Dhaniakhali (community development block)

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Dhaniakhali
Community development block
Dhaniakhali is located in West Bengal
Dhaniakhali
Dhaniakhali
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°58′N 88°06′E / 22.97°N 88.10°E / 22.97; 88.10Coordinates: 22°58′N 88°06′E / 22.97°N 88.10°E / 22.97; 88.10
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Hooghly
Government
 • Type Representative democracy
Area
 • Total 275.68 km2 (106.44 sq mi)
Elevation 16 m (52 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 320,534
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 712302 (Dhaniakhali)
712303 (Gurap)
712301 (Bhandarhati)
Telephone code +91 3213
Vehicle registration WB-15, WB-16, WB-18
Literacy 75.66%
Lok Sabha constituency Hooghly, Arambag
Vidhan Sabha constituency Dhanekhali, Tarakeswar
Website hooghly.gov.in

Dhaniakhali (also spelled Dhanekhali) is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Chinsurah subdivision of Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal. The place has lent its name to the tant (handloom) sari it produces.

Overview[edit]

The Dhaniakhali CD Block is part of the Hooghly-Damodar Plain, one of the three natural regions in the district of the flat alluvial plains that forms part of the Gangetic Delta. The region has many depressions which receive water from the surrounding lands during the rainy season and discharge the water through small channels.[1]

Geography[edit]

Dhanekhali is located at 22°58′N 88°06′E / 22.97°N 88.10°E / 22.97; 88.10.

Dhaniakhali CD Block is bounded by Pandua CD Block, in a part of the north and a part of the east, Polba Dadpur CD Block in a major portion of the east, Haripal and Tarakeswar CD Blocks, in the south and Pursurah CD Block and Jamalpur CD Block, in Bardhaman district, in the west.[2]

It is located 36 km from Chinsurah, the district headquarters.

Dhaniakhali CD Block has an area of 275.68 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 18 gram panchayats, 264 gram sansads (village councils), 214 mouzas and 214 inhabited villages. Dhaniakhali and Gurap police stations serve this block.[3] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Dhaniakhali.[4][5]

Gram panchayats of Dhaniakhali block/ panchayat samiti are: Belmuri, Bhanderhati I, Bhanderhati II, Bhastara, Dasghara I, Dasghara II, Dhaniakhali I, Dhaniakhali II, Gopinathpur I, Gopinathpur II, Gurap, Gurbari I, Gurbari II, Khajurdaha-Milki, Mandra, Parambua-Sahabazar, Somaspur I and Somaspur II.[6]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India Dhaniakhali CD Block had a total population of 320,534, all of which were rural. There were 160,789 (50%) males and 159,745 (50%) females. Population below 6 years was 31,228. Scheduled Castes numbered 105,811 (33.01%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 45,715 (14.26%).[7]

As per 2001 census, Dhaniakhali block had a total population of 293,305, out of which 148,265 were males and 145,040 were females. Dhaniakhali block registered a population growth of 13.86 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Hooghly district was 15.72 per cent.[8] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[9]

Large (4,000+ population) villages in Dhaniakhali CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Srikrishnapur (10,345), Shrirampur (4,170), Gopinagar (5,424), Mandara (7,610), Bhandarhati (6,928), Samaspur (4,113), Gurap (7,856), Bhastara (5,084) and Cheragram (4,328).[7]

Other villages in Dhaniakhali CD Block include (2011 census figures in brackets): Dhaniakhali (3,738).[7]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Dhaniakhali CD Block was 218,902 (75.66% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 119,539 (82.51% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 99,363 (68.79% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 13.72%.[7]

As per the 2001 census, Dhaniakhali block had a total literacy of 48.55 per cent. While male literacy was 68.42 per cent, female literacy was 46.07 per cent.[10]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

As per the 2001 census, Bengali is the mother tongue for 86.4% of the population of the district followed by Hindi at 7.9%. Santali at 2.6% and Urdu at 2.0%, are the two other major languages spoken in the district. The population who reported Bengali as a mother tongue has decreased from 88.1% in 1961 to 86.4% in 2001 census whereas the population who reported Hindi as mother tongue has increased from 5.8% in 1961 to 7.9% in 2001 census.[11]

Religion in Dhaniakhali CD Block
Hindu
80.85%
Muslim
16.34%
Others
2.81%

As per the 2011 census, majority of the population of the district belong to the Hindu community with a population share of 82.9% followed by Muslims at 15.8%. The percentage of the Hindu population of the district has followed a decreasing trend from 87.1% in 1961 to 82.9% in the latest census 2011. On the other hand, the percentage of Muslim population has increased from 12.7% in 1961 to 15.8% in 2011 census.[11]

In 2011 census Hindus numbered 259,152 and formed 80.85% of the population in Dhaniakhali CD Block. Muslims numbered 52,384 and formed 16.34% of the population. Others numbered 8,998 and formed 2.81% of the population.[12]

Rural poverty[edit]

As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Dhaniakhali CD Block was 31.85%.[13]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

Livelihood
in Dhaniakhali CD Block

  Cultivators (17.50%)
  Agricultural labourers (53.71%)
  Household industries (3.80%)
  Other Workers (25.00%)

In Dhaniakhali CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 17.50%, agricultural labourers 53.71%, household industry workers 3.80% and other workers 25.00%.[14]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 214 inhabited villages in Dhaniakhali CD Block. 100% villages have power supply. 85 villages have more than one source of drinking water (tap, well, tube well, hand pump), 55 villages have only tube well/ borewell and 73 have only hand pump. 19 Villages have post offices, 30 villages have sub post offices and 9 villages have post and telegraph offices. 186 villages have landlines, 113 villages have public call offices and 176 villages have mobile phone coverage. 56 villages have pucca roads and 47 villages have bus service (public/ private). 27 villages have agricultural credit societies, 15 villages have commercial/ co-operative banks and 12 villages have bank ATMs.[15]

Agriculture[edit]

This is a rich agricultural area with several cold storages.[16] Though rice is the prime crop of the district, the agricultural economy largely depends on potato, jute, vegetables, and orchard products. Vegetable is a prize crop in the blocks of Haripal, Singur, Chanditala, Polba and Dhaniakhali being grown in a relay system throughout the year. Though potato is cultivated in all the blocks of this district Dhaniakhali, Arambagh, Goghat, Pursurah, Haripal, Polba-Dadpur, Tarakeswar, Pandua and Singur contributed much of its production of this district.[17]

Some of the primary and other hats or markets in the Dhaniakhali block area are at: Belmuri, Gopinagar, Hazipur, Kananadi, Bhastara, Chowghata, Sahabazar, Dashghara, and Gurap.[18]

Important Handicrafts of Hooghly District
  • Zari Work on Sari - Pandua, Pursurah, Jangipara, Tarakeswar and other blocks - 3,000 families involved
  • Chikon Embroidery – Babnan, Pandua, Singur - 2,500 families involved
  • Silk and Cotton Printing – Serampore (Chanditala) - 300 families involved
  • Brass and Bell Metal – Manikpat, Goghat, Arambagh - 150 families involved
  • Conch Shell – Pandua, Khanakul, Makla, Chandannagar
  • Jute Diversified Product – Baidyabati, Mogra
  • Terracota – Chinsurah, Chandannagar, Baidyabati, Mogra

Source:District Human Development Report 2010: Hooghly P. 67

The Tebhaga movement launched in 1946, in 24 Parganas district, aimed at securing for the share-croppers a better position within the existing land relation structure. Although the subsequent Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[19] Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Dhaniakhali CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 8.94%, patta (document) holders 6.64%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 3.46%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 21.47% and agricultural labourers 59.49%.[14] Dhaniakhali CD Block had 192 fertiliser depots, 56 seed stores and 63 fair price shops in 2013-14.[14]

In 2013-14, Dhaniakhali CD Block produced 50,670 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 18,893 hectares, 13,300 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 4,489 hectares, 84 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 34 hectares, 83 tonnes of wheat from 40 hectares, 25,499 tonnes of jute from 1,311 hectares and 95,184 tonnes of potatoes from 5,800 hectares. It also produced oilseeds.[14]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Dhaniakhali CD Block was 24,640 hectares, out of which 17,370 hectares were irrigated by canal water, 3,390 hectares by tank water, 450 hectares by river lift irrigation, 640 hectares by deep tube wells and 2,790 hectares by shallow tube wells.[14]

Industry[edit]

Pailan Group's Ascon Agro has set up a Rs 500 million potato flakes plant at Dhaniakhali. The potato plant, built on 65 acres (260,000 m2), has a capacity of 3,600 tons per annum. The project, with Export Oriented Unit-Special Economic Zone status, used machinery imported from The Netherlands and would employ 1500 people.[20][21]

Textiles[edit]

According to The Hindu Business Line, "The Bengal cotton sari is a fashion statement, wherever it is worn" and have a market all over the country.[22] The Times of India says that Dhaniakhali, Shantipur and Phulia are well–known for the traditional handloom saris of West Bengal. "In Dhaniakhali block every household has at least one loom. The sari produced here is named after the place".[23] The material for the Dhaniakhali sari is somewhat coarse and heavier than other textiles from Bengal but suits the middle class budget and as such is popular.[24][25] An ordinary Dhaniakhali sari takes a minimum of two days (10–12 hours each day), to be woven, and the weaver collects Rs. 50 for it. It sells for Rs. 100 in the market. The most exotic ones take four to five days to weave, fetches the weaver Rs. 450, and is sold for Rs. 800.[23]

The weaving of Jamdani saris originated in Dhaka in Bangladesh. Dhakai jamdani was famous among the aristocratic ladies in olden days. Places like Shantipur, Dhaniakhali, Begampur and Farasdanga started producing the jamdani saris, after the partition of India.[26][27]

In earlier days Dhaniakhali also produced superfine dhotis but has switched over to saris as per changes in market demand.[28] Now, they also want to weave material for salwar-kurtas in order to cater to the needs of the changing market.[23]

Howrah–Bardhaman Chord
km
Up arrowto Bardhaman-Asansol section
95 Bardhaman
88 Gangpur
83 Saktigarh
Right arrowto Howrah–Bardhaman main line
NH19-IN.svg National Highway 19
78 Palla Road
75 Chanchai
Left arrowto Bankura-Masagram line
72 Masagram
WB SH15-IND.png SH 15 Memari-Tarakeswar Road
69 Nabagram
65 Jaugram
62 Jhapandanga
58 Gurap
56 Hajigarh
52 Shibai Chandi
49 Dhaniakhali
47 Belmuri
45 Porabazar
41 Chandanpur
36 Madhusudanpur
WB SH2-IND.png State Highway 2
33 Kamarkundu
Left arrowSheoraphuli-Bishnupur line Right arrow
32 Balarambati
30 Mirzapur-Bankipur
27 Baruipara
23 Begampur
21 Janai Road
16 Gobra
15 Dankuni
NH19-IN.svg National Highway 19
NH16-IN.svg National Highway 16
12 Belanagar
7 Bally
Right arrowto Howrah–Bardhaman main line
Left arrowto Howrah-Kharagpur line
Rajchandrapur
Right arrowto Sealdah-Ranaghat line
Belur Math
5 Liluah
UpperLeft arrowto Howrah-Kharagpur line
0 Howrah

The Times of India reports that the weavers of Dhaniakhali have been facing financial problems. More than half are members of a co-operative, Dhaniakhali Union Tant Silpi Samabaya Samity. The rest who operate through mahajans (middlemen or money-lenders) have a tough time. It is not that the saris are not selling, but the trouble is that they are not being paid in time by the state government-run emporia, who are the main buyers. It is difficult to function without cash since the raw material provided by the cooperative to the weavers cannot be bought on credit.[23]

Mamata Banerjee, the West Bengal chief minister, generally wears only Dhaniakhali tant sari and has become a popular 'brand ambassador'.[29]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Dhaniakhali CD Block had offices of 25 commercial banks and 1 gramin bank.[14]

Transport[edit]

Dhaniakhali CD Block has 1 ferry service and 5 originating/ terminating bus routes.[14]

The Howrah–Bardhaman chord, a shorter link to Bardhaman from Howrah than the Howrah–Bardhaman main line, was constructed in 1917.[30] There are stations at Belmuri, Dhaniakhali (halt), Sibaichandi, Hajigarh and Gurap .[31]

Dhaniakhali station on the Howrah-Bardhaman chord was inaugurated in December 2003.[32] It is 49 kilometres (30 mi) from Howrah Station[33] and is part of the Kolkata Suburban Railway system.

There are two main bus stoppages, Madan Mohan Tala bus stop and Cinematala bus stop. Daily road transportation takes place through numerous bus routes which connect Dhaniakhali with Chinsurah - Tarakeswar - Haripal. It also connects with the Kolkata-Delhi NH 19 (old no. 2) at Maheswarpur, 8 km towards Chinsurah.

The Kolkata-Delhi NH 19/ Durgapur Expressway passes through this CD Block.[34]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Dhaniakhali CD Block had 199 primary schools with 18,168 students, 19 middle schools with 1,276 students, 19 high schools with 10,938 students and 22 higher secondary schools with 25,681 students. Dhaniakhali CD Block had 1 general college with 1,273 students and 507 institutions for special and non-formal education with 8,927 students[14]

In Dhaniakhali CD Block, amongst the 214 inhabited villages, 34 had no school, 44 had more than 1 primary school, 115 had at least 1 primary school, 65 had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 35 had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[15]

Sarat Centenary College was established at Dhaniakhali in 1978.[35]

Dhaniakhali Mahamaya Vidyamandir is one of the best higher secondary schools in that area. It has Science, Arts as well as Commerce stream.

Little magazine-Lipika is one of the oldest little magazines published from Somospur.

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Dhaniakhali CD Block had 1 rural hospital, 6 primary health centres and 6 private nursing homes with total 77 beds and 12 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 57 family welfare subcentres. 7,112 patients were treated indoor and 322,441 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[14]

Dhaniakhali CD Block has Dhaniakhali Rural Hospital (with 30 beds) at Dhaniakhali, Bhandarhati Primary Health Centre (with 10 beds), Chopa PHC (with 10 beds), Gurup PHC at PO Palashi (with 10 beds), Porabazar PHC (with 6 beds) and Khejurdaha-Milki PHC at PO Bhastara (with 10 beds).[36]

Vivekananda Seva Sadan, a private hospital (with 25 beds), is located at Vill & PO Mandra, Dhaniakhali, and Jannedra Memorial Child Health Care Hospital, set up by Lions Club (with 25 beds), is located at Dhaniakhali.[37]

Dhaniakhali CD Block is one of the areas of Hooghly district where ground water is affected by high level of arsenic contamination. The WHO guideline for arsenic in drinking water is 10 mg/ litre, and the Indian Standard value is 50 mg/ litre. In Hooghly district, 16 blocks have arsenic levels above WHO guidelines and 11 blocks above Indian standard value. The maximum concentration in Dhaniakhali CD Block is 225 mg/litre.[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Physigraphy, Page 17. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "Map of Hooghly district". District Profile. Hooghly district administration. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  3. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Hooghly". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  4. ^ "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Map of Hooghly district with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  5. ^ "Dhaniakhali". Local Self-government. Hooghly Zilla Parishad. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  6. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Hooghly – Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – Hooghly district. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  10. ^ "Dhaniakhali". Local Self-government. Hooghly Zilla Parishad. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  11. ^ a b "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Religion, Mother-tongue Pages 50-51. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  12. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  13. ^ "District Human Development Report: Hooghly" (PDF). Table 2.38: Empirical Measurement of Rural Poverty in Hooghly 2005, page 89. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Hooghly". Tables 2.7, 17.2, 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Appendices to Village Directory, 2009, Pages 775-779. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  16. ^ "List of functioning Cold Storage of West Bengal District wise as on 18.01.07". West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  17. ^ "Intensive cropping with remarkable feature of Hooghly District". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  18. ^ "Primary Hats/Markets of District". Hooghly. West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  19. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  20. ^ "Pailan potato flakes unit launched". Business Standard, 8 October 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  21. ^ "SPS Group acquires 55% of Pailan arm". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph, 9 April 2008. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  22. ^ "The itinerant saree seller". The Hindu Business Line, 5 November 2004. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Bengal govt spins a woeful pattern for weavers". Times of India, 18 May 2001. 18 May 2001. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  24. ^ "Indiwo.in.com For the Indian woman Buying the Right Cotton ..." Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  25. ^ "Bengal saree expo in the Capital". The Hindu Business Line, 26 March 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  26. ^ "World Of The Indian Woman: Jamdani: The gorgeous saris of Bengal". Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  27. ^ "Jamdani Sarees". Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  28. ^ "Textiles of West Bengal, Craft and Artisans of India". Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  29. ^ Mukherjee Pandey, Jhimli (30 May 2016). "The 'Mamata Saree' in hot demand". Times of India. 
  30. ^ "The Chronology of Railway development in Eastern Indian". railindia. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  31. ^ "36811 Howrah Bardhaman Jn Chord Local". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  32. ^ "After fog, frenzy stalls trains - Mob blocks rail tracks with halt demand, schedules thrown awry". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph, 9 January 2004. 9 January 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  33. ^ Eastern Railway local time table
  34. ^ "Rationalisation of Numbering Systems of National Highways" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Road Transport and Highways. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  35. ^ "Colleges". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  36. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  37. ^ "Private Hospitals in Hooghly district" (PDF). The list includes Nursing Homes also, but below we are giving only Hospitals. Hooghly district administration. Retrieved 17 July 2017. 
  38. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Hugli. SOES. Retrieved 3 June 2017.