The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months, dry summer climate or, where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months. Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth. A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter.
Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, mango, pistachio and avocado are grown within the subtropics; the tropics have been defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at latitudes 23.45° north and south, respectively. According to the American Meteorological Society, the poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at latitudes 35° north and south, respectively. Several methods have been used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a mean temperature greater than 10 °C and at least one month with a mean temperature under 18 °C. German climatologists Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen defined Warm temperate zones as plain and hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month between 2 °C and 13 °C in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6 °C and 13 °C in the Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic and continental climates.
According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone, subdivided into seven smaller areas. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into two parts: Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into three parts: high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six climate zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone; the upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As the air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge. Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics; this regime is known as an arid subtropical climate, located in areas adjacent to powerful cold ocean currents. Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of southern Africa, the south of the Canary Islands and the coasts of Peru and Chile; the humid subtropical climate is located on the western side of the subtropical high. Here, unstable tropical airmasses in summer bring convective overturning and frequent tropical downpours, summer is the season of peak annual rainfall. In the winter the monsoon retreats, the drier trade winds bring more stable airmass and dry weather, frequent sunny skies. Areas that have this type of subtropical climate include Australia, Southeast Asia, parts of South America, the deep south of the United States. In areas bounded by warm ocean like the southeastern United States and East Asia, tropical cyclones can contribute to local rainfall within the subtropics.
Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons. The Mediterranean climate is a subtropical climate with a wet season in winter and a dry season in the summer. Regions with this type of climate include the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia around the Perth area, parts of the west coast of South American around Santiago, the coastal areas of western Mexico, coastal California in the United States; these climates do not see hard frosts or snow, which allows plants such as palms and citrus to flourish. As one moves toward the tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears, while at the poleward threshold of the subtropics the winters become cooler; some crops which have been traditionally farmed in tropical climates, such as mango and avocado, are cultivated in the subtropics. Pest control of the crops is less difficult than within the tropics, due to the cooler winters. Tree ferns are grown within subtropical areas within the subtropics and within topography within the tropics.
Dracaena and yucca can grow within the subtropics. Tre
Rasuwa District(Nepali: रसुवा जिल्लाListen, a part of Province No. 3, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country Nepal, South Asia. The district, with Dhunche as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,544 km² and has a population of 43,300; as per census 2011 total households in Rasuwa district is 9,778. It is the smallest district by area, among 16 districts in the Himalaya region of Nepal. Origin of its name had begun as'Rasowa', believed to be derived as a combination of two Tibetan words ra and sowa as it was famous for its lamb and grazing lands, and people started to call it Rasuwa. The administrative division of Rasuwa comprised 5 Rural Municipalities. Rasuwa is accessible by bus from Kathmandu via Pasang Lhamu highway, with its headquarters being about 120 km from Kathmandu; as of 2013, 3 VDCs namely Thuman and Haku is not touched by any kind of roadway. Its territory has elevations ranging from 614 to 7,227 meters from mean sea Level. Forests cover 31.43 % of the land.
Steeply varying territory and plenty of natural blessings make Rasuwa a famous tourist destination in Nepal. Sightseeing places including Gosaikunda Lake and Mt. Langtang plus one of the hot springs in Nepal are located in the district. Following are five Rural Municipalities in Rasuwa District: Kalika Rural Municipality Gosainkunda Rural Municipality Naukunda Rural Municipality Parbatikunda Rural Municipality Uttargaya MunicipalityMany leaders of different parties are here but only 5 mayors are here. Nepali Congress won 2 places, CPN UML won Rastriya Prajatantrik Party won 1 seat/place; the first person, elected in Rasuwa from Nepali Congress was Mr. Bal Chandra Poudel; the history of other parties are not commeced yet but this district in Nepal is the one with no VDC. The winner of election 2070 bs in this district is Mr. Janarjan Dhakal. Rasuwa is rich in natural resources. Langtang mountain range stands to the north of Rasuwa; the northern parts of the area fall within the boundaries of Langtang National Park.
Gosainkunda Lake, Ganja La Pass, Tamang village in Bridim are the major highlights of Rasuwa for tourism. The Gosainkunda Lake known as "Frozen Lake", one of the most beautiful mountain lakes lies in the Langtang region. There are about 108 kundas in this area. Saraswati Kund, Bhairab Kund, Surya Kund and Gosainkund are most important ones. Langtang valley is another attraction in Rasuwa, aptly called the valley of glaciers; the valley offers pine forest, swift mountain streams, rugged rock and snow-capped peaks, grassy down and meadows strewn with daisies and wild animals. Radio Langtang Radio Rasuwa Radio Gosainkunda Rasuwa Khabar Online Langtang News Rasuwa Online Sahakarya Online News https://rasuwaprofile.com rasuwaprofile.com Rasuwa District Profile 2011 "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Newar, or Nepami, are the historical inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic heritage and civilisation. Newars form a linguistic and cultural community of Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burman ethnicities following Hinduism and Buddhism with Newari as their common language. Newars have developed a division of labour and a sophisticated urban civilisation not seen elsewhere in the Himalayan foothills. Newars have continued their age-old traditions and practices and pride themselves as the true custodians of the religion and civilisation of Nepal; the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding territories constituted the former Newar kingdom of the Nepal Mandala. Unlike other common-origin ethnic or caste groups of Nepal, the Newars are regarded as an example of a nation community with a relict identity, derived from an ethnically-diverse, previously-existing polity. Newar community within it consists of various strands of ethnic, racial and religious heterogeneity, as they are the descendants of the diverse group of people that have lived in Nepal Mandala since prehistoric times.
Indo-Aryan tribes like the Licchavis and Mallas from respective Indian Mahajanapada that arrived at different periods merged with the local population by adopting their language and customs. These tribes however retained their Vedic culture and brought with them their Sanskritic languages, social structure and Hindu religion, assimilated with local cultures and gave rise to the current Newar civilization. Newar rule in Nepal Mandala ended with its conquest by the Gorkha Kingdom in 1768. Newars are known for their contributions to culture and literature, trade and cuisine. Today, they rank as the most economically and advanced community of Nepal, according to the annual Human Development Index published by UNDP. Nepal's 2011 census ranks them as the nation's sixth-largest ethnicity/community, with 1,321,933 Newars throughout the country; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned form and Newar is the colloquial form. A Sanskrit inscription dated to 512 in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people; the term "Newar" or "Newa:" referring to "inhabitant of Nepal" appeared for the first time in an inscription dated 1654 in Kathmandu. Italian Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri who traveled to Nepal in 1721 has written that the natives of Nepal are called Newars, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are colloquial forms arising from the mutation of P to W, L to R; as a result of the phonological process of dropping the last consonant and lengthening the vowel, "Newā" for Newār or Newāl, "Nepā" for Nepāl are used in ordinary speech. For about a thousand years, the Newar civilization in Central Nepal preserved a microcosm of classical North Indian culture in which Brahmanic and Buddhist elements enjoyed equal status.
Snellgrove and Richardson speak of'the direct heritage of pre-Islamic India'. The Malla dynasty was noted for their patronisation of the Maithili language, afforded an equal status to that of Sanskrit in the Malla court. Maithil Brahmin priests were invited to Kathmandu and many Maithil families settled in Kathmandu during Malla rule. Due to influx of people from both north and south who brought with them not only their genetic and racial diversity but greatly moulded the dominant culture and tradition of Newars; the different divisions of Newars had different historical developments. The common identity of Newar was formed in the Kathmandu Valley; until the conquest of the valley by the Gorkha Kingdom in 1769, all the people who had inhabited the valley at any point of time were either Newar or progenitors of Newar. So, the history of Newar correlates to the history of the Kathmandu Valley prior to the establishment of the modern state of Nepal; the earliest known history of Newar and the Kathmandu Valley blends with mythology recorded in historical chronicles.
One such text, which recounts the creation of the valley, is the Swayambhu Purana. According to this Buddhist scripture, the Kathmandu Valley was a giant lake until the Bodhisattva Manjusri, with the aid of a holy sword, cut a gap in the surrounding hills and let the water out; this apocryphal legend is supported by geological evidence of an ancient lakebed, it provides an explanation for the high fertility of the Kathmandu Valley soil. According to the Swayambhu Purana, Manjusri established a city called Manjupattan, now called Manjipā, made Dharmākara its king. A shrine dedicated to Manjusri is still present in Majipā. No historical documents have been found after this era till the advent of the Gopal era. A genealogy of kings is recorded in a chronicle called Gopalarajavamsavali. According to this manuscript, the Gopal kings were followed by the Mahispals and the Kirats before the Licchavis entered from the south; some claim Buddha to have visited Nepal during the reign of Kirat King Jitedasti.
Newar reign over the valley and their sovereignty and influence over neighboring territories ended with the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley in 1769 by the Gorkhali Shah dynasty fou
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface. The actual snow line may adjust seasonally, be either higher in elevation, or lower; the permanent snow line is the level above which snow will lie all year. Snow line is an umbrella term for different interpretations of the boundary between snow-covered surface and snow-free surface; the definitions of the snow line may have different spatial focus. In many regions the changing snow line reflect seasonal dynamics; the final height of the snow line in a mountain environment at the end of the melting season is subject to climatic variability, therefore may be different from year to year. The snow line is measured using aerial photographs, or satellite images; because the snow line can be established without on-the-ground measurements, it can be measured in remote and difficult to access areas. Therefore, the snow line has become an important variable in hydrological models; the average elevation of a transient snow line is called the "climatic snow line" and is used as a parameter to classify regions according to climatic conditions.
The boundary between the accumulation zone and the ablation zone on glaciers is called the "annual snow line". The glacier region below this snow line was subject to melting in the previous season; the term "orographic snow line" is used to describe the snow boundary on surfaces other than glaciers. The term "regional snow line" is used to describe large areas; the "permanent snow line" is the level. The interplay of altitude and latitude affects the precise placement of the snow line at a particular location. At or near the equator, it is situated at 4,500 meters above sea level; as one moves towards the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, the parameter at first increases: in the Himalayas the permanent snow line can be as high as 5,700 metres, whilst on the Tropic of Capricorn no permanent snow exists at all in the Andes because of the extreme aridity. Beyond the Tropics the snow line becomes progressively lower as the latitude increases, to just below 3,000 metres in the Alps and falling all the way to sea level itself at the ice caps near the poles.
In addition, the relative location to the nearest coastline can influence the altitude of the snow line. Areas near a coast might have a lower snow line than areas of the same altitude and latitude situated in a landmass interior due to more winter snowfall and because the average summer temperature of the surrounding lowlands would be warmer away from the sea.. A higher altitude is therefore necessary to lower the temperature further against the surroundings and keep the snow from melting. Furthermore, large-scale oceanic currents such as the North Atlantic Current can have significant affects over large areas. In the northern hemisphere the snow line on the north facing slopes is at a lower altitude, as the north facing slopes receive less sun light than south facing slopes; the glacier equilibrium line is the point of transition between the accumulation zone and ablation zone. It is the line. Depending on the thickness of the glacier, this line can seem as though it is leaning more towards one zone but it is determined by the actual mass of ice in either zone.
The rates of ablation and accumulation can be used to determine the location of this line. This point is an important location to use in determining whether a glacier is shrinking. A higher glacier equilibrium line will indicate that the glacier is shrinking, whereas a lower line will indicate that the glacier is growing; the terminus of a glacier advances or retreats based on the location of this equilibrium line. Scientists are using remote sensing to better estimate the locations of this line on glaciers around the world. Using satellite imagery, scientists are able to identify whether the glacier is receding; this is a helpful tool for analyzing glaciers that are difficult to access. Using this technology we can better gauge the effects of climate change on glaciers around the world; the highest mountain in the world below the snow line is Ojos del Salado. Compare the usage of "snow line" indicating the boundary between snow and non-snow. Frost line Frost line Glacier High Alps Ice cap climate Tree line Charlesworth J.
K.. The quaternary era. With special reference to its glaciation, vol. I. London, Edward Arnold Ltd, 700 pp. Flint, R. F.. Glacial and Pleistocene geology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, xiii+553+555 pp. Kalesnik, S. V.. Obshchaya glyatsiologiya. Uchpedgiz, Leningrad, 328 pp. Tronov, M. V.. Voprosy svyazi mezhdu klimatom i oledeneniem. Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo Universiteta, Tomsk, 202 pp. Wilhelm, F.. Schnee- und Gletscherkunde, De Gruyter, Berlin, 414 pp. Braithewaite, R. J. and Raper, S. C. B. "Estimating Equilibrium Line Altitude From Glacier Inventory Data." Annals of Glaciology, 50, pp. 127–132. Doi:10.3189/172756410790595930. Leonard, K. C. and Fountain, A. G.. "Map-Based Methods for Estimating Glacier Equilibrium-Line Altitudes." Journal of Glaciology, vol. 49, no. 166, pp. 329–336. Doi:10.3189/172756503781830665. Ohmura, A. Kasser, P. and Funk, M.. "Climate at the Equilibrium Line
Kathmandu is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of around 1 million. Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is understood; the City of Temples stands at an elevation of 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is termed as "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of Newar culture, a cosmopolitan urban civilisation in the Himalayan foothills; the city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008. Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art and economy, it has a multiethnic population within a Buddhist majority. It is the home of the Newars. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu.
Tourism is an important part of the economy. The city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, home to seven world heritage sites: the Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka and Bhaktapur. There are seven casinos in the city. Historic areas of Kathmandu were damaged by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Some of the buildings have been restored and some are in the process of reconstruction. NCP’s Bidya Sundar Shakya is the Mayor of Kathmandu Metropolitan city and Hari Prabha Khadgi of Nepali Congress is the deputy mayor. Indigenous Newari term for Kathmandu valley is Yei; the Pahari name Kathmandu comes from Kasthamandap temple. In Sanskrit, Kastha means "Wood" and Maṇḍapa means "Pavilion"; this public pavilion known as Maru Satta: in the Newar language, was rebuilt in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The three-story structure was made of wood and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legend, all the timber used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree.
The structure collapsed during a major earthquake on 25 April 2015. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, refer to Kathmandu as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap Mahānagar in Nepal Mandala. Mahānagar means "great city"; the city is called "Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap" in a vow. Thus, Kathmandu is known as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap. During medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kāntipur; this name is derived from two Sanskrit words -- pur. "Kānti" is a word that stands for "beauty" and is associated with light and "pur" means place. Thus, giving it a meaning as "City of light". Among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeṃ Deśa, Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Deśa and Khwopa Deśa. "Yen" is the shorter form of Yambu, which referred to the northern half of Kathmandu. Archaeological excavations in parts of Kathmandu have found evidence of ancient civilisations; the oldest of these findings is a statue, found in Maligaon, dated at 185 AD. The excavation of Dhando Chaitya uncovered a brick with an inscription in Brahmi script.
Archaeologists believe. Stone inscriptions are a ubiquitous element at heritage sites and are key sources for the history of Nepal; the earliest Western reference to Kathmandu appears in an account of Jesuit Fathers Johann Grueber and Albert d'Orville. In 1661, they passed through Nepal on their way from Tibet to India, reported that they reached "Cadmendu", the capital of Nepal kingdom; the ancient history of Kathmandu is described in its traditional legends. According to Swayambhu Purana, present-day Kathmandu was once a huge and deep lake named "Nagdaha", as it was full of snakes; the lake was cut drained by Bodhisatwa Manjusri with his sword, the water was evacuated out from there. He established a city called Manjupattan, made Dharmakar the ruler of the valley land. After some time, a demon named Banasur closed the outlet, the valley again turned into a lake. Lord Krishna came to Nepal, killed Banasur, again drained out the water, he made Bhuktaman the king of Nepal. Kotirudra Samhita of Shiva Purana, Chapter 11, shloka 18 refers to the place as Nayapala city, famous for its Pashupati Shivalinga.
The name Nepal originates from this city Nayapala. Few historical record exists of the period before medieval Licchavis rulers. According to Gopalraj Vansawali, a genealogy of Nepali monarchy, the rulers of Kathmandu Valley before the Licchavis were Gopalas, Aabhirs and Somavanshi; the Kirata dynasty was established by Yalamber. During the Kirata era, a settlement called. In some of the Sino-Tibetan languages, Kathmandu is still called Yambu. Another smaller settlement called Yengal was present in the southern half of old Kathmandu, near Manjupattan. During the reign of the seventh Kirata ruler, Buddhist monks entered Kathmandu valley and established a forest monastery at Sankhu; the Licchavis from the Indo-Gangetic plain migrated north and defeated the Kiratas, establis
Ganesh Himāl is a sub-range of the Himalayas located in north-central Nepal, but some peaks lie on the border with Tibet. The Trisuli Gandaki valley on the east separates it from the Langtang Himal; the range lies about 70 km north-northwest of Kathmandu. The highest peak in the range is 7,422 m. There are some fourteen others over 6000 metres. Ganesh Himal enjoys great vertical relief over nearby valleys Ganesh NW, being closest to the Shyar Khola; the name for the range comes from the Hindu deity Ganesha depicted in the form of an elephant. In fact, the south face of Pabil resembles an elephant, with a ridge, reminiscent of an elephant's trunk. Names and elevations for this range differ from source to source; the least ambiguous way to refer to the different peaks would be "Ganesh NW", etc. but this is not the standard practice in the literature for this range. First ascent of Ganesh I happened on October 6th, 1955. Summit group was conformed by famous guide Raymond Lambert, Pierre Vittoz, Eric Gauchar, all of them Swiss, French Mme.
Claude Kogan. ^ The names Ganesh II, Pabil are from the Finnmap They do not agree with other, older sources such as Carter or Neate. Ohmori attests the name "Lapsang Karbo" for the southeast peak, here called Salasungo. ^ Heights are from the Finnmap. ^ Coordinates have been derived from the Finnmap by Eberhard Jurgalski. ^ Prominence values have been derived from the Finnmap by Eberhard Jurgalski. For Yangra, the value is from peaklist.org. Himalayan Index DEM files for the Himalaya Pictures of ganesh himal
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi