Patiala State was a self-governing princely state of British Empire in India. Patiala was one of the Phulkian States; this state was Sidhu Jat State. When the British left India in 1947, they abandoned their subsidiary alliances with the princely states, the Maharajah of Patiala Yadvindra Singh acceded to the new Union of India. Patiala state was established in 1763 by Maharaja Ala Singh, a chieftain who laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around'which the present city of Patiala is built. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated by the Afghans, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. The Patiala state saw more than forty years of ceaseless power struggle with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire and the Sikh Empire of Lahore. In 1808, the Maharaja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh of Lahore in 1808, thus becoming collaborator in the grand empire building process by the British in, the sub-continent of India.
Patiala became a 17-guns salute state during the British Raj. The rulers of Patiala such as Maharaja Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh were treated with respect and dignity by the British; the city of Patiala was designed and developed according to a plan akin to that of temple architecture, the first settlers of Patiala were the Hindus of Sirhind, who opened their business establishments outside the Darshani Gate. The royal house is now headed by Captain Amarinder Singh, the current Chief Minister of Punjab; the royals are considered political icons in east Punjab. Maharaja Karam Singh who ruled from 1813 to 1845 joined the British East India Company and helped the British during the First Anglo Sikh wars against the Sikh Empire of Maharajah Ranjit Singh of Punjab, larger and extended from Tibet Kashmir, plains of Punjab to Peshawar near the Afghan borders. Patiala gets name after the Sidhu Jat founder of Patiala state, it was earlier known as Pat-Ala.
This office became hereditary amongst his descendants until Phul, the Sikh ancestor of the dynasty, which came to rule over Patiala and Nabha. The history of Patiala state starts off with the ancestor of the Sikh Patiala Royal House, Mohan Singh being harassed by neighbouring Bhullars and Dhaliwals farmers, they would not allow Mohan to settle there. He was a follower of the Guru appealed on behalf of Mohan but to no avail; the result was an armed struggle and the Bhullars and Dhaliwals were defeated by the Guru's men, which allowed Mohan to establish the Village of Meharaj in 1627. Mohan Singh fought against the Mughals at the Battle of Mehraj 1631 on the side of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Mohan Singh and his eldest son Rup Chand were killed in a fight against the Bhatti's. Kala, Mohan's younger son succeeded the "chaudriyat", was guardian to Rup Chand's sons Phul and Sandali; when Kala Sidhu died, Phul formed his own village, five miles from Meharaj in 1663. Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to the devout Sikh Phul.
It was one of the first Sikh Kingdoms of Punjab to be formed. The appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chota Ram, was blessed by Guru Gobind Singh, his son Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. A man with vision and courage, Ala Singh's general, Gurbaksh Singh Kaleka, carved out an independent principality from a Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances. In the middle of the eighteenth century, Baba Ala Singh, unlike many of his contemporaries, displayed tremendous shrewdness in dealing with the Marathas and Afghans, established a state which he had started building up from its nucleus Barnala, he became traitor to the Sikhs, who made him a Sardar from a peasant and fought on the side of Ahmad Shah Abdali against the Sikhs.
In 1763 Baba Ala Singh laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around which the present city of Patiala developed. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed upon Ala Singh furm and banner, the title of Maharaja of Patiala. After his death, his grandson Amar Singh received the title of Raja-I-Rajaan, he was allowed to strike coins. After forty years of ceaseless struggle with the Marathas and Afghans, the borders of the Patiala state witnessed the blazing trails of Ranjit Singh in the north and of the British in the east. Bestowed with the grit and instinct of survival, making self-preservation a priority the Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh in 1808, thus becoming collaborators in the empire building process of the British in the sub-continent of India; the subsequent rulers of Patiala, such as Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh, Yadvindra Singh were parties to a subsidiary alliance and were influenced by the British, but retained the internal government of their state.
Bhopal State was a tributary state in 18th-century India, a princely salute state with 19-gun salute in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar was founded and served as the State's first capital, shifted to the city of Bhopal; the state was founded in 1707 CE by Dost Mohammad Khan, a Pashtun soldier in the Mughal army, who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his fiefdom. It came under the suzerainty of the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1723 shortly after its foundation. In 1737, Marathas defeated the Mughals and the Nawab of Bhopal in the Battle of Bhopal, started collecting tribute from the state. After the defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, Bhopal became a British princely state in 1818. Bhopal State was the second largest state in pre-independence India, with a Muslim leadership, first being Hyderabad State; the state was merged into the Union of India in 1949 as Bhopal.
The State of Bhopal was established by a pashtun soldier in the Mughal Army. After the death of the emperor Aurangzeb, Khan started providing mercenary services to several local chieftains in the politically unstable Malwa region. In 1709, he took on the lease of the Berasia estate, he usurped the Rajput principality of Mangalgarh and the Gond kingdom of Rani Kamlapati, after the death of their female rulers to whom he had been providing mercenary services. He annexed several other territories in Malwa to his state. During the early 1720s, Khan founded the city of Bhopal into a fortified city and assumed the title of Nawab. Khan became close to the Sayyid Brothers, who had become influential king-makers in the Mughal court. Khan's support to the Sayyids earned him the enmity of the rival Mughal nobleman Nizam-ul-Mulk, who invaded Bhopal in March 1724, forcing Khan to cede much of his territory, give up his son as a hostage, accept the Nizam's suzerainty. Dost Mohammad Khan and his Pathan Orakzai dynasty brought Islamic influence to the culture and architecture in the foundation of Bhopal.
Aside from the city of Bhopal, his capital, Dost Mohammad Khan founded the nearby fort and settlement at Islamnagar. After Khan's death in 1728, the Bhopal state remained under the influence of the Orakzai dynasty; the state paid tribute to the Marathas, who defeated the Mughals and the Nawab of Bhopal at the Battle of Bhopal in 1737. Dost Mohammad Khan's son and successor, Nawab Yar Mohammad Khan, moved the capital from Bhopal to Islamnagar. However, his successor, Nawab Faiz Muhammed Khan, moved back to Bhopal, which would remain the capital of Bhopal State until its fall in 1949. Faiz Muhammad Khan was a religious recluse, the state was ruled by his influential stepmother Mamola Bai; the state became a British protectorate in 1818 and was ruled by the Orakzai descendents of Dost Mohammad Khan until 1949, when it was annexed by the Republic of India. By the 1730s, the Marathas were expanding into the region, the successors fought wars with their neighbours to protect the small territory and fought among themselves for control of the state.
The Marathas conquered several nearby states, including Indore to the west and Gwalior to the north, but Bhopal remained a Muslim-ruled state under Dost Mohammed Khan's successors. Subsequently, Nawab Wazir Mohammed Khan, a general, created a strong state after fighting several wars. Nawab Jahangir Mohammed Khan established a cantonment at a distance of one mile from the fort; this was called Jahangirabad after him. He built barracks for British guests and soldiers in Jahangirabad. In 1778, during the First Anglo-Maratha War, when the British General Thomas Goddard campaigned across India, Bhopal was one of the few states that remained friendly to the British. In 1809, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, General Close led a British expedition to Central India; the Nawab of Bhopal petitioned in vain to be received under British protection. In 1817, when the Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out, a treaty of dependence was signed between the British Government of India and the Nawab of Bhopal. Bhopal remained a friend of British Government during the British Raj in India.
In February–March 1818, Bhopal became a princely state in British India as a result of the Anglo-Bhopal treaty between the East India Company and Nawab Nazar Muhammad. Bhopal state included the present-day Bhopal and Sehore districts, was part of the Central India Agency, it straddled the Vindhya Range, with the northern portion lying on the Malwa plateau, the southern portion lying in the valley of the Narmada River, which formed the state's southern boundary. Bhopal Agency was formed as an administrative section of Central India, consisting the Bhopal state and some princely states to the northeast, including Khilchipur, Narsingarh and after 1931 the Dewas states, it was administered by an agent to the British Governor-General of India. Between 1819 and 1926, it was ruled by four women – Begums – unique in the royalty of those days. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler, succeeded by her only daughter Sikandar Begum, who in turn was succeeded by her only daughter, Shah Jahan Begum. Sultan Shah Jahan Begum was the last women ruler, who after 25 years of rule, abdicated in favour of her son, Hamidullah Khan.
The rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system and a municipality constituted in 1907. In 1819, 18-year-old Qudsia Begum took over the reins after the assassination of her husband, she was the first female ruler of Bhopal. Although she was illiterate, she was brave and
A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Gwalior was an Indian kingdom and princely state during the British Raj. It was focused in modern-day Madhya Pradesh, arising due to fragmentation in the Mughal Empire and lack of central authority from Delhi, it was ruled in subsidiary alliance with the British by the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas and was entitled to a 21-gun salute. The state took its name from the old town of Gwalior, although never the actual capital, was an important place because of its strategic location and the strength of its fort; the state was founded in the early 18th century by Ranoji Sindhia, as part of the Maratha Confederacy. Under Mahadji Sindhia Gwalior State became a leading power in Central India, dominated the affairs of the confederacy; the Anglo-Maratha Wars brought Gwalior State under British suzerainty, so that it became a princely state of the British Indian Empire. Gwalior was the largest state in the Central India Agency, under the political supervision of a Resident at Gwalior. In 1936, the Gwalior residency was separated from the Central India Agency, made answerable directly to the Governor-General of India.
After Indian Independence in 1947, the Sindhia rulers acceded to the new Union of India, Gwalior state was absorbed into the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. The state had a total area of 64,856 km2, was composed of several detached portions, but was divided into two, the Gwalior or Northern section, the Malwa section; the northern section consisted of a compact block of territory with an area of 44,082 km2, lying between 24º10' and 26º52' N. and 74º38' and 79º8' E. It was bounded on the north and northwest by the Chambal River, which separated it from the native states of Dholpur and Jaipur in the Rajputana Agency; the Malwa section, which included the city of Ujjain, had an area of 20,774 km2. It was made up of several detached districts, between which portions of other states were interposed, which were themselves intermingled in bewildering intricacy. In 1940 Gwalior State had 4,006,159 inhabitants; the predecessor state of Gwalior was founded in the 10th century. It was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate and was a part of it till 1398.
It again became a part of the Mughal empire from 1528 to 1731. The founder of the Gwalior house was Ranoji Sindhia, who belonged to an impoverished branch of the Shinde or Sindhia house which traced its descent from a family of which one branch held the hereditary post of patil in Kannerkhera, a village 16 miles east of Satara; the head of the family received a patent of rank from the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, while a daughter of the house was married to the Maratha king Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj. In 1726, Ranoji along with Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder of the house of Indore, the Ponwar, were authorized by the Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi in the Malwa districts, retaining for his own remuneration half the mokassa. Ranoji fixed his headquarters in the ancient city of Ujjain, which became the capital of the Sindhia dominion, on 19 July 1745 he died near Shujalpur, where his centotaph stands, he left three legitimate sons, Jayappa and Jotiba, two illegitimate and Mahadji.
Jayappa succeeded to the territories of Ranoji, but was killed at Nagaur in 1759. He was followed by his son Jankoji, taken prisoner at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 and put to death, Mahadji succeeded. Madhavrao I, popularly known as Mahadji, his successor Daulatrao took a leading part in shaping the history of India during their rule. Mahadji returned from the Deccan to Malwa in 1764, by 1769 reestablished his power there. In 1772 Madhavrao Peshwa died, in the struggles which ensued Mahadji took an important part, seized every chance of increasing his power and augmenting his possessions. In 1775 Raghoba Dada Peshwa threw himself on the protection of the British; the reverses which Sindhia's forces met with at the hands of Colonel Goddard after his famous march from Bengal to Gujarat the fall of Gwalior to Major Popham, the night attack by Major Camac, opened his eyes to the strength of the new power which had entered the arena of Indian politics. In 1782 the Treaty of Salbai was made with Sindhia, the chief stipulations being that he should withdraw to Ujjain, the British north of the Yamuna, that he should negotiate treaties with the other belligerents.
The importance of the treaty can scarcely be exaggerated. It made the British arbiters of peace in India and acknowledged their supremacy, while at the same time Sindhia was recognized as an independent chief and not as a vassal of the Peshwa. A resident, Mr. Anderson was at the same time appointed to Sindhia's court. Between 1782 and December 1805 Dholpur State was annexed by Gwalior. Sindhia took full advantage of the system of neutrality pursued by the British to establish his supremacy over Northern India. In this he was assisted by the genius of Benoît de Boigne, whose influence in consolidating the power of Mahadji Sindhia is estimated at its true value, he was from the Duchy of Savoy, a native of Chambéry, who had served under Lord Clare in the famous Irish Brigade and Fontenoy and elsewhere and who after many vicissitudes, including imprisonment by the Turks, reached India and for a time held a commission in the 6th Madras Infantry. Af
The Triumph Herald is a small two-door car introduced by Standard-Triumph of Coventry in 1959 and made through to 1971. The body design was by the Italian stylist Giovanni Michelotti, the car was offered in saloon, coupé, estate and van models, with the latter marketed as the Triumph Courier. Total Herald sales numbered well over half a million; the Triumph Vitesse, Spitfire and GT6 models are all based on modified Herald chassis and running gear with bolt-together bodies. Towards the end of the 1950s Standard-Triumph offered a range of two-seater Triumph sports cars alongside its Standard saloons, the Standard Eight and Standard Ten, powered by a small 4-cylinder engine, which by the late 1950s were due for an update. Standard-Triumph therefore started work on the Herald; the choice of the Herald name suggests that the car was intended to be marketed as a Standard, as it fits the model-naming scheme of the time. But by 1959 it was felt that the Triumph name had more brand equity, the Standard name was phased out in Britain after 1963.
Giovanni Michelotti was commissioned to style the car by the Standard-Triumph board, encouraged by chief engineer Harry Webster, produced designs for a two-door saloon with a large glass area that gave 93 per cent all-round visibility in the saloon variant and the "razor-edge" looks to which many makers were turning. As Fisher & Ludlow, Standard-Triumph's body suppliers became part of an uncooperative British Motor Corporation, it was decided that the car should have a separate chassis rather than adopting the newer unitary construction; the main body tub was bolted to the chassis and the whole front end hinged forward to allow access to the engine. Every panel – including the sills and roof – could be unbolted from the car so that different body styles could be built on the same chassis; as an addition to the original coupé and saloon models, a convertible was introduced in 1960. The Standard Pennant's 4-cylinder 948 cc OHV Standard SC engine and 4 speed manual gearbox was used with synchromesh on the top three gears and remote gear shift and driving the rear wheels.
Most of the engine parts were used in the Standard 8/10. The rack and pinion steering afforded the Herald a tight 25-foot turning circle. Coil and double-wishbone front suspension was fitted, while the rear suspension, a new departure for Triumph, offered "limited" independent springing via a single transverse leaf-spring bolted to the top of the final drive unit and swing axles. Instruments were confined to a single large speedometer with fuel gauge in the saloon on a dashboard of grey pressed fibreboard; the coupé dashboard was equipped with speedometer and temperature gauges, together with a lockable glovebox. The car had loop-pile heater as standard. A number of extras were available including twin SU carburettors, leather seats, a wood-veneered dashboard, Telaflo shock absorbers and paint options. In late 1958, prototype cars embarked on a test run from Cape Town to Tangiers. An account of the journey was embellished by PR at the time. However, only minor changes were deemed necessary between the production cars.
The new car was launched at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 22 April 1959 but was not an immediate sales success owing to its high cost, approaching £700. In standard single-carburettor form the 34.5 bhp car was no better than average in terms of performance. A saloon tested by The Motor magazine in 1959 was found to have a top speed of 70.9 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 31.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 34.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The rear suspension was criticised as yielding poor handling at the extremes of performance though the model was considered easy to drive with its good vision, light steering and controls, ease of repair. A Herald S variant was introduced in 1961 with a lower equipment level and less chrome than the Herald, it was offered in saloon form only. The 948 cc Herald Coupé and Convertible models were discontinued in 1961, the 948 cc Herald Saloon in 1962 and the Herald S in 1964. Standard-Triumph experienced financial difficulties at the beginning of the 1960s and was taken over by Leyland Motors in 1961.
This released new resources to develop the Herald and the car was re-launched in April 1961 with an 1147 cc engine as the Herald 1200. The new model featured a wooden laminate dashboard and improved seating. Quality control was tightened up. Twin carburettors were no longer fitted to any of the range as standard although they remained an option, the standard being a single down-draught Solex carburettor. Claimed maximum power of the Herald 1200 was 39 bhp, as against the 34.5 bhp claimed for the 948 cc model. One month after the release of the Herald 1200, a 2-door estate was added to the range. Disc brakes became an option from 1962. Sales picked up despite growing competition from the Ford Anglia; the coupé was dropped from the range in late 1964 as it was by in direct competition with the Triumph Spitfire. The Triumph Courier van, a Herald estate with side panels in place of rear side windows, was produced from 1962 until 1966, but was dropped following poor sales. Production in England ceased in mid-1964.
CKD assembly by MCA in Malta continued till late 1965, at least. The Courier was powered by the 1147 cc engine. An upmarket version, the Herald 12/50, was offered from 1963 to 1967, it featured a tuned engine with a claimed output of 51 bhp in place of the previous 39, along with
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal