A dharamshala written as dharmashala is a public resthouse or shelter. Just as sarai are for travellers and caravans, dharamshalas are built for religious travellers at pilgrimage sites. In Nepal there are dharamshalas built for pilgrims as well as dharamshalas for locals. Dharamshala is a word, a compound of dharma and shālā. A loose translation into English would be'spiritual dwelling' or, more loosely,'sanctuary'. Rendering a precise literal translation into English is problematic due to the vast and conceptually rich semantic field of the word dharma, the cultural aspect of India. In common Hindu usage, the word dharamshala refers to a shelter or rest house for spiritual pilgrims. Traditionally, such dharamshalas were constructed near pilgrimage destinations to give visitors a place to sleep for the night. Due to a lack of uniform observance of transliteration and transcription conventions for Hindi, the name of the town has been transcribed into English variously as Dharamshala, Dharamsala and, less Dharmshala and Dharmsala.
These four permutations result from two variables: the transcription of the word धर्म —particularly the second syllable —and that of the third syllable. A strict transliteration of धर्म as written would be'dharma'. In the modern spoken Hindi of the region, there is a common metathesis in which the vowel and consonant sounds in the second syllable of certain words are transposed, which changes'dharma' to'dharam'. Thus, if the goal of the transcription is phonetic accord with modern spoken Hindi, then'dharam' and'dharm' are both legitimate options. Regarding the third syllable, the Devanagari श corresponds to the English sh sound, thus शाला is transcribed in English as'shala'. Therefore, the most accurate phonetic transcription of the Hindi धर्मशाला into Roman script for common English usage is either'Dharamshala' or, less commonly,'Dharmshala', both of which render the sh sound of श in English as'sh' to convey the correct native pronunciation,'Dharamshala' or'Dharmshala'. Nonetheless, the alternate spelling'Dharamsala' continues to be used in some cases despite its inaccuracy, all four spelling permutations can be found in the English language materials of the local and state governments, in publications, on the Internet.
Regardless of spelling variations, however, it is that the correct native pronunciation is with the sh sound. Therefore, the spelling variant, most common and most concordant with standards of transcription and native pronunciation is'Dharamshala'; the official Indian English spelling is'Dharamshala'. It is both written and pronounced as Dharmaśālā in Nepali. Sometimes a dharmaśālā is built at religious pilgrimages for a specific community, ethnic group, profession or persons from a specific region; the specified pilgrims are charged minimal or allowed free stay for a limited duration at a Dharamshala built for them but other pilgrims may be charged higher amounts. In Nepal dharmashalas can be found in every city. More than not they have a social and cultural significance rather than a religious one. There are tree different types of dharmashala: a sattal and a mandapa. Patis or palchas are the simplest of the three types, they consist of a platform made with wooden floorboards. Wooden pillars support a roof.
The back of the pati is a brick wall. The other sides are open. Patis can be either free standing of connected like a house or a dhunge dhara. Patis can be L-shaped, T-shaped, U-shaped, curved or circular; the rectangular shape and the L shape are the most common. Patis are the smallest of the dharmashalas but some can be up to 32 bays long. Patis are found within cities and villages, but on the side of road near a source of water. In Patan fourteen patis house parts of the chariot used for the Rato Machindranath Jatra. Preparations for the festival begin with the construction of a 60-foot tall chariot at Pulchok at the western end of the city. Sattals have one or two extra closed, storeys on top of a pati-like structure; the ground floor is open on three sides. Sattals are resting places, not just for the day, but for overnight stays. Mandapas are square, freestanding buildings, much like patis; the simplest mandapa is a platform with a roof. Two of such mandapas can be found on either side of the entrance stairs of Manga Hiti in Patan.
Mandapas can have multiple storeys, like the Kasthamandap in Kathmandu and the Chyasilin Mandap in Bhaktapur. Chyasilin Mandap was built in the eighteenth century, but destroyed during the 1934 earthquake. Architects Götz Hagmüller and Niels Gutschow rebuilt it, using old paintings and early twentieth century photographs as a reference. With the help of locals who had survived the 1934 earthquake, they managed to locate eight of the twelve original pillars and some other fragments of the old building. An expert on earthquake proof architecture created an internal framework of concrete. Craftsmen from Bhaktapur and Patan recreated all te other parts; the work was completed in 1990. Thanks to the controversial choice to use contemporary technology to strenghten the structure, Chyasilin Mandap survi
A Touch of Dead is a collection of short stories from Charlaine Harris's series The Southern Vampire Mysteries. This title was released on October 6, 2009; this book only contains the short stories Harris has published in which Sookie Stackhouse is present. “Fairy Dust” from Powers of Detection ISBN 0-441-01197-7 “Dracula Night” from Many Bloody Returns Hardcover ISBN 0-441-01522-0 “One Word Answer” from Bite ISBN 0-515-13970-X “Lucky” from Unusual Suspects ISBN 0-441-01637-5 “Gift Wrap” from Wolfsbane and Mistletoe Hardcover ISBN 0-441-01633-2 "Fairy Dust" is a short story and extension of The Southern Vampire Mysteries. Published in Powers of Detection, it introduces another one of Sookie's fairy cousins and the deceased third triplet Claudette. Claude and Claudine are recurring characters in books of the series. Plot summaryIn "Fairy Dust", Sookie is working at Merlottes when Claudine the fairy comes in and asks Sookie to read the minds of some human guests of her brother Claude, a fairy. At Claude and Claudine's home in Monroe, she finds three people tied up in the house.
Everyone involved is associated with an exotic dancing establishment. Claude, who dances, tells Sookie that they believe that one of the people murdered their triplet Claudette while she was working at the club earlier that night. Claude explains. Using her telepathy, Sookie interviews each suspect to discover the guilty party. CharactersMain charactersSookie Stackhouse: Human and barmaid of a local bar. Bill Compton: Vampire and Sookie's former boyfriend. Non-recurring charactersBen Simpson: A blond man that works at Hooligans as an exotic dancer, he explains that he enjoys shaving clients. Had a relationship with Claudette but was angry with her because she told him that he was inadequate in bed. Rita Child: Current owner of Hooligans. Disliked Claudette. Jeff Pocket: Bouncer at Hooligans. Former lover of Claude, he hated Claudette for telling Claude to end the relationship with him. "Dracula Night" is a short extension of The Southern Vampire Mysteries. Published in Many Bloody Returns; this story does not affect the storylines in the Southern Vampires novels.
Plot summaryEric's vampire bar, throws a party each year for the vampire observance of Dracula Night, in honor of the infamous Count Dracula. According to legend, the Count will choose one lucky party from all over the world to grace with his presence; the book characters are amused by Eric's childlike hope that the Count will appear at his party, just like Linus of the Peanuts comic hopes in vain to greet the Great Pumpkin. CharactersMain charactersSookie Stackhouse: Human and barmaid of a local bar. Bill Compton: Vampire and Sookie's former boyfriend. Eric Northman: Vampire sheriff of Area Five of Louisiana, he hosts a party celebrating the turning of Dracula into a Vampire. "One Word Answer" is a short extension of The Southern Vampire Mysteries. Published in Bite, it introduces the topic of Hadley's death, which kicks off the events in the sixth Vampire Mysteries book, Definitely Dead. Plot summaryIn "One Word Answer", the mysterious Mr. Cataliades shows up in a limousine at Sookie's home bringing the news of her cousin Hadley's death.
The rebellious Hadley had not been in touch with the family in years, so they did not know she had become a vampire several years ago. Nor did they know that she was the lover of the vampire Queen of Louisiana, Sophie-Anne Leclerq, it seems that Waldo, a former lackey of the Queen, was jealous of Hadley's position, so he lured her to a cemetery and killed her. Mr. Cataliades informs Sookie that Waldo has been caught, that his punishment is in Sookie's hands - she must decide, her answer surprises him, Sookie notices that it surprises the hidden occupant of the limousine: the Queen. CharactersMain charactersSookie Stackhouse: Human and barmaid of a local bar. Bill Compton: Vampire and Sookie's former boyfriend. Recurring charactersSophie-Anne Leclerq: The vampire Queen of Louisiana, Hadley's former lover. Mr. Cataliades: A lawyer who works for Sophie-Anne Leclerq, conducts business for her, his half-demon nature is not revealed in this story. Bubba: Bubba is Elvis Presley in vampire form. Non-recurring charactersWaldo: A former lackey of Sophie-Anne, he was violently jealous of Hadley's position as the Queen's lover.
Two characters from this story are mentioned in passing in a book, but this story does not affect the storylines in the Southern Vampires novels. Plot summaryInsurance agent Greg Aubert asks Sookie to investigate a break-in at his office, he is concerned that someone will discover that he uses magic spells to protect his property and his clients. Amelia and Sookie discover that the break-in was just Greg's daughter and her secretive boyfriend, a newly turned vampire. However, Sookie learns that two other agents in town have had break-ins, all are getting excessive amounts of claims which may drive them out of business, it seems. CharactersMain charactersSookie Stackhouse: Human and barmaid of a local bar. Bill Compton: Vampire and Sookie's former boyfriend. Recurring charactersAmelia Broadway: Witch rooming with Sookie. Non-recurring charactersGreg Aubert: An insurance salesman. "Gift Wrap" is a short extension of The Southern Vampire Mysteries. This story does not affect the storylines in the Southern Vampires novels, although in a book Sookie has a vague memory of these events.
Plot summaryIn "Gift Wrap", Sookie finds herself alon
Bartlett Lee "Bart" Thane was an American mining engineer who pioneered hydroelectric power in Juneau, Alaska. The world's first thin arch dam, Salmon Creek Dam, was constructed by Thane. Thane was born in Oakland, California, USA, in August 1877, his parents were Laura E. Thane, his father was a well-known orchardist from California. His maternal grandfather was Judge Harmon J. Tilden. Thane's sister was named Laura, he attended the University of California, where he graduated with a degree in mining engineering in 1899. While attending the university, he played college football and was the quarterback of the 1898 California Golden Bears football team that defeated Stanford in the "Big Game" for the first time by a score of 22 to 0, he was a member of Skull and Keys and Kappa Alpha Order at Cal. Thane first came to Alaska in 1897, he was hired by Herman T. Tripp to work at the Sumdum Chief Mine south of Juneau, he was the first superintendent of the Eagle River Mining Company, before becoming Managing Director of the Alaska-Gastineau Mining Company.
By 1911, he had controlling interest in six Juneau area gold mines. In 1912, he developed it into the world's largest. With the assistance of his former college football friends, Thane constructed Salmon Creek Dam, the world's first thin arch dam, in 1914. In 1915, Thane and other mining and business executives established Juneau's first golf course, in the Mendenhall Valley. Between 1918 and 1919, Thane quit the Alaska-Gastineau Mining Company, moved to San Francisco, returned to the Alaska-Gastineau Mining Company. In 1921, after the Alaska-Gastineau Mine shut down, Thane attempted to develop his facilities for a new pulp mill, but a deal with Japanese investors failed in 1923. In June 1902, Thane married Juliet Fay Blaine at California, they lived in what was to become the Wickersham State Historic Site on Chicken Ridge in Juneau during the period of 1914-1916, along with their daughter named Juliet Fay Thane. Thane's sister Laura married James R. Whipple. In a Draft Registration Card completed in September 1918, Thane listed his permanent address as the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco.
He identified himself as a mining engineer with an office at San Francisco's Crocker Building. In a 1923 passport application submitted of a trip to Japan, Korea and Australia, Thane listed San Francisco as his permanent residence. Thane died in New York City in 1927. Thane and Thane Road, on the Gastineau Channel, were named in his honor
California's 55th State Assembly district is one of 80 California State Assembly districts. It is represented by Republican Phillip Chen of Yorba Linda; the district straddles the intersection of several distinct regions. Centered on the Chino Hills, it includes the southeastern margins of the San Gabriel Valley as well as parts of the northern Santa Ana Valley; the district is affluent and suburban. California State Assembly California State Assembly districts Districts in California District map from the California Citizens Redistricting Commission
WR 134 is a variable Wolf-Rayet star located around 6,000 light years away from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus, surrounded by a faint bubble nebula blown by the intense radiation and fast wind from the star. It is five times the radius of the sun, but due to a temperature over 63,000 K it is 400,000 times as luminous as the Sun. WR 134 was one of three stars in Cygnus observed in 1867 to have unusual spectra consisting of intense emission lines rather than the more normal continuum and absorption lines; these were the first members of the class of stars that came to be called Wolf-Rayet stars after Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet who discovered their unusual appearance. It is a member of the nitrogen sequence of WR stars, while the other two are both members of the carbon sequence that have OB companions. WR 134 has a spectrum with NIII and NIV emission between two and five times stronger than NV, leading to the assignment of a WN6 spectral type; the spectrum shows strong HeII emission and weaker lines of HeI and CIV.
WR 134 is classified as an Algol type eclipsing variable and given the designation V1769 Cygni, but the variation is not periodic and brightness changes occur on timescales of hours to days. It has been investigated several times to search for companions. Morel reported a 2.25 day primary period but considered the variations to be due to rotational modulation rather than the effects of a companion. Rustamov suggests a 1.887 day orbital period with a K-M dwarf companion, but with additional optical variations. Both hard and soft X-rays have been detected from WR 134 but the sources are not explained; the emissions do not match a single star of the expected temperature, are not sufficient for colliding winds between two hot stars, any compact source such as a neutron star or cool dwarf would be in an unlikely orbit. WR 134 is less than a degree away from WR 135 and the two are believed to lie at the same distance from Earth within the Cygnus OB3 association. Both stars lie within a shell of hydrogen thought to have been swept up from the interstellar medium when one or both stars were on the main sequence.
The shell contains about 1,830 M ☉ of hydrogen. It is unclear which of the two stars is responsible for creating the shell. NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: WR 134 Ring Nebula Wolf Rayet shells NOAO page
Alan Moore's Hypothetical Lizard is a comic book adaptation of the World Fantasy Award-nominated short story "A Hypothetical Lizard", written in 1988 by Alan Moore for the third volume of the Liavek shared world fantasy series. The story was reprinted in "Words Without Pictures", a 1990 book of prose stories by comics writers edited by Steve Niles, but went out of print. In 2004 Avatar Press published the first issue of Alan Moore's Hypothetical Lizard as a comic book adapted by writer Antony Johnston; the story describes the life of Som-Som, a prostitute in the House Without Clocks - a brothel designed to service rare and exotic tastes. Som-Som has undergone a corpus callosotomy, severing the connection between the two hemispheres of her brain. Therefore, she can see and hear, but not speak of or act on, any secrets her wizard clientele may inadvertently reveal in the throes of passion. Som-Som can only watch as her transsexual friend Rawra Chin is destroyed by an abusive relationship