Harukichi Shimoi was a Japanese poet and writer. Born as Harukichi Inoue, he adopted the surname of his wife when they married in 1907, he finished his studies in Japan, had the occasion to meet Bin Ueda, by whom he was profoundly influenced. Shimoi moved to Italy to study Dante, becoming a Japanese teacher at the Naples Eastern University. In 1917, he enlisted in the Italian army during World War I, committed himself to fighting against the Central Powers. Harukichi became an Ardito. Using his diplomatic passport that allowed him great freedom of movement, Shimoi acted after the war as a liaison for secret mails between Gabriele D'Annunzio regent of Fiume, Benito Mussolini, at the time the head of the Italian Fasci di Combattimento and editor of Il Popolo d'Italia. Shimoi was, among other things, one of the people first entering the Fiume Endeavour of the Italian poet. D'Annunzio nicknamed Shimoi "comrade Samurai" and "the Samurai of Fiume". Together they organized the Rome-Tokyo flight performed by the aviator Arturo Ferrarin.
Returning to Naples in 1920, he founded the Japanese literature magazine Sakura, that would be published until March of the following year for a total of five issues. In 1934 he served as an interpreter to the founder of Judo, Jigoro Kano, while he was staying in Italy; the translated interviews given by Kano were a mainspring for the development of such discipline in Italy. Getting back to his homeland, Shimoi helped the Italian Embassy in Tokyo to stop the pro-Ethiopian activities of the Japanese rightist clubs during the war in Ethiopia. Shimoi was one of the best known Japanese supporters of Italian fascism, seeing some analogies between the fascist principles and the traditional values of Japanese culture the Bushido, he argued that fascism was a natural ramification of the risorgimento, that its role was to be a "spiritual movement" that would make Italians identify as being part of the new nation. While being a supporter of fascism in Italy, Shimoi didn't promote it in Japan, considering such movement an Italian cultural phenomenon.
After the second World War, Shimoi met and became friends with Indro Montanelli, who arrived in Japan to work on a series of reportages. Shimoi became his guide around the country. Shimoi translated numerous works from Japanese into Italian and vice versa, he translated works by a number of Japanese authors like Akiko Yosano and Matsuo Bashō, while his translations into Japanese included D'Annunzio and Dante. In 1920, Shimoi promoted the construction of a temple dedicated to him in Tokyo; some of his works include Shinto Ponpeo or tou tame ni, dedicated to the ruins of the Roman city of Pompeii, The Italian war seen by a Japanese. Reto Hofmann, Mediator of fascism: Shimoi Harukichi, 1915–1928, in The Fascist Effect: Japan and Italy, 1915–1952, Cornell University Press, 2015 Shimoi Harukichi and Italian fascism - On His Relations with D'Annunzio and Japanese Society, in Fukuokakokusaidaigaku kiyō, nº 25, 2011, pp. 53–66 Dai giapponesi lodi agli assalti di Cadorna, in Il Piccolo, 18 gennaio 2012 Mario Vattani, Con eliche di legno e ali di stoffa verso il Sol Levante, in Il Giornale d'Italia, 31 maggio 2013 Gabriele D'Annunzio.
Un mito nel Giappone del'900, in Corriere Adriatico, 3 novembre 2013. URL consultato il 25 gennaio 2014 Stefano Carrer, L'Università di Tokyo celebra Gabriele D'Annunzio, ideatore del primo raid aereo Roma-Tokyo del pilota Arturo Ferrarin, in Il Sole 24 ORE, novembre 2013. URL consultato il 25 gennaio 2014 Ferrarin, Arturo, in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana Storia dello Judo, in Aikidoedintorni.com. URL consultato il 25 gennaio 2014 Valdo Ferretti, Il Giappone e la politica estera italiana, 1935–1941, Giuffrè Editore, 1995, p. 59 Hofmann, The Fascist Effect Giuliano Bertuccioli, Giappone, in Enciclopedia Dantesca, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 1970
Organic semiconductors are solids whose building blocks are pi-bonded molecules or polymers made up by carbon and hydrogen atoms and – at times – heteroatoms such as nitrogen and oxygen. They amorphous thin films. In general, they are electrical insulators, but become semiconducting when charges are either injected from appropriate electrodes, upon doping or by photoexcitation. In molecular crystals the energetic separation between the top of the valence band and the bottom conduction band, i.e. the band gap, is 2.5–4 eV, while in inorganic semiconductors the band gaps are 1–2 eV. This implies that they are, in fact, insulators rather than semiconductors in the conventional sense, they become semiconducting only when charge carriers are either injected from the electrodes or generated by intentional or unintentional doping. Charge carriers can be generated in the course of optical excitation, it is important to realize, that the primary optical excitations are neutral excitons with a Coulomb-binding energy of 0.5–1.0 eV.
The reason is that in organic semiconductors their dielectric constants are as low as 3–4. This impedes efficient photogeneration of charge carriers in neat systems in the bulk. Efficient photogeneration can only occur in binary systems due to charge transfer between donor and acceptor moieties. Otherwise neutral excitons decay radiatively to the ground state – thereby emitting photoluminescence – or non-radiatively; the optical absorption edge of organic semiconductors is 1.7–3 eV, equivalent to a spectral range from 700 to 400 nm. In 1862, Henry Letheby obtained a conductive material by anodic oxidation of aniline in sulfuric acid; the material was polyaniline. In the 1950s, researchers discovered that polycyclic aromatic compounds formed semi-conducting charge-transfer complex salts with halogens. In particular, high conductivity of 0.12 S/cm was reported in perylene–iodine complex in 1954. This finding indicated; the fact that organic semiconductors are, in principle, insulators but become semiconducting when charge carriers are injected from the electrode was discovered by Kallmann and Pope.
They found that a hole current can flow through an anthracene crystal contacted with a positively biased electrolyte containing iodine that can act as a hole injector. This work was stimulated by the earlier discovery by Akamatu et al. that aromatic hydrocarbons become conductive when blended with molecular iodine because a charge-transfer complex is formed. Since it was realized that the crucial parameter that controls injection is the work function of the electrode, it was straightforward to replace the electrolyte by a solid metallic or semiconducting contact with an appropriate work function; when both electrons and holes are injected from opposite contacts, they can recombine radiatively and emit light. It was observed in organic crystals in 1965 by al.. In 1972, researchers found metallic conductivity in the charge-transfer complex TTF-TCNQ. Superconductivity in charge-transfer complexes was first reported in the Bechgaard salt 2PF6 in 1980. In 1973 Dr. John McGinness produced the first device incorporating an organic semiconductor.
This occurred eight years before the next such device was created. The "melanin bistable switch" is part of the chips collection of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1977, Shirakawa et al. reported high conductivity in iodine-doped polyacetylene. They received the 2000 Nobel prize in Chemistry for "The discovery and development of conductive polymers". Conductive polypyrrole was rediscovered in 1979. Rigid-backbone organic semiconductors are now used as active elements in optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, organic solar cells, organic field-effect transistors, electrochemical transistors and in biosensing applications. Organic semiconductors have many advantages, such as easy fabrication, mechanical flexibility, low cost; the discovery by Kallman and Pope paved the way for applying organic solids as active elements in semiconducting electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes that rely on the recombination of electrons and hole injected from "ohmic" electrodes, i.e. electrodes with unlimited supply of charge carriers.
The next major step towards the technological exploitation of the phenomenon of electron and hole injection into a non-crystalline organic semiconductor was the work by Tang and Van Slyke. They showed that efficient electroluminescence can be generated in a vapor-deposited thin amorphous bilayer of an aromatic diamine and Alq3 sandwiched between an indium-tin-oxide anode and an Mg:Ag cathode. Another milestone towards the development of organic light-emitting diodes was the recognition that conjugated polymers can be used as active materials; the efficiency of OLEDs was improved when realizing that phosphorescent states may be used for emission when doping an organic semiconductor matrix with a phosphorescent dye, such as complexes of iridium with strong spin–orbit coupling. Work on conductivity of anthracene crystals contacted with an electrolyte showed that optically excited dye molecules adsorbed at the surface of the crystal inject charge carriers; the underlying phenomenon is called sensitized photoconductivity.
It occurs when photo-exciting a dye molecule with appropriate oxidation/reduction potential adsorbed at the surface or incorporated in the bulk. This effect revolutionized electrophotography, the technological basis of today's office copying machines, it is the basis of
The Vanuatu Cultural Centre, founded in 1955, is the national cultural institution of Vanuatu. It is located in the capital Port Vila. From 1995 to 2006, the VKS was run by Ralph Regenvanu. From 2007 until his termination in November 2014, Abong Marcelin was director. Ambong Thompson is acting Director. Describing itself as "an organisation that works to record and promote the diverse cultures" of Vanuatu, the Vanuatu Cultural Centre fulfills the role a national body for the preservation, the protection and the promotion of the different aspects of the culture of the archipelago; the Vanuatu Cultural Centre is an umbrella organization which includes: The National Museum of Vanuatu The National Film and Sound Unit The Vanuatu Cultural and Historical Site Survey The National Archives The National Library The Public Library The Fieldworkers's Unit The Tafea Cultural Centre The Malekula Cultural Centre VKS E-PressIts aim is to record and promote the traditional indigenous cultures of Vanuatu in their various aspects - from sand drawing to music, land diving, other "customary practices" and "indigenous knowledge"-, but the country's "contemporary arts and music".
Among its projects is the Oral Traditions Collection Project, started in 1976, described as "without doubt, the Pacific's most successful grassroots cultural documentation program". The Centre produces radio programmes and videos aimed at cultural promotion, preservation or revival; as of 1996, the Centre's collection contained "approximately 2500 hours of audio tape, 2300 hours of video tape, twenty-three hours of 16-millimetre film footage, thirty hours of 8-millimetre film footage, 3000 early black-and-white photographs, around 4000 colour slides, colour negatives and black-and-white negatives". Access to some of this material is restricted; some material may be accessed only by men, some only by women, some only by members of particular indigenous cultural groups. Culture of Vanuatu Roy Mata Domain Sand drawing Pacific Islands Museums Association Official website Hochet, Antoine, 2013, Coopération et développement: le cas du Centre Culturel du Vanuatu, VKS Productions / Pacifique Dialogues, Port-Vila, Vanuatu, ISBN 978-982-9144-03-4
The marital status of Ganesha varies in mythological stories and the issue has been the subject of considerable scholarly review. Several patterns of associations with different consorts are identifiable. One pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmacārin with no consorts. Another mainstream pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi and Riddhi. Another pattern connects Ganesha with the arts, Sarasvati. In the Bengal region he is linked with Kala Bo. Ganesha's consort is portrayed as his shakti, a personification of his creative energy, he may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant. Some of the differences between these patterns can be understood by looking at regional variations across India, the time periods in which the patterns are found, the traditions in which the beliefs are held; some differences pertain to the preferred meditation form used by the devotee, with many different traditional forms ranging from Ganesha as a young boy to Ganesha as a Tantric deity.
The Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana contain descriptions of Ganesha flanked by Siddhi and Buddhi. In these two Puranas they appear as an intrinsic part of Ganapati and according to Thapan do not require any special rituals associated with shakti worship. In Chapter I.18.24–39 of the Ganesha Purana, Brahmā performs worship in honor of Ganesha, during it Ganesha himself causes Buddhi and Siddhi to appear so that Brahmā can offer them back to Ganesha. Ganesha accepts them as offerings. In Ganesha Purana I.65.10–12 there is a variant of this incident, in which various gods are giving presents to Ganesha, but in this case Siddhi and Buddhi are born from Brahmā's mind and are given by Brahmā to Ganesha. The Ganesha Temple at Morgaon is the central shrine for the regional aṣṭavināyaka complex; the most sacred area within the Moragaon temple is the sanctum, a small enclosure containing an image of Ganesha. To the right and left sides of the image stand Buddhi. In northern India the two female figures are said to be Riddhi.
There is no Purāṇic evidence for the pair, but the pairing parallels those of Buddhi and Siddhi in Shiva Purana and Riddhi and Buddhi from Matsya Purana. The Śiva Purāṇa has a story in which Ganesha and his brother Skanda compete for the right to marry the two desirable daughters of Prajāpati and Buddhi, Ganesha wins through a clever approach; this story adds that after some time Ganesha begat two sons: Kshema, born to Siddhi, Lābha born to Buddhi. In Northern Indian variants of this story the sons are said to be Śubha and Lābha. In discussing the Shiva Purana version, Courtright comments that while Ganesha is sometimes depicted as sitting between these two feminine deities, "these women are more like feminine emanations of his androgynous nature, Shaktis rather than spouses having their own characters and spouses."Ludo Rocher says that "descriptions of Gaṇeśa as siddhi-buddhi-samanvita'accompanied by, followed by siddhi and buddhi.' Often seem to mean no more than that, when Gaṇeśa is present, siddhi'success' and buddhi'wisdom' are not far behind.
Such may well have been the original conception, of which the marriage was a development." In verse 49a of the Ganesha Purana version of the Ganesha Sahasranama, one of Ganesha's names is Ŗddhisiddhipravardhana. The Matsya Purana identifies Gaṇesha as the "owner" of Buddhi. In discussing the northern Indian sources, Cohen remarks: "They are depersonalized figures and given their frequent depiction fanning Gaṇeśa are referred to as dasīs — servants, their names represent the benefits accrued by the worshipper of Gaṇeśa, thus Gaṇeśa is said to be the owner of Ṛddhi and Siddhi. Though in Varanasi the paired figures were called Ṛddhi and Siddhi, Gaṇeśa's relationship to them was vague, he was their owner. In the Ajitāgama, a Tantric form of Ganesha called Haridra Ganapati is described as turmeric-colored and flanked by two unnamed wives; the word "wives" is used. These wives are distinct from shaktis. According to one tradition, Ganesha was a brahmacārin, unmarried; this pattern is popular in southern India.
This tradition was linked to the south indian concepts of the relationship between bachelorhood and spiritual progress. Bhaskaraya alludes to the tradition in which Ganesha was considered to be a lifelong bachelor in his commentary on the Ganesha Purana version of the Ganesha Sahasranama, which includes the name Abhīru. In his commentary on this verse Bhaskaraya says the name Abhīru means "without a woman," but the term can mean "not fearful." Ganesha's relationship with the Ashtasiddhi — the eight spiritual attaintments obtained by the practice of yoga — is of this depersonalized type. In iconography, these eight marvellous powers are represented by a group of young women who surround Ganesha. Raja Ravi Varma's painting illustrates a recent example of this iconographic form; the painting includes fans. In cosmopolitan Śākta worship of Ganesha, the Aṣṭa Siddhi are addressed as
The 1999 South American Youth Championship is a football competition contested by all ten U-20 national football teams of CONMEBOL. The tournament was held in Argentina between January 5 and January 25, 1999, the 23rd time the competition had been held and the 2nd to take place in the country. Argentina finished undefeated; the teams are separated in two groups of five, each team plays four matches in a pure round-robin stage. The three top competitors advance to a single final group of six, wherein each team plays five matches; the top four teams in the final group qualify to the 1999 FIFA U-20 World Cup, while the top two qualify for the 2000 Olympic tournament. For a list of all the squads in the final tournament, see 1999 South American Youth Championship squads; the following teams entered the tournament: Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela The four best performing teams qualified for the 1999 FIFA World Youth Championship. Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Argentina and Uruguay were looking to finish in the top 4 in order to qualify for the World Youth Championship, a competition which the two sides have dominated, having won 9 of the 16 World Youth titles between them.
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