Music of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwean music includes folk and pop styles. Much of the folk music incorporates Ngoma drums and hosho. Music has played a significant role in the history of Zimbabwe, from a vital role in the traditional Bira ceremony used to call on ancestral spirits, to protest songs during the struggle for independence; the mbira is an integral part of Zimbabwean music. It is played in a deze which amplifies the sound and augments using shells or bottle caps placed around the edges; the mbira plays a central role in the traditional Bira ceremony used to call on ancestral spirits. Though musicologist Hugh Tracey believed the mbira to be nearing extinction in the 1930s, the instrument has been revived since the 60s and 70s, has gained an international following through the world music scene; some renowned mbira players include Dumisani Maraire, Ephat Mujuru, Stella Chiweshe, Chartwell Dutiro, Mbuya Dyoko, Cosmas Magaya, Tute Chigamba, Forward Kwenda, Chiwoniso Maraire. There is pop music in Zimbabwe and around the world that incorporates Zimbabwean indigenous instruments.
For example, mbira player Chris Berry with his band Panjea have reached platinum record sales in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, playing a style of music based on traditional mbira rhythms and melodies, but incorporating various other instruments and styles. Mbira is incorporated into the music of critically acclaimed American hip-hop duo Shabazz Palaces by Tendai Maraire; this is the local genre of the Zimbabwe music industry. Sungura music became popular in the early 1980s, pioneered by frontman Ephraim Joe and his band Sungura Boys which counted many notable future hit makers as members, their roll included John Chibadura Simon Chimbetu Naison Chimbetu, Ronnie Chataika, Michael Jambo, Ephraim Joe, Moses Marasha, Never Moyo, Bata Sinfirio, System Tazvida. The Khiama Boys emerged as natural successors to the Sungura Boys after their demise during the mid-eighties. Members would include System Tazvida, Nicholas Zacharia, Alick Macheso, Silas Chakanyuka and Zacharia Zakaria. A great number of these artistes have gone on to forge successful careers with their own bands whilst Nicholas Zacharia has remained as the leader of the band and is still active as of 2008.
James Chimombe, whose romantic ballads and the influential sungura guitar melody, made him a favorite in the late 80s. The 90s was dominated by musicians include Leonard Dembo, the effervescent Khiama Boys, veteran Simon Chimbetu and upcoming artistes Alick Macheso, Tongai Moyo and Somadhla Ndebele; the star of the decade was Leonard Zhakata, whose musical project was a spinoff of the double play Maungwe Brothers, an act fronted by Zhakata and his cousin Thomas Makion. The decade 2000 till present has been characterised by a wrangle for the crown for the kingship of Sungura between the two most Sungura musicians of the decade, Alick Macheso and Tongai Moyo. Having dominated sales and concert attendances, the heckling and counter-heckling by the artists at shows and in some recorded material is strong proof that the current feud is far from over. Other artists to come through this decade include Joseph Garakara, Gift Amuli, Howard Pinjisi and Daiton Somanje, and of late, Alick Macheso has become popular with his dance zoraaa butter.
System Tazvida, Simon Chimbetu, John Chibadura, Leonard Dembo, Thomas Makion have all died. Afro Jazz is a term used for Zimbabwean music influenced by a style of township rhythm that evolved in a Southern part of Africa over the last century. One can trace similarities from Kwela, a pennywhistle-based, street music from the southern part of Africa with jazzy underpinnings and a distinctive, skiffle-like beat, it is closely related to Marabi, the name given to a keyboard style that had a musical link to American jazz and blues, with roots deep in the African tradition. Early marabi musicians were part of an underground musical culture and were not recorded. An example of such an artist in the early 1940s is August Musarurwa of the Skokiaan fame, it has continued to develop and you can see traits of this music in his grandson Prince Kudakwashe Musarurwa. Chimurenga music is a genre developed by Thomas Mapfumo named for the Shona language word for struggle. Mapfumo and his band, the Blacks Unlimited developed a style of music based on traditional mbira music, but played with modern electric instrumentation, with lyrics characterized by social and political commentary.
Mapfumo's music was a "tool of the liberation war" criticizing the Rhodesian government of Ian Smith, but shifted after independence to speaking out about perceived corruption and mismanagement of the Zimbabwean government of Robert Mugabe. Oliver "Tuku" Mtukudzi is a prolific recorder who has appeared in films like Jit, he plays in a plethora of styles, is known for penetrating lyrics. Zimdancehall is a term used for Zimbabwean music influenced by Jamaican Dancehall music. A lot of debate is around the question of. Notable names in the genre are Souja Luv, Killer T, Enzo Ishall, Jah Signal, Winky D, Ras Caleb, Chillspot records, Seh Calaz. Jit is a generic term for electric guitar-driven pop, includes popular groups like the New Black Eagles and the Four Brothers. Internationally, The Bhundu Boys are by far the best-known jit performers, have worked with numerous American and British musicians. Nota
Music of Africa
The traditional music of Africa, given the vastness of the continent, is ancient and diverse, with different regions and nations of Africa having many distinct musical traditions. Music in Africa is important when it comes to religion. Songs and music are used in rituals and religious ceremonies, to pass down stories from generation to generation, as well as to sing and dance to. Traditional music in most of the continent is not written. In sub-Saharan African music traditions, it relies on percussion instruments of every variety, including xylophones, djembes and tone-producing instruments such as the mbira or "thumb piano."The music and dance of the African diaspora, formed to varying degrees on African musical traditions, include American music and many Caribbean genres, such as soca and zouk. Latin American music genres such as the rumba, bomba, cumbia and samba were founded on the music of enslaved Africans, have in turn influenced African popular music. Like the music of Asia and the Middle East, it is a rhythmic music.
African music consists of complex rhythmic patterns involving one rhythm played against another to create a polyrhythm. The most common polyrhythm plays three beats on top of two, like a triplet played against straight notes. Beyond the rhythmic nature of the music, African music differs from Western music in that the various parts of the music do not combine in a harmonious fashion. African musicians aim to express life, in all its aspects, through the medium of sound; each instrument or part may represent a different character. African music does not have a written tradition; this makes it impossible to notate the music – the melodies and harmonies – using the Western staff. There are subtle differences in pitch and intonation that do not translate to Western notation. African music most adheres to Western tetratonic, pentatonic and heptatonic scales. Harmonization of the melody is accomplished by singing in fourths, or fifths. Another distinguishing form of African music is its call-and-response nature: one voice or instrument plays a short melodic phrase, that phrase is echoed by another voice or instrument.
The call-and-response nature extends to the rhythm, where one drum will play a rhythmic pattern, echoed by another drum playing the same pattern. African music is highly improvised. A core rhythmic pattern is played, with drummers improvising new patterns over the static original patterns. North Africa is the seat of ancient Egypt and Carthage, civilizations with strong ties to the ancient Near East and which influenced the ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Egypt fell under Persian rule followed by Greek and Roman rule, while Carthage was ruled by Romans and Vandals. North Africa was conquered by the Arabs, who established the region as the Maghreb of the Arab world. Like the musical genres of the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa, its music has close ties with Middle Eastern music and utilizes similar melodic modes. North African music has a considerable range, from the music of ancient Egypt to the Berber and the Tuareg music of the desert nomads; the region's art music has for centuries followed the outline of Arabic and Andalusian classical music: its popular contemporary genres include the Algerian Raï.
With these may be grouped the music of Sudan and of the Horn of Africa, including the music of Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. Somali music is pentatonic, using five pitches per octave in contrast to a heptatonic scale such as the major scale; the music of the Ethiopian highlands uses a fundamental modal system called qenet, of which there are four main modes: tezeta, bati and anchihoy. Three additional modes are variations on the above: tezeta minor, bati major, bati minor; some songs take the name such as tizita, a song of reminiscence. The ethnomusicological pioneer Arthur Morris Jones observed that the shared rhythmic principles of Sub-Saharan African music traditions constitute one main system. Master drummer and scholar C. K. Ladzekpo affirms the "profound homogeneity" of sub-Saharan African rhythmic principles. African traditional music is functional in nature. Performances may be long and involve the participation of the audience. There are, for example, little different kinds of work songs, songs accompanying childbirth, marriage and political activities, music to ward off evil spirits and to pay respects to good spirits, the dead and the ancestors.
None of this is performed outside its intended socialess context and much of it is associated with a particular dance. Some of it, performed by professional musicians, is sacral music or ceremonial and courtly music performed at royal courts. Musicologically, Sub-Saharan Africa may be divided into four regions: The eastern region includes the music of Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe as well as the islands of Madagascar, the Seychelles and Comor. Many of these have been influenced by Arabic music and by the music of India and Polynesia, though the region's indigenous musical traditions are in the mainstream of the sub-Saharan Niger–Congo-speaking peoples; the southern region includes the music of South Afric
The hosho are Zimbabwean musical instruments consisting of a pair of maranka gourds with seeds. They contain hota seeds inside them; the hosho are used to accompany Shona music mbira music. They make a rattling sound. However, this accompaniment is essential. So essential, in fact, that extra vibrating elements such as mirlitons are attached to the resonating tubes of marimbas and machachara are attached to the mbira and its deze. Mbiras and marimbas from Africa. From a western perspective the hosho are seen as accompanying instruments to mbira, when in actuality they are seen as the lead instruments by the mbira players. See a typical use of the hosho by selecting the link at the end of this paragraph, as played together with the mbira at Zimfest 2008, by Musekiwa Chingodza. A smaller version of the hosho is made of a wild orange called a damba, tied together with sticks and filled with hota seeds or pebbles. Other related percussion instruments from Zimbabwe include the ngoma. One of Zimbabwes most respected Hosho players is Tendai Kazuru from Mbira deNharira.
Berliner, Paul. The Soul of Mbira: Music and Traditions of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04268-9. Williams, Michael B.. Learning Mbira: A Beginning... HoneyRock. ISBN 0-9634060-4-3. Mbira Shona music Music of Africa Music of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
The mbira is an African musical instrument consisting of a wooden board with attached staggered metal tines, played by holding the instrument in the hands and plucking the tines with the thumbs. The mbira is classified as part of the lamellaphone family and part of the idiophone family of musical instruments. Members of this broad family of instruments are known by a wide variety of names. In the Caribbean Islands the mbira is known as the kalimba, a bass version the marímbula. Both Joseph H. Howard, owner of the largest collection of drums and ancillary folk instruments in the Americas, Nigerian drummer Babatunde Olatunji argue that the mbira is African, being found only in areas populated by Africans or their descendants. In Eastern and Southern Africa, there are many kinds of mbira accompanied by the hosho, a percussion instrument; the mbira was reported to be used in Okpuje, Nsukka area of the south eastern part of Nigeria in the early 1900s. It is a common musical instrument of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
It is often an important instrument to be played at religious ceremonies and other social gatherings. Mbira came to prominence after the worldwide stage performance and recordings of Thomas Mapfumo on the 1980s, whose music is based on and includes the mbira. Commercially produced mbiras were exported from South Africa by ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey from the 1950s onward, popularizing the instrument outside Africa. Various kinds of plucked idiophones and lamellaphones have existed in Africa for thousands of years; the tines were made of bamboo but over the years metal keys have been developed. The mbira appears to have been invented twice in Africa: a wood or bamboo-tined instrument appeared on the west coast of Africa about 3,000 years ago, metal-tined lamellophones appeared in the Zambezi River valley around 1,300 years ago; these metal-tined instruments traveled all across the continent, becoming popular among the Shona of Zimbabwe and other indigenous groups in Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
The mbira differentiated in social uses as it spread. Kalimba-like instruments came to exist from the northern reaches of North Africa to the southern extent of the Kalahari Desert, from the east coast to the west coast, though many or most groups of people in Africa did not possess mbiras. There were thousands of different tunings, different note layouts, different instrument designs, but there is a hypothetical tuning and note layout of the original metal-tined instrument from 1,300 years ago. In the mid 1950s the mbira was the basis for the development of the kalimba, a westernized version designed and marketed by the ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey, leading to a great expansion of its distribution outside Africa. Lamellophones are "lamellae", which are played by plucking. Unlike stringed instruments or air-column instruments like flutes, the overtones of a plucked lamella are inharmonic, giving the mbira a characteristic sound; the inharmonic overtones are strongest in the attack and die out rather leaving an pure tone.
The note arrangement of some mbira possesses the notes in the scale ascending on the tines from the center outward in an alternating right-left fashion, results in chords being made by adjacent tines. When any tine is plucked, the adjacent tines vibrate, these harmonizing secondary vibrations serve a similar role to the harmonic overtones of a string instrument—they increase the harmonic complexity of an individual note; this left-right alternating arrangement is not true for the mbira dzavadzimu, where the notes are arranged with the lowest notes on each register located toward the center of the mbira and ascend as you move outwards. There are notable breaks in this linear progression however that are consistent across all mbira dzavadzimu. Mbira music, like much of the sub-Saharan African music traditions is based on cross-rhythm. An example from the kushaura part of the traditional mbira piece "Nhema Musasa" is given by David Peñalosa, who observes that the left hand plays the ostinato "bass line," while the right hand plays the upper melody.
The composite melody is an embellishment of the 3:2 cross-rhythm. Tunings vary from family to family referring to relative interval relationships and not to absolute pitches; the most common tuning is Nyamaropa, similar to the western Mixolydian mode. Names may vary between different families; the seven tunings that Garikayi uses are: Bangidza, Nhemamusasa, Taireva and Mavembe. The closest to what is named "Nyamaropa" is his "Nhemamusasa" tuning. Many players, including griot clans — West African storytellers and musicians — have their own idiosyncratic tunings. Most of the time the instrument is played solo and tuning is not as critical as when playing with other musicians, but the tuning can be changed by adjusting the length of the metal tines outward. Mbira tunings have not mapped onto Western scales.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument, sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice; the percussion section of an orchestra most contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals and tambourine. However, the section can contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can be applied to the human body, as in body percussion. On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone are included. Percussion instruments are most divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch, unpitched percussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch. Percussion instruments may play not only rhythm, but melody and harmony.
Percussion is referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present. In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, bassist and sometimes the guitarist are referred to as the rhythm section. Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings and brass; however at least one pair of timpani is included, though they play continuously. Rather, they serve to provide additional accents. In the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments have been used, again sparingly; the use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the 20th century classical music. In every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role. In military marching bands and pipes and drums, it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment.
In classic jazz, one immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word "swing" is spoken. In more recent popular music culture, it is impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, funk or soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time; because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed of percussion. Rhythm and harmony are all represented in these ensembles. Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments. Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion-clef. Percussion instruments are classified by various criteria sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin, function within musical theory and orchestration, or their relative prevalence in common knowledge; the word "percussion" derives from Latin the terms: "percussio", "percussus".
As a noun in contemporary English, Wiktionary describes it as "the collision of two bodies to produce a sound." The term has application in medicine and weaponry, as in percussion cap. However, all known uses of percussion appear to share a similar lineage beginning with the original Latin: "percussus". In a musical context the percussion instruments may have been coined to describe a family of musical instruments including drums, metal plates, or blocks that musicians beat or struck to produce sound. Hornbostel–Sachs has no high-level section for percussion. Most percussion instruments are classified as membranophones; however the term percussion is instead used at lower-levels of the Hornbostel–Sachs hierarchy, including to identify instruments struck with either a non-sonorous object or against a non-sonorous object. This is opposed to concussion, which refers to instruments with two or more complementary sonorous parts that strike against each other and other meanings. For example: 111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers, played in pairs and beaten against each other, such as zills and clapsticks.
111.2 Percussion idiophones, includes many percussion instruments played with the hand or by a percussion mallet, such as the hang and the xylophone, but not drums and only some cymbals. 21 Struck drums, includes most types of drum, such as the timpani, snare drum, tom-tom. (Included in most drum sets or 412.12 Percussion reeds, a class of wind instrument unrelated to percussion in the more common sense There are many instruments that have some claim to being percussion, but are classified otherwise: Keyboard instruments such as the celesta and piano. Stringed instruments played with beaters such as the hammered dulcimer. Unpitched whistles and similar instruments, such as the pea whistle and Acme siren. Percussion instruments are sometimes classified as "pitched" or "unpitched". While valid, this classification is seen as inadequate. Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards to one or more of the following four paradigms: Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physica
Andrew Tracey, born 5 May 1936, South Africa, is a South African ethnomusicologist, promoter of African Music, folk singer, band leader, actor. His father, Hugh Tracey, pioneered the study of traditional African music in the 1920s – 1970s, created the International Library of African Music in 1954, started the company African Musical Instruments which manufactured the first commercial kalimbas in the 1950s. Andrew Tracey complemented the work of his father Hugh Tracey in a variety of ways. With brother Paul Tracey, he co-wrote and performed in the world musical revue Wait a Minim! which travelled around the world for seven years. With his father and brother Paul, Andrew wrote the first instructional materials for the Hugh Tracey kalimbas which were being sent around the world in the 1960s. Upon his father's death in 1977, Andrew took over his father's role as director of ILAM, which he filled until his retirement in 2005, his wife Heather Tracey took over the role of director of AMI until 1999.
Andrew was exposed to African music from an early age as he observed his father's research on Chopi xylophone music at the family home in Durban, attended the traditional African dance performances his father arranged on Sunday afternoons for the dock workers, listened to his father's radio broadcasts which featured traditional African stories and African music. As Hugh Tracey became more devoted to his work on African music, his marriage frayed, his wife Ursula Campbell Tracey moved to England with sons Paul and Andrew. Andrew went to Oxford University where he studied anthropology and informally, folk music. Andrew was intrigued by calypso and Brazilian music – rhythmic world music with strong African roots. Andrew Tracey returned to Africa, first in the British military, but later came to South Africa to join brother Paul and his father at "The Farm", the property in Krugersdorp outside of Johannesburg where Hugh Tracey started ILAM and AMI. While Paul Tracey oversaw the production of kalimbas at AMI, Andrew began working with his father, seeking to understand and document the musics of south eastern Africa.
The spiritual center of the African lamellophone world is Zimbabwe. The instrument that Hugh Tracey had fallen in love with when he arrived in Africa in the 1920s was the mbira, a complex 24-note lamellophone used by the Shona people of Zimbabwe, it was a natural homage to this and other related instruments when Hugh and Andrew Tracey helped Robert Sibson found the Kwanongoma College of African Music, in Bulawayo, Rhodesia in 1960. Part of Andrew's job in building Kwanongoma was to scout around in the townships for players of traditional instruments who could come and teach at the new college. Andrew's big find was Jege Tapera, who played the mbira nyunga nyunga known as the karimba; this was the first experience. Without any formal training in ethnomusicology, Andrew wrote several papers on African music for the Journal of African Music, the publication his father started as a means of disseminating the results of research at ILAM and other institutions about Africa and the world. One of Andrew's early papers was a description of the mbira music of Jege Tapera.
Starting in 1961, Andrew co-wrote, with Jeremy Taylor and his brother Paul Tracey, the songs for two musical reviews that played in Johanesberg and in Rhodesia. After combining the best material into a single musical review, Wait a Minim!, they had a hit on their hands, they performed in Wait a Minim! between 1962 and 1968 in South Africa, England, United States, New Zealand and Australia, including 461 shows spanning more than a year on Broadway in New York. With over 50 instruments in the show, many of them African, Andrew Tracey helped educate the world about unique African instruments, including the kalimba. Andrew was on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson a number of times; this musical performance career put Andrew's ethnomusicology research on hold. When Andrew returned to Africa in 1969, he got back to his research on African music, carrying on as an associate at ILAM under his father, his field research centred on Zimbabwe, Malawi, Uganda, South Africa, Namibia, focused on the playing technique of members of the mbira and xylophone families.
A highlight of Andrew's research was the identification of the lower course of tines on the karimba as the logical ancestor of all mbiras. Those eight notes can be traced through every mbira and karimba played in the Zambezi Valley, those eight notes form the core of all kalimba music in that region, considered to be the birthplace of the metal-tined kalimba about 1300 years ago. Andrew Tracey asserts that the first written account of the kalimba by Portuguese missionary Father Dos Santos, in Mozambique in 1589, was in essence these eight notes. Other instruments, such as the mbira, or the modern karimba, are based on those eight notes, with other notes and other courses of notes having been added over the centuries. While it is impossible to say when those eight notes first started appearing in kalimbas, Andrew's work convinces that the note layout of the karimba is ancient and gave rise to all other kalimbas in the region. In the 1980s Andrew made a design for a 17-note karimba, based on Tapera's 15-note instrument, using the same hardware as the Hugh Tracey treble kalimba, AMI began selling it as the African Tuned Karimba.
While Andrew's seven-year stint performing in a Broadway musical did not leave any time for ethnomusicological research, Andrew's studies at ILAM did allow him to perform. In 1969 when h
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir