple Azar-i-Asp. Balkh was regarded as the place where Zoroaster first preached his religion, as well as the place where he died. Since the Indo-Iranians built their first kingdom in Balkh some scholars believe that it was from this area that different waves of Indo-Iranians spread to north-east Iran and Seistan region, where they, in part, became today's Persians, Tajiks and Baluch people of the region.
The changing climate has led to desertification since antiquity, when the region was fertile. Its foundation is mythically ascribed to the first king of the world in Persian legend. For a long time the city and country was the central seat of the dualistic Zoroastrian religion, the founder of which, died within the walls according to the Persian poet Firdowsi. Armenian sources state that the Arsacid Dynasty of the Parthian Empire established its capital in Balkh. There is a long-standing tradition that an ancient shrine of Anahita was to be found here, a temple so rich it invited plunder. Alexander the Great married Roxana of Bactria after killing the king of Balkh; the city was the capital of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and was besieged for three years by the Seleucid Empire. After the demise of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, it was ruled by Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians, Kushan Empire, Indo-Sassanids, Hephthalite Empire and Sassanid Persians before the arrival of the Arabs. Bactrian documents - in the Bactrian language, written from the fourth to eighth centuries - evoke the name of local deities, such as Kamird and Wakhsh, for example, as witnesses to contracts.
The documents come from an area between Balkh and Bamiyan, part of Bactria. Balkh town is well-known to Buddhist countries because of two great Buddhist monks of Afghanistan – Trapusa and Bahalika. There are two stupas over their relics. According to a popular legend, Buddhism was introduced in Balkh by Bhallika, disciple of Buddha, the city derives its name from him, he had come from Bodhgaya. In literature, Balkh has been described as Valhika or Bahlika. First Vihara at Balkh was built for Bhallika. Xuanzang visited Balkh in 630. According to the Memoirs of Xuanzang, there were about a hundred Buddhist convents in the city or its vicinity at the time of his visit there in the 7th century. There were a large number of stupas and other religious monuments; the most remarkable stupa was the Navbahara. Shortly before the Arab conquest, the monastery became a Zoroastrian fire-temple. A curious reference to this building is found in the writings of the geographer Ibn Hawqal, an Arab traveller of the 10th century, who describes Balkh as built of clay, with ramparts and six gates, extending for half a parasang.
He mentions a castle and a mosque. A Chinese pilgrim, Fa-Hein, found Hinayana practice prevalent in Shan Shan, Kashgar, Osh and Gandhara. Xuanzang remarked that Buddhism was practised by the Hunnish rulers of Balkh, who descended from Indian royal stock. A Korean monk, noted as late as the Eighth century after the Arab invasion that the residents of Balkh practiced Buddhism and followed a Buddhist king, he that the king of Balkh at the time had fled to nearby Badakshan. Furthermore, we know; the most important was the Nawbahar near the town of Balkh, which evidently served as a pilgri
The almond is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, but cultivated elsewhere. The almond is the name of the edible and cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell surrounding the seed; the fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, removed to reveal the white embryo; the almond is a deciduous tree. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight grey in their second year; the leaves are 8 -- 13 cm long, with a 2.5 cm petiole. The flowers are white to pale pink, 3–5 cm diameter with five petals, produced singly or in pairs and appearing before the leaves in early spring.
Almond grows best in Mediterranean climates with mild, wet winters. The optimal temperature for their growth is between 15 and 30 °C and the tree buds have a chilling requirement of 300 to 600 hours below 7.2 °C to break dormancy. Almonds begin bearing an economic crop in the third year after planting. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting; the fruit matures in 7 -- 8 months after flowering. The almond fruit is 3.5–6 cm long. In botanical terms, it is not a nut but a drupe; the outer covering or exocarp, fleshy in other members of Prunus such as the plum and cherry, is instead a thick, grey-green coat, called the hull. Inside the hull is a reticulated, woody shell called the endocarp. Inside the shell is the edible seed called a nut. One seed is present, but two occur. After the fruit matures, the hull splits and separates from the shell, an abscission layer forms between the stem and the fruit so that the fruit can fall from the tree; the almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, from Syria, Turkey and eastward to Pakistan.
It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe, more transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States. The wild form of domesticated almond grows in parts of the Levant. Selection of the sweet type from the many bitter types in the wild marked the beginning of almond domestication, it is unclear as to. The species Prunus fenzliana may be the most wild ancestor of the almond in part because it is native of Armenia and western Azerbaijan where it was domesticated. Wild almond species were grown by early farmers, "at first unintentionally in the garbage heaps, intentionally in their orchards". Almonds were one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees due to "the ability of the grower to raise attractive almonds from seed. Thus, in spite of the fact that this plant does not lend itself to propagation from suckers or from cuttings, it could have been domesticated before the introduction of grafting".
Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age such as the archaeological sites of Numeria, or earlier. Another well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt imported from the Levant. Of the European countries that the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh reported as cultivating almonds, Germany is the northernmost, though the domesticated form can be found as far north as Iceland; the word "almond" comes from Old French almande or alemande, Late Latin *amandula, derived through a form amygdala from the Greek ἀμυγδάλη, an almond. The al- in English, for the a- used in other languages may be due a confusion with the Arabic article al, the word having first dropped the a- as in the Italian form mandorla. Other related names of almond include mandel or knackmandel, mandorla, amêndoa, almendra; the adjective "amygdaloid" is used to describe objects which are almond-shaped a shape, part way between a triangle and an ellipse. See, for example, the brain structure amygdala, which uses a direct borrowing of the Greek term amygdalē.
The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million hives being trucked in February to the almond groves. Much of the pollination is managed by pollination brokers, who contract with migratory beekeepers from at least 49 states for the event; this business has been affected by colony collapse disorder, causing nationwide shortages of honey bees and increasing the price of insect pollination. To protect almond growers from the rising cost of insect pollination, researchers at the Agricultural Research Service have developed a new line of self-pollinating almond trees. Self-pollinating almond trees, such as the'Tuono', have been around