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1. Hectare – The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or  1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, however, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork. Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare, decare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, India, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI. The United Kingdom, United States, Burma, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units

2. Private island – A private island is a disconnected body of land wholly owned by a single private citizen or corporation. Although this exclusivity gives the owner substantial control over the property, private islands remain under the jurisdiction of national and sometimes local governments. Compared to property on the mainland, a property has much more restricted access. Livestock has often kept on islands, because an island is a natural enclosure, preventing the escape of cattle. There are many thousands of uninhabited islands in the world with potential for development of tourist resorts or private recreational use. Commercial development of uninhabited islands can raise ecological concerns, as many have a fragile environment, some islands can be bought undeveloped, while others already have roads and/or houses. Islands are also available for rent, some celebrities have their own private islands. Virtually all islands in the world are claimed and governed by national government. That nations laws apply, and any attempt by the owner to claim sovereignty would generally be unrealistic, since 1992 a number of cruise lines have acquired “private islands” to offer their customers exclusive beach experiences. Such islands were developed to have restaurants and perhaps additional attractions such as parasailing, waterparks, zip lines, horseback riding, spas. Some islands have piers, others are reached by tender, the purchase of an island allows the cruise line to achieve greater control over the venue and to influence the quality of experience of their passengers. Certain private islands may be used not only by the line that bought the property. Prices tend to be lower in Nova Scotia, parts of Michigan and Maine, and parts of Central America, and higher in Europe, the Bahamas, islands with amenities have higher market value and are not sold as frequently. Some are available for travelers to rent, a trend which increased in the 2000s with economic recession making it difficult for some owners to maintain them. In the 2000s, the United States housing bubble increased the cost-per-acre for private islands, the effect was fueled by the advent of the Internet, which provided greater access to island inventories. Conservation groups efforts to restrict development reduced the supply of private islands in the market, Southeast Asia has numerous islands, with Indonesia being an archipelago of 17,000 islands and the Philippines having around 7,100. Real estate laws restrict foreigners ability to buy property in the geographical area, private islands that are available in Southeast Asias real estate market are also prohibitively costly due to being in high demand by hotel developers. Developments address these difficulties by selling private islands that have villas and neighbor islands that have high-end hotels, Europe has hundreds of thousands of islands many of which are privately owned

4. Kannur district – Kannur District is one of the 14 districts along the west coast in the state of Kerala, India. The town of Kannur is the headquarters and gives the district its name. The old name, Cannanore is the form of the Malayalam name Kannur. Kannur district is bounded by Kasaragod District to the north, Kozhikode district to the south, to the east the district is bounded by the Western Ghats, which forms the border with the state of Karnataka. The Arabian Sea lies to the west, the district was established in 1957. Kannur is the sixth-most urbanized district in Kerala, with more than 50% of its residents living in urban areas, Kannur has an urban population of 1,212,898, which is the second largest in Kerala after Ernakulam district. Kannur District is known as the land of looms and lores, because of the loom industries, the district is a major centre of Theyyam, a ritual dance of northern Kerala. Small shrines known as kavus, associated with the Theyyam, dot the district, the proposed Kannur International Airport will be the fourth international airport in Kerala and is situated in Mattannur, 26-km away from Kannur. There are many myths and legends associated with the name Kannur and it is said to be a portmanteau derived from two Malayalam words, ‘Kannan’, and ‘Ur’, making it the place of Lord Krishna. One theory supporting this theory is that the deity of the Kadalayi Srikrishna Temple was originally installed in a shrine at Kadalayi Kotta in the part of the present Kannur town. During the British Raj, the city was known as Cannanore, Kannur was an important trading center in the 12th century with active business connections with Persia and Arabia. It served as the British military headquarters on Indias west coast until 1887, in conjunction with her sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi. St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida and they modernised the fort and built the bastions Hollandia, Zeelandia and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure. The original Portuguese fort was pulled down later, a painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The Dutch sold the fort to king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772, the British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the 17th century, Kannur was the city of the only Muslim Sultanate in the malabar region. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District, the guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact in the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the decades of 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party

5. Kerala – Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this also happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil, Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land

6. Island – An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge. Example, Singapore and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, there are two main types of islands in the sea, continental and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is also part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere. This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, Iceland, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above it

7. Coconut – The coconut tree is a member of the family Arecaceae and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit. The spelling cocoanut is a form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning head or skull, coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their quantity of water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, the endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, when dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating, the coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals. Cocos nucifera is a palm, growing up to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long. Coconuts are generally classified into two types, tall and dwarf. On fertile soil, a coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, botanically, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. Like other fruits, it has three layers, the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp, the exocarp and mesocarp make up the husk of the coconuts. Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp removed, the mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination pores or eyes that are visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed. A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.44 kg and it takes around 6,000 full-grown coconuts to produce a tonne of copra

9. Tide – Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth. Some shorelines experience a semi-diurnal tide—two nearly equal high and low tides each day, other locations experience a diurnal tide—only one high and low tide each day. A mixed tide—two uneven tides a day, or one high, Tides vary on timescales ranging from hours to years due to a number of factors. To make accurate records, tide gauges at fixed stations measure water level over time, gauges ignore variations caused by waves with periods shorter than minutes. These data are compared to the level usually called mean sea level. Tidal phenomena are not limited to the oceans, but can occur in other systems whenever a gravitational field varies in time. For example, the part of the Earth is affected by tides. Tide changes proceed via the following stages, Sea level rises over several hours, covering the intertidal zone, the water rises to its highest level, reaching high tide. Sea level falls over several hours, revealing the intertidal zone, the water stops falling, reaching low tide. Oscillating currents produced by tides are known as tidal streams, the moment that the tidal current ceases is called slack water or slack tide. The tide then reverses direction and is said to be turning, slack water usually occurs near high water and low water. But there are locations where the moments of slack tide differ significantly from those of high, Tides are commonly semi-diurnal, or diurnal. The two high waters on a day are typically not the same height, these are the higher high water. Similarly, the two low waters each day are the low water and the lower low water. The daily inequality is not consistent and is small when the Moon is over the equator. From the highest level to the lowest, Highest Astronomical Tide – The highest tide which can be predicted to occur, note that meteorological conditions may add extra height to the HAT. Mean High Water Springs – The average of the two high tides on the days of spring tides, mean High Water Neaps – The average of the two high tides on the days of neap tides. Mean Sea Level – This is the sea level

10. Buddhism – Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars, Theravada and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha

13. Kerala Tourism Development Corporation – The Kerala Tourism Development Corporation is a public sector undertaking that conducts and regulates the tourism activities in the Indian state of Kerala. The KTDC is headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram and has offices all the districts of Kerala. The agency also operates hotels, resorts, and tourist rest houses in key locations in the state and its official slogan is Official host to Gods own country. It is one of the most profitable ventures of the Kerala government, Kerala was a relatively unknown state among tourist circles until the early 1960s. When Travancore merged with India, Kerala Tours Limited became an entity under the Travancore royal family. For more than 20 years since Independence, Kerala trend to ignore tourism as a key industry, leaving KTL, in the 1960s, KTL struck gold, by collaborating with Thomas Cook and started popularizing Kovalam in western countries which started the advent of hippie culture in Kovalam Beach. The strong inflow of tourists into Kovalam, started Kerala government to consider tourism as a key industry, though it tried to nationalize Kerala Tours Limited, it soon fell into legal issues. This resulted in the government to think starting a new entity known as Kerala Tourism Development Corporation IN1966, started as a government department, KTDC became a separate commercial entity by the 1970s. Several premium guest houses of Kerala Government were identified and converted into hotel brands, lt. Col. G. V. Raja was also the President of Tourism Promotion Council of Kerala. He was the architect in developing Kovalam as an international tourist spot. Bolgatty Island Resort, which houses the Bolgatty Palace, a property which is the largest Dutch palace outside the Netherlands. Built in 1635 as Palace of Dutch Governor of India, this soon became British Residency for Travancore-Cochin Kingdoms, the palace is part of Bolgatty resort which has another property, branded as Island Resort, which has a nine-course golf club, horsing tracks and other facilities. Mascot Hotel Trivandrum, located in state capital Thiruvananthapuram is a property built in 1902 which used to accommodate Travancore Army officials. Lake Palace, a summer palace of the King of Travancore, is on an island in the middle of the Periyar Lake —20 minutes by boat from the mainland. KTDC has 7 resort styled hotel properties aiming for leisure travellers, all properties in the premium range are individually branded. Marina House, KTDC manages Indias first marina which includes a 24-room hotel, Marina House, located in Bolgatty Island, the facility features 34 berthing spaces of yachts and Marina Club House for travellers to unwind their journeys with facilities for embarkation and disembarkation process. Bolgatty Island Resort- Part of Bolgatty Island, the features a world class urban resort with a nine course golf course. Aranya Nivas Thekkady built within Periyar National Park is a jungle lodge

14. Chinese fishing nets – In India, Chinese fishing nets are fishing nets that are fixed land installations for fishing. While commonly known as Chinese fishing nets in India, the formal name for such nets is shore operated lift nets. Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets of 20 m or more across, each structure is at least 10 m high and comprises a cantilever with an outstretched net suspended over the sea and large stones suspended from ropes as counterweights at the other end. Each installation is operated by a team of up to six fishermen, while such nets are used throughout coastal southern China and Indochina, in India they are mostly found in the Indian cities of Kochi and Kollam, where they have become a tourist attraction. The Indian common name arises because they are unusual in India, the system is sufficiently balanced that the weight of a man walking along the main beam is sufficient to cause the net to descend into the sea. The net is left for a time, possibly just a few minutes. The catch is usually modest, a few fish and crustaceans, rocks, each 30 cm or so in diameter, are suspended from ropes of different lengths. As the net is raised, some of the rocks one-by-one come to rest on a platform thereby keeping everything in balance, each installation has a limited operating depth. Consequently, an individual net cannot be operated in tidal waters. Different installations will be operated depending on the state of the tide and it was earlier thought that the nets might have been introduced by the Chinese explorer Zheng He. Recent research shows that these were introduced by Portuguese Casado settlers from Macau, the Chinese fishing nets have become a very popular tourist attraction. Their size and elegant construction is photogenic and the rhythm of their operation is quite hypnotic. In addition, catches can be purchased individually and need be only a short distance to a street entrepreneur who will cook it. Fishing in India Zheng He and Kochi Short documentary about Chinese fishing nets in Fort Kochi

15. God's Own Country – The phrase has been abbreviated to Godzone or less often Godzown. The phrase was used in its more literal meaning to refer to Heaven. The phrase later found use to describe several American regions. Most known is the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, also was used by the Confederate army to describe parts of Tennessee in the 1860s. The phrase was used to describe California in the 1860s. None of these remained a used to describe a region. Goebbels ridiculed America as a land that lacked culture, education. In 1943, the Nazis published an anti-American, anti-semitic propaganda book written by Erwin Berghaus called USA - nackt, bilddokumente aus Gottes eigenem Land which also mockingly characterized the USA with the phrase. Several modern German newspapers such as Die Welt, Der Tagesspiegel and Die Zeit have also used the phrase Gottes eigenem Land to criticize American culture and society. The earliest recorded use of the phrase as applied to New Zealand was as the title of a poem about New Zealand written by Thomas Bracken. It was published in a book of his poems in 1890, Gods Own Country as a phrase was often used and popularised by New Zealands longest serving prime minister, Richard John Seddon. He last quoted it on 10 June 1906 when he sent a telegram to the Victorian premier, Thomas Bent, just leaving for Gods own country, he wrote. He never made it, dying the day on the ship Oswestry Grange. Brackens Gods Own Country is less well known internationally than God Defend New Zealand which he published in 1876. The latter poem, set to music by John Joseph Woods, was declared the national hymn in 1940. In Australia, the phrase Gods own country was used to describe the country in the early 1900s. The phrase Godzone is distinctly different and was not used in Rhodesia, kerala is a state in south-west India, known as Gods own country, and is one of the popular tourist destinations in the country. The phrase was adopted as a slogan by the department of the states government in the 1980s when it was relatively unknown

16. Chundan Vallam – Chundan Vallam, known outside of Kerala as Kerala snake boats, are one of the icons of Kerala culture used in the Vallamkali boat race. Constructed according to specifications taken from the Sthapathya Veda, an ancient treatise for the building of wooden boats, with the rear portion rising to a height of about 20 feet, and a long tapering front portion, it resembles a snake with its hood raised. Hulls are built of planks precisely 83 feet in length and six inches wide, the boats are a good example of ancient Vishwakarma prowess in naval architecture. Traditionally each boat belongs to a village, and the worship that boat like a deity. Only men are allowed to touch the boat, and to show respect they should be barefooted, repair work is done annually by the village carpenter. Sitting two to a row along the length of the boat, there will be 64 paddlers and they row in rhythm of the vanchipattu. There will be around 25 singers in a row at the middle between the paddlers, in the middle of the second half of the boat is a platform for eight people to stand from where the cantor will lead the song. Vallam Kali Aranmula Boat Race Aranmula Kannadi Kallada Boat Race

17. Kerala backwaters – The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both man made and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state. The backwaters were formed by the action of waves and shore currents creating low barrier islands across the mouths of the rivers flowing down from the Western Ghats range. The Kerala Backwaters are a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes and inlets, a system formed by more than 900 km of waterways. In the midst of this there are a number of towns and cities. National Waterway 3 from Kollam to Kottapuram, covers a distance of 205 km, the important rivers from north to south are the Valapattanam river, Chaliar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha, Chalakudy river, Periyar, Pamba, Achancoil and Kalladayar. Other than these, there are 35 more small rivers and rivulets flowing down from the Ghats, most of these rivers are navigable up to the midland region, in country crafts. Vembanad is the largest of the lakes, covering an area of 2033 km², the lake has a large network of canals that meander through the region of Kuttanad. The backwaters have an ecosystem, freshwater from the rivers meets the seawater from the Arabian Sea. A barrage has been built near Thanneermukkom, so water from the sea is prevented from entering the deep inside. Such fresh water is used for irrigation purposes. Palm trees, pandanus shrubs, various plants and bushes grow alongside the backwaters. The kettuvallams in the backwaters are one of the prominent tourist attractions in Kerala, more than 2000 kettuvallams ply the backwaters. The Kerala government has classified the tourist houseboats as platinum, gold, the kettuvallams were traditionally used as grain barges, to transport the rice harvested in the fertile fields alongside the backwaters. Thatched roof covers over wooden hulls,100 feet in length, at some point in time the boats were used as living quarters by the royalty. Converted to accommodate tourists, the houseboats have become floating cottages having an area, with western-style toilets, a dining area. Most tourists spend the night on a houseboat, Food is cooked on board by the accompanying staff – mostly having a flavour of Kerala. The houseboats are of various patterns and can be hired as per the size of the family or visiting group

18. Pooram – Harimattom pooram is the one of the famous pooram in Ernakulam. The most famous pooram in whole world is Thirumandhamkunnu Pooram which has a participation of 11 Lack people across the country. Most pooram festivals have at least one ornately decorated elephant being paraded in the procession out of the temple precincts. Vela is also a festival like pooram, thrissur Pooram is the most famous of all poorams. The second best known Pooram in Kerala is Uthralikavu Pooram. A melam is a performance of different kind of musical instruments that are unique to Kerala and is something akin to the jazz. The most traditional of all melams is called Pandi Melam which is performed outside the temple. Another kind of melam is called Panchari Melam, which is similar to Pandi Melam going by the kind of instruments, panchavadyam is another classical musical ensemble performed in Kerala. Here, five different kinds of instruments create a breathtaking and fastmoving percussion performance, the five instruments are Madhalam, Kombu, Edakka, Elathalam and Timila. Interesting attractions of Pooram can be seen in the Valluvanad and Talappilly region, there is the Harijan Vela or Parayar Vela as well as the Tholpavakoothu, a traditional shadow puppetry show. Harimattom Temple is situated near Tripunithura, the temple festival is started on malayalm month medam star UTTRAM. The main highlight of the festival is harimattom pooram which is on the 7th day of the festival, the main attraction of this pooram is kudamattam and famous pandimellam with the presents of most the famous 10 elephants from Kerala. The one of the most important things is the Harimattom pooram and festival is conducting as per keeping the Kerala tradition, beliefs and culture

19. Puli Kali – Pulikkali is a recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to people on the occasion of Onam. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations, performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, literal meaning of Pulikkali is the play of the tigers hence the performance revolve around the theme of tiger hunting. The folk art is mainly practiced in Thrissur district of Kerala, best place to watch the show is at Thrissur on the fourth day of Onam, where Pulikkali troupes from all over the district assemble to display their skills. The festival attracts thousands of people to the Thrissur city, Pulikkali is also performed during various other festive seasons. Later, Konar of used to celebrate with great fervor and they popularised the folk genre with steps and body language peculiar to a tiger being stalked by a hunter, enacting a play of the hunter and the beast. Along with the celebrations, they used to perform the art form decked as tigers with peculiar steps resembling the tiger, Pulikkali in Thrissur is held in memory of this event. Over the years, there has been changes in the adornment of Pulikkali dancers, in the early days, masks were not used and participants would have themselves painted all over, on their faces as well. But now, ready made masks, cosmetic teeth, tongues, beards, the tigers also wear a broad belt with jingles around their waist. The festival in Thrissur has now become an all peoples event with huge response from people, especially youths who come forward to participate in the festival, and also from sponsors. The event is organized by the Pulikkali Co-ordination Committee, a council of Pulikkali groups formed in 2004 in Thrissur to preserve. The Thrissur Municipal Corporation give a grant of Rs 30,000 for each Pulikkali troupe, a striking feature of this folk art is the colorful appearance of the performers. A particular combination of powder and varnish or enamel is used to make the paint. First of all, the remove the hair from the body, and then. It takes two to three hours for the coating to dry, after that, the second coat of paint is applied with enhanced design. This entire procedure takes at least five to seven hours, a large number of artists gather to apply paint on the tigers. It is a process and often starts from the wee hours in the morning. Scenes such as the tiger preying on an animal, and a tiger being hunted by a game-hunter are enacted beautifully in between, thousands of spectators line the streets enjoying the dance, cheering the dancers some of them even trying to join in

20. Temple festivals of Kerala – Kerala which is often referred to as Gods Own Country has a large number of Hindu temples. Many of the temples have unique traditions and most hold festivals on specific days of the year, temple festivals usually continue for a number of days. A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a flag which is then brought down only on the final day of the festival. Some festivals include Poorams, the most famous of these being the Thrissur Pooram, temples that can afford it will usually involve at least one richly caparisoned elephant as part of the festivities. The idol of the God in the temple is taken out on a procession around the countryside atop this elephant, when the procession visits homes around the temple, people will usually present rice, coconuts, and other offerings to the God. Processions often include traditional music such as Panchari melam or Panchavadyam

Hectare [videos]
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares (10,000 m2) or 1 square
Waikato Stadium – Hamilton, New Zealand
Hansen Field at Western Illinois University in Macomb, Illinois incorporates an all-weather running track
Image: Trafalgar Square, London 2 Jun 2009
Thalassery [videos]
Thalassery (IPA: [θʌlʌsserɪ]) formerly Tellicherry is a commercial city on the Malabar Coast in Kannur district, in the
Thalassery Jagannath Temple, Kerala
Veera Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja Painting by Raja Ravi Varma
"Mukathezhuthu"-The face painting of Theyyam, the religious ritual art form in Thalassery
Kannur district [videos]
Kannur District is one of the 14 districts along the west coast in the state of Kerala, India. The town of Kannur is
People in Kannur
Image: Payyambalam 2
Image: Thiruvappana and Muthappan
Image: Kottiyoor temple festival
Kerala [videos]
Kerala , historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1
Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna (the Hindu God of water) to part the seas and reveal Kerala
A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur
Tharisapalli plates granted to Saint Thomas Christians testify that merchant guilds and trade corporations played a very significant role in the economy and social life during the Kulasekhara period.
Island [videos]
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent
Atafu atoll in Tokelau
A small Fijian island
The British Isles are a large group of islands. The main islands are Great Britain and Ireland.
A small island in Lower Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks in the U.S.
Coconut [videos]
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus
A coconut in cross-section
Coconut flowers
Dehusked coconut shells from Ivory Coast showing the face-like markings.
A cut coconut shell
Muzhappilangad Drive-in Beach (Malayalam: മുഴപ്പിലങ്ങാട് ബീച്ച്) (5.5 km length) is a beach in the state of Kerala in
Western reef heron1
Tide [videos]
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the
Image: Bay of Fundy High Tide
In Maine (U.S.) low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high moon, corresponding to the simple gravity model of two tidal bulges; at most places however, moon and tides have a phase shift.
Low tide at Bangchuidao Scenic Area, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China
Low tide at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, U.S.
Buddhism [videos]
Buddhism ( or ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices
Standing Buddha statue at the Tokyo National Museum. One of the earliest known representations of the Buddha, 1st–2nd century CE.
"The Great Departure", relic depicting Gautama leaving home, first or second century (Musée Guimet)
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, where the Buddha gave his first sermon. It was built by Ashoka.
Buddha statue depicting Parinirvana (Mahaparinirvana Temple, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India)
Chinese fishing nets [videos]
In India, Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala) are fishing nets that are fixed land installations for fishing. While
Image: The fisherfolks at Chinese Fishing Nets
Chinese fishing net at Kollam
Image: Chinese Fishing Net (Kochi, India)
Image: Raising a Chinese fishing net
Kerala backwaters [videos]
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the
A house Boat View from Vembanad Lake
Sunset in the backwaters
Kerala backwaters in the Kuttanad area
A backwater in the Kollam region, c.a. 1913
Pooram [videos]
Pooram pronounced [puːɾam] is an annual festival, which is celebrated in temples dedicated to goddesses Durga or Kali
Caparisoned elephants during Sree Poornathrayesa temple festival, Thrippunithura.
Caparisoned elephants and Panchavadyam performance during Sree Poornathrayesa temple festival, Thrippunithura.
Ottapalam Pooram
Image: Thrissur Pooram Kuda
Vallam Kali [videos]
Vallam Kali (vaḷḷaṃ kaḷi, literally: boat game) is a traditional boat race in Kerala, India. It is a form of canoe
Boat race with snake boats
Vallam Kulangara - Snake boats
Vallam-kali
Wildlife of Kerala [videos]
This article relates to flora and fauna of the state of Kerala, south India. — Most of Kerala, whose native habitat
A tiger from Wynad Wildlife Sanctuary
A great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) as pictured in a German zoo
Chimmini Wildlife Sanctuary
Figs (Ficus species) like this strangler fig are an important floral element and support many frugivores
Cochin International Airport [videos]
Cochin International Airport (IATA: COK, ICAO: VOCI) is an international airport serving the city of Kochi, in the
Airport Main Entrance
CIAL Golf and Country Club
CIAL Museum
Terminal 2 Check-in Counter
Trivandrum International Airport [videos]
Trivandrum International Airport (IATA: TRV, ICAO: VOTV) is an international airport which primarily serve the cities
Image: Trivandrum Terminal
The domestic terminal (Terminal 1)
Inside Terminal 2
Vismaya [videos]
Vismaya is an amusement water theme park situated near Taliparamba in Kannur, Kerala. The park is developed and run by
Virtual Waterfall is one of the major attractions of Vismaya
Laser show
Rainwater reservoir at Vismaya park
Image: Vismaya Park (4236282321)
Ariyannur Umbrellas [videos]
Ariyannur Umbrellas is a prehistoric Megalith burial site situated in Ariyannur in Kandanassery Panchayat of Thrissur
A view of three umbrella stones
Image: Ariyannur Umbrellas DSC 0775
Image: Ariyannur Umbrellas DSC 0766
Image: Ariyannur Umbrellas DSC 0767
Kudakkallu Parambu [videos]
Kudakkallu Parambu is a prehistoric Megalith burial site situated in Chermanangad of Thrissur District of Kerala. The
A long view of Kudakkallu Parambu
Image: Kudakkallu Parambu DSC 0638
Image: Kudakkallu Parambu DSC 0639
Image: Kudakkallu Parambu DSC 0647
Tangasseri [videos]
Tangasseri or Thangassery is a heavily populated beach area on the shores of the Arabian Sea in Kollam city, Kerala,
Tangasseri Arch
Light House at Thangashery
Fishing boats at Thangashery
Image: Thangassery Light House, Kollam
Cherai Beach [videos]
Cherai Beach is a beach located in Cherai, a suburb of the city Kochi in the state of Kerala, India. One of the most
Sunrise at Cherai Beach
Image: Cherai 3
Image: Cherai Lagoon 2
Image: Walk Way Cherai
Kappil, Thiruvananthapuram [videos]
Kappil is a tourist place in Thiruvananthapuram district , Kerala state, India. It is located in Edava Panchayat at the
Sunset at Kappil beach
Kappil beach
Kappil beach sunset
Image: Kappil boatclub
Kollam Beach [videos]
Kollam Beach, also known as Mahatma Gandhi Beach, is a beach at Kollam city in the Indian state of Kerala. Kollam Beach
Kollam Beach
Mahatma Gandhi Park in Kollam Beach
Snap from Kollam Beach
View of Arabian Sea from Kollam Beach
Kovalam [videos]
Kovalam is a beach town by the Arabian Sea in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, located around 18 km south of the city
Kovalam beach, Trivandrum
View of Kovalum City from Light House
Hawa Beach, Kovalam
Palm grove in Kovalam
Mappila Bay [videos]
Mappila Bay (or Moppila Bay) is a natural harbor situated in Ayikkara Kannur town, Kerala state of South India. On one
Mappila Bay Fishing harbor
Fishing harbour and the old Arakkal Kingdom in the far
View from Kannur fort.
Another View of the Harbour from Kannur Fort
Azhikode and Azhikkal [videos]
Azhikode is a coastal village situated in Kannur district of Kerala, south India. The northern end of the village is
Gulikan Theyyam at Puthiya Mundayat
Image: Alavil Temple (4326022783)
Mundakkal Beach [videos]
Mundakkal Beach (Malayalam : മുണ്ടയ്ക്കല്‍ ബീച്ച്), is one of the popular beaches in the city of Kollam and a famous
A dredger ship washed up on the Mundakkal beach
Image: Dredger Hansitha at Kollam coast, Aug 2014
Image: Mundakkal Coast, Oct 2016
Image: Dredger "Hansitha" at Kollam(Quilon) coast, Jul 2016
Kannur Beach [videos]
Kannur Beach is a group of five beaches on the western side of Kannur city in Kerala province of India. They are
The grave of Azhikkodan Raghavan, social worker from Kannur
People at Payyambalam Beach
Payyambalam Beach - Joining with Padana Thodu
The grave of former chief minister E.K.Nayanar
Shankumugham Beach [videos]
Shankumugham Beach is a beach in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, south India. The beach is on the western side
Shankumugham beach, Thiruvananthapuram
Arattu mandapam
Sagarakanyaka or Jalakanyaka
Image: A toy seller at Shankumugham beach
Thekkumbhagam [videos]
Thekkumbhagam (Malayalam: തെക്കുംഭാഗം/പരവൂര്‍ തെക്കുംഭാഗം) or Thekkumbhagom is the southern border town of Paravur
From Top:Boating at Paravur Lake, Sunset at Thekkumbhagam beach, Thekkumbhagam Estuary, Paravur Lake at Thekkumbhagam, Lakesagar Xavier's resort in Thekkumbhagam
Image: Thekkumbhagam Coast in Paravur, Jun 2015
Image: Sunset @ Paravur Beach
Image: Paravur Lake, Kollam An evening scene
Nehru Trophy Boat Race [videos]
The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular Vallam Kali held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha, Kerala, India. Vallam
People watching Nehru Trophy Boat Race, 2013
A tourist capturing the race moments. Nehru Trophy Boat Race 2013
Edakkal Caves [videos]
Edakkal Caves (Malayalam: ഇടക്കൽ ഗുഹകൾ) are two natural caves at a remote location at Edakkal, 25 km (15.5 mi) from
Image: Edakkal Stone Age Carving
Image: Ambukuthi mala
Image: View from the Edakkal caves
Nedumala caves, Piralimattam [videos]
The Nedumala Caves are in Piralimattam. They are located on the border of Idukki district and Ernakulam District in
cave entrance
cave entrance
Cupules in cave piralimattam nedumala
Prehistoric stone shelter
Banasura Sagar Dam [videos]
Banasura Sagar Dam, which impounds the Karamanathodu tributary of the Kabini River, is part of the Indian Banasurasagar
Banasura Sagar Long View
Image: Orange Minivet(Male) at Banasura Dam
Image: A typical view of Banasura Dam
Image: Banasura Dam 3
Bhoothathankettu [videos]
Bhoothathankettu is a dam and tourist spot in Kerala, India. It is situated outside the village of Pindimana, about 10
Night view of Bhooththankettu Dam
Periyar Barrage, Bhoothathankettu.
Bhoothathankettu Dam
Kannur [videos]
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of
Clockwise from top: Gandhi Circle (formerly Caltex), St Angelo Fort, Sea Pathway, Payyambalam Beach, Thavakara Bus Terminal,
Gandhi Circle
Collectorate Compound
Gandhi Memorial
Kappad, or Kappakadavu locally, is a beach near Kozhikode, in the district of the same name, Kerala, India. — A stone
Image: Gama memorial
Image: Gama route 1
Dharmadom or Dharmadam (Malayalam: ധർമ്മടം) is a census town in Thalassery taluk of Kannur district in the state of
Puli Kali [videos]
Pulikkali ("Puli" = Leopard/Tiger & "Kali" = Play in Malayalam language) is a recreational folk art from the state of
Image: Pulikkali during Onam
Pulikkali 2010
Pulikkali 2010-2
Wonderla [videos]
Wonderla Holidays, is one of the largest amusement park operators company in India headquartered near Bidadi, 28
Image: Wonderla Bangalore BNC
Inside Wonderla with Sky Wheel in the background
Wonderla Kochi
Fort Kochi Beach [videos]
Fort Kochi beach is a beach along the Arabian Sea situated in Old Kochi respectively Fort Kochi area of the city of
Fort Kochi beach and Chinese fishing nets
Fort Kochi beach walkway
Remains of the Fort Emmanuel
Marari Beach [videos]
Marari Beach is a beach in Alappuzha District of Kerala, India, 11 km from Alappuzha (Alleppey) town. — Location
A view of the sunset at the Marari beach
Marari beach shoreline
Fisherman setting off into the sunset
Varkala Beach [videos]
Varkala Beach, also known as Papanasham Beach is a beach in Varkala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, along the
Sunset at Varkala Beach
A natural water spout in Varkala Beach
Panoramic view of Varkala beach cliff
Cheruthoni Dam [videos]
The Cheruthoni Dam, located in Idukki District, Kerala, India, is a 138m tall concrete gravity dam. This dam was
Cheruthoni dam
Image: Idukki 013
Image: Cheruthoni 003
Chundan Vallam [videos]
Chundan vallam ('beaked boat'), known outside Kerala as Kerala snake boats, are one of the icons of Kerala culture used
Snake Boat
Preparing the snake boat
Private island [videos]
A private island is a disconnected body of land wholly owned by a single private citizen or corporation. Although this
A private island with a summer cottage in Finnish Lakeland, Finland.
Several Islands on The World archipelago off the coast of Dubai are privately held.
Jatayu Earth’s Center [videos]
Jatayu Earth’s Center or Jatayu Nature Park is a park and tourism centre at Chadayamangalam in Kollam district of
Ravana cuts Jatayu's wings, by Raja Ravi Varma
Image: Jatayu Para, Kerala, Dec 2013
Calicut International Airport [videos]
Calicut International Airport (IATA: CCJ, ICAO: VOCL), also known as Karipur Airport, is an international airport
Image: കോഴിക്കോട് വിമാനത്താവളം
Apron view
Anchuthengu [videos]
Anchuthengu ("Five Coconut Palms"), formerly known as Anjengo or Anjenga, is a coastal town in the Thiruvananthapuram
Anjengo Beach
View of Anjuthengu from the light house
Thirumullavaram Beach [videos]
Thirumullavaram Beach (Malayalam : തിരുമുല്ലവാരം ബീച്ച്), is one of the popular beaches in the city of Kollam and a