Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Business Standard is one of the largest Indian English-language daily edition newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd in two languages and Hindi. Founded in 1975, the newspaper does extensive coverage on the Indian economy, international business and trade and currency markets, corporate governance, apart from a range of other financial news and insights; the main English-language edition comes from 12 regional centers, New Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad, Pune, Lucknow and Kochi—and reaches readers in over 1,000 towns and cities across India. The paper had remained for years, India's second largest business daily in terms of circulation, until in 2017, when its ranking sank; as of January, 2019, it is adjudged by the Indian Readership Survey to be the third largest selling financial news daily and the fourth largest. Noted financial editor T. N. Ninan was the Editor from 1993 to 2009, when he took up the editorship of The Economic Times. In January 2010, Ninan became chairman and editorial director of BSL and was succeeded as editor of Business Standard by Dr Sanjaya Baru.
Baru was the media advisor to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Veteran journalist and editor Ashok K Bhattacharya took charge of the paper after Baru quit to join a UK based think tank in 2011; the current editor is senior journalist Shyamal Majumdar. More than 200 business journalists are employed with the publication; the offices with the largest bureaus are in Delhi, which covers policy news and Mumbai dedicated to corporate and financial news. However, other offices with reporting bureaus are present across the country, including in Kolkata, Ahmedabad; the newspaper has reporters in other major cities such as Chennai, Bhubaneswar and Chandigarh. Regular contributors to the paper include: Bimal Jalan, former governor of the Reserve Bank of India Subir Gokarn former Deputy Governor of Reserve Bank of India Shankar Acharya, former Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India Deepak Lal, professor of economics, UCLA Suman Bery, director-general, National Council of Applied Economic Research Abheek Barua, chief economist of HDFC Bank Nitin Desai, former chief economic advisor and former under-secretary general at the United Nations Surjit Bhalla, chairman of OXUS Arvind Subramanian, Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India professor at the Peterson Institute for International Economics M. Govinda Rao, director of National Institute of Public Finance and Policy AV Rajwade, foreign exchange consultant Arvind Singhal, Technopak Advisors.
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Sweets from the Indian subcontinent
Sweets from the Indian subcontinent are the confectionery and desserts of the Indian subcontinent. Thousands of dedicated shops in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka sell nothing but sweets. Sugarcane has been grown in the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years, the art of refining sugar was invented there 8000 years ago by the Indus Valley Civilisation; the English word "sugar" comes from a Sanskrit word sharkara for the refined sugar, while the word "candy" comes from Sanskrit word khaanda for the unrefined sugar– one of the simplest raw forms of sweet. Over its long history, cuisines of the Indian subcontinent developed a diverse array of sweets; some claim there is no other region in the world where sweets are so varied, so numerous, or so invested with meaning as the Indian subcontinent. In the diverse languages of the Indian subcontinent, sweets are called by numerous names, one common name being Mithai, they include sugar, a vast array of ingredients such as different flours, milk solids, fermented foods, root vegetables and roasted seeds, seasonal fruits, fruit pastes and dry fruits.
Some sweets such as kheer are cooked, some like burfi are baked, varieties like Mysore pak are roasted, some like jalebi are fried, others like kulfi are frozen, while still others involve a creative combination of preparation techniques. The composition and recipes of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. Mithai are sometimes served with a meal, included as a form of greeting, religious offering, gift giving and hospitality in the Indian subcontinent. On South Asian festivals – such as Holi, Eid, or Raksha Bhandan – sweets are homemade or purchased shared. Many social gatherings, wedding ceremonies and religious festivals include a social celebration of food, the flavors of sweets are an essential element of such a celebration. Ancient Sanskrit literature from India mention offerings of mithas. Rigveda mentions a sweet cake made of Barley called apūpa, where barley flour was either fried in ghee or boiled in water, dipped in honey. Malpua preserves the essentials of this preparation.
One of the more complete surviving texts, with extensive descriptions of sweets and how to prepare them, is the Mānasollāsa. This ancient encyclopedia on food and other Indian arts is known as the Abhilaṣitārtha Cintāmaṇi. Mānasollāsa was composed about 1130 CE, by the Hindu King Somesvara III; the document describes meals that include a rice pudding which are called payasam in languages of the Indian subcontinent is called kheer. The document mentions seven kinds of rice. Mānasollāsa describes recipes for golamu, a donut from wheat flour, scented with cardamom. Mānasollāsa mentions numerous milk-derived sweets, along with describing the 11th-century art of producing milk solids, condensed milk and methods for souring milk to produce sweets; the origin of sweets in the Indian subcontinent has been traced to at least 500 BCE when, records suggest, both raw sugar and refined sugar were being produced. By 300 BCE, kingdom officials in India were acknowledging five kinds of sugar in official documents.
By the Gupta dynasty era, sugar was being made not only from sugar cane, but from other plant sources such as palm. Sushruta Samhita records about sugar being produced from mahua flowers and honey and Sugar-based foods were used in temple offerings as bhoga for the deities which, after the prayers, became prasād for devotees, the poor, or visitors to the temple. Adhirasam is a sweet similar to a doughnut originating from Tamil Cuisine made from rice flour, jaggery and pepper.. Barfi is a sweet made from milk solids or condensed milk and other ingredients like ground cashews or pistachios; some barfi use various flours such as besan. Barfi may be flavored with pastes or pieces of fruit such as mango, berries, or coconut, they may include aromatic spices such as cardamom and rose water to enhance the overall flavor. Sometimes a thin layer of silver or gold edible foil is placed on top of burfi for an attractive presentation. Gold and silver are approved food foils in the European Union, as E175 and E174 additives respectively.
The independent European food-safety certification agency, TÜV Rheinland, has deemed gold leaf safe for consumption. Gold and silver leaf are certified kosher; these inert metal foils are neither considered toxic to the broader ecosystem. Chomchom is a traditional Bengali sweet, prepared from flattened paneer sweetened in syrup. Chhena murki, or chenna murki, is a sweet made from an Indian version of cottage cheese and sugar in many states such as Odisha. Milk and sugar are boiled to a thick consistency and round, cuboid or other shapes of cottage cheese are soaked in the milky condensate; the sweet originated in the coastal areas in the district of Bhadrak and nowadays is available in all parts of Odisha. Other flavors and aromatic spices are added, it is known by Bengali and Guyanese people as pera. Chhena Poda is a cheese dessert from the state of Odisha in eastern India.'Chhena poda' means'burnt cheese' in Odia. It is made of well-kneaded homemade cottage cheese or chhena, cashew nuts and raisin
Unnao is the headquarters of Unnao district in Uttar Pradesh, India between Kanpur and Lucknow. Unnao is a large industrial city with three industrial suburbs around it; the city is famous for its leather, mosquito net and chemical industries. Unnao is an historical city with structures. Trans Ganga City, a new satellite town of Unnao is being developed in order to develop Unnao as a major industrial and infrastructural hub as the region comes under Kanpur-Lucknow Counter Magnet Area. Unnao district is a part of Central Ganges Plain of the state covering an area of 4558 km2; the city is enlisted as a municipality of Kanpur metropolitan area and is the second largest city within the metropolitan area. The district is named after Unnao. About 900 years ago, the site of this town was covered with extensive forests. Godo Singh, a Chauhan Rajput, cleared the forests in the third quarter of the 12th century and founded a town, called Sawai Godo, which shortly afterwards passed into the hands of the rulers of the Kannauj, who appointed Khande Singh as the Governor of the place.
Unwant Rai Singh, a Bisen Rajput and a lieutenant of the Governor, killed him and built a fort here, renaming the place as Unnao after himself. In ancient times, the area which comprises Unnao formed part of the Kosala Mahajanapada, it was included in Oudh. This region has been inhabited since antiquity as traces from ancient times remain at some places in the district. After the First War of Indian Independence in 1857, power was transferred from the British East India Company to the British Crown, by the Queen's Proclamation of 1858. Once the order was restored, the civil administration was re-established in the district, named Unnao, with headquarters at Unnao, it assumed its present size in 1869. The same year the town of Unnao was constituted a Municipality. There were many rulers with a small estates ruled under the constituency of Unnao proclaimed by British Constituency during early 1900s till 1948 until India has been handed over to the interim government of 1948. In 1956 the local throne was handed over to Pahadpur estate, one of the strongest estates in Unnao and had been ruled under Rao ShivBali Singh Bahadur Chauhan, who had served his country as a Royal Indian Army personnel in British rule.
In 1970s the custody of Unnao had been succeeded by his descendant and his own son Rao Ramsajeevan Singh Bahadur Chauhan, who had served his country in Royal Indian Army. He is blessed with 5 children, 2 daughters and 3 sons and had married to the daughter of Raja Bahadur Singh of Dalpatkheda estate; this history is in the Unnao book. Unnao district is surrounded by some of the main cities of Uttar Pradesh – Lucknow, Kanpur and Hardoi; the Unnao urban agglomeration includes municipal limits of Unnao city and Shuklaganj, the villages of Unnao Rural, Dostinagar, Ganjauli,Singrosi, Magarwara, Galgalha, Maswasi, Kathadal Narainpur, Dhaudhi Rautapur which together makes up the population of 303,224 The District is a parallelogram in shape and lies between Latitude 26°8' N & 27°2' N and Longitude 80°3' E & 81°3' E. It is bounded on the North by District Hardoi, on the East by District Lucknow, on the South by District Rae Bareli and on the West by the Ganga which separates it from districts of Kanpur & Fatehpur.
The Ganga and Sai are the main rivers of the district, the former making its western and southern boundaries and the latter, for the greater part of its course, forming its northern & eastern boundaries. Among the other mainstreams of the district are Kalyani, the Tanai, the Loni and the Morahi, all tributaries of the Ganga; these rivers run dry during the hot weather, but hold water during the greater part of the year and are utilized for irrigation. The only great river of the district is the Ganga which first touches the district near the village of Purwa Gahir, in pargana Bangarmau and flows south-eastward, separating this district from districts Kanpur and Fatehpur, it flows from north-west to the south-east, but it makes several sharp bends such as those near Umriya Bhagwantpur, Rustampur in tehsil Safipur, Rautapur in tehsil Unnao and Ratua Khera and Duli Khera in tehsil Purwa. The Ganga receives the Morahi near Baksar, it leaves the district at a short distance from Baksar. The river is not, put to much use either as a waterway or as a source of irrigation.
There are several ferries for pedestrians and pilgrims but none of them approaches what may be termed a trade route. The river cannot, as a rule, be utilised for irrigation owing to the height of the bank but certain of its small drainage channels or sotas, which run island for a considerable distance in some parganas, are sometimes used to irrigate crops grown in low-lying alluvial lands. Otherwise, cultivated lands lie at great distances and cannot be irrigated from the river whose water would, in order to irrigate these lands, have to be passed through the sands on the sides of the river, in the process be washed, if not altogether absorbed; the main channel of the river is subject to constant variation and the cultivation in its immediate neighbourhood is, therefore of a shifting kind. It appears from its old high bank that the river has a general tendency to shift its course to the west. In the days of Akbar, the river skirted the village of Ghatampur but has since so altered its course that it now runs about 8 km to the south-west of this village.
There is the unusually large number of swamps & lakes of great size and value in the southern & eastern parts of the district. The larger lakes, which hold water all the year round, are the Kundra Samunda
A trade secret is a formula, process, instrument, commercial method, or compilation of information not known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. In some jurisdictions, such secrets are referred to as confidential information; the precise language by which a trade secret is defined varies by jurisdiction, as do the particular types of information that are subject to trade secret protection. Three factors are common to all such definitions: A trade secret is information, not known to the public. In international law, these three factors define a trade secret under article 39 of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights referred to as the TRIPS Agreement. In the United States Economic Espionage Act of 1996, "A trade secret, as defined under 18 U. S. C. § 1839, has three parts: information. Trade secrets are an invisible component of a company's intellectual property, their contribution to a company's value, measured as its market capitalization, can be major.
Being invisible, that contribution is hard to measure. Patents are a visible contribution, but delayed, unsuitable for internal innovations. Having an internal scoreboard provides insight into the cost of risks of employees leaving to serve or start competing ventures. In contrast to registered intellectual property, trade secrets are, by definition, not disclosed to the world at large. Instead, owners of trade secrets seek to protect trade secret information from competitors by instituting special procedures for handling it, as well as technological and legal security measures. Legal protections include non-disclosure agreements, work-for-hire and non-compete clauses. In other words, in exchange for an opportunity to be employed by the holder of secrets, an employee may sign agreements to not reveal their prospective employer's proprietary information, to surrender or assign to their employer ownership rights to intellectual work and work-products produced during the course of employment, to not work for a competitor for a given period of time.
Violation of the agreement carries the possibility of heavy financial penalties which operate as a disincentive to reveal trade secrets. However, proving a breach of an NDA by a former stakeholder, working for a competitor or prevailing in a lawsuit for breaching a non-compete clause can be difficult. A holder of a trade secret may require similar agreements from other parties he or she deals with, such as vendors and board members; as a company can protect its confidential information through NDA, work-for-hire, non-compete contracts with its stakeholders, these protective contractual measures create a perpetual monopoly on secret information that does not expire as would a patent or copyright. The lack of formal protection associated with registered intellectual property rights, means that a third party not bound by a signed agreement is not prevented from independently duplicating and using the secret information once it is discovered, such as through reverse engineering. Therefore, trade secrets such as secret formulae are protected by restricting the key information to a few trusted individuals.
Famous examples of products protected by trade secrets are Coca-Cola. Because protection of trade secrets can, in principle, extend indefinitely, it therefore may provide an advantage over patent protection and other registered intellectual property rights, which last only for a specific duration; the Coca-Cola company, for example, has no patent for the formula of Coca-Cola and has been effective in protecting it for many more years than the 20 years of protection that a patent would have provided. In fact, Coca-Cola refused to reveal its trade secret under at least two judges' orders. Companies try to discover one another's trade secrets through lawful methods of reverse engineering or employee poaching on one hand, unlawful methods including industrial espionage on the other. Acts of industrial espionage are illegal in their own right under the relevant governing laws, penalties can be harsh; the importance of that illegality to trade secret law is: if a trade secret is acquired by improper means the secret is deemed to have been misappropriated.
Thus, if a trade secret has been acquired via industrial espionage, its acquirer will be subject to legal liability for having acquired it improperly — this notwithstanding, the holder of the trade secret is obliged to protect against such espionage to some degree in order to safeguard the secret, as under most trade secret regimes, a trade secret is not deemed to exist unless its purported holder takes reasonable steps to maintain its secrecy. Commentators starting with A. Arthur Schiller assert that trade secrets were protected under Roman law by a claim known as actio servi corrupti, interpreted as an "action for making a slave worse"; the Roman law is described as follows: he Roman owner of a mark or firm name was protected against unfair usage by a
For the village in Azerbaijan, see Hovari. Haveri is a town in Karnataka, India, It is the administrative headquarters of Haveri District; the name Haveri is derived from the Kannada words keri, which means place of snakes. Haveri is famous for its cardamom garlands, it is said. One of the famous mathas is Hukkeri Math. Haveri is famous for marketing Byadagi red chillies, which are well known all over India. Around 25 km away, there is a place called Bada, the birthplace of the poet Kanakadasa. Haveri is 7 hours away from Bangalore by train, it is the middle way stop between Davanagere. It is 72 km after Davanagere. By road, it is about 340 km from Bangalore on NH-4 towards Mumbai, it is located 307 km north of the port city Mangalore. Core area of Western Chalukya monuments includes the places Badami, Annigeri, Mahadeva Temple, Lakkundi, Dambal, Bankapura, Kuruvatti, Balligavi, Chaudayyadanapura, Hangal, it was possible. Haveri comes under Core area of Western Chalukya architectural activity; the district is proud to be the birthplace of Santa Shishunala Sharif, the great saint Kanakadasaru, Hanagal Kumara Shivayogigalu, Wagish Panditaru, Writer Galaganatharu, Ganayogi Panchakshari Gavayigalu, Gnyana Peetha Awardee Dr.
V. K. Gokak and many more; the freedom fighters Gudleppa Hallikere. History of Haveri district dates to pre-historic period. About 1300 stone writings of different rulers like Chalukyas, Rastrakutas are found in the district. Bankapura Challaketaru, Guttavula Guttaru, Kadambas of Hangal and Nurumbad are some of the well known Samanta Rulers. Devendramunigalu the teacher of Kannada Adikavi Pampa and Ajitasenacharya the teacher of Ranna Chavundaraya lived in Bankapura; this was the second capital of Hoysala Vishnuvardhana. Guttaru ruled during latter part of the 12th century and up to end of the 13th century from Guttavol village as Mandaliks of Chalukya, independently for some time and as Mandaliks of Seunas of Devagiri. Shasanas found in Chaudayyadanapura, a village near Guttal, reveal that Mallideva was Mandalika of 6th Vikramaditya of Chalukyas. Jatacholina, under the leadership of Mallideva built the Mukteshwar temple at Chaudayyadanapura. Kadambas of Nurumbad during the period of Kalyani Chalukyas ruled about 100 villages with Rattihalli as their capital.
Siddhesvara Temple The centre of Western Chalukya architectural developments was the region including present-day Bagalkot, Koppal and Dharwad districts. Miniature decorative dravida and nagara style towers at Siddhesvara Temple in Haveri Basavanna Temple Utsav Rock Garden is situated at Gotgodi on NH-4 Shiggaon Taluk, it is blended with both art where more than 1000 real life size sculptures are present. It has got 8 world records, it is a unique garden in the whole world. Dargah Of Irshad Ali Baba, P. B. Road, Haveri. St Anne's Church at Hangal Road, Bharathi Nagar, Haveri Siddheshwar temple at Haveri Recently, a Mini Vidhana Soudha was constructed on Devagiri hill; the Mini Vidhana Soudha hosts major government offices. The main office among these is the District Commissioner's office. Haveri is located at 14.8°N 75.4°E / 14.8. It has an average elevation of 572 metres; the masters' Shri Rajiv Gandhi Karnataka University P G Centre, Haveri is the developing educational institution. There are three major colleges in Haveri.
One is Govt. First Grade College, Gudleppa Hallikeri College, C. B. Kolli Polytechnic. Among other colleges are S. S. Women's Degree College, SJM Pre-University College, SMS Pre-University College. Govt. Engineering College was started. C. B. Collipolytechnic CBSE Schools Karnataka Public School, Hanagal Road, Haveri K. L. E's English Medium CBSE School Convent Schools Sri Vivekananda Convent School Tumminakkati, New Cambridge Convent School TumminakattiHigh schools Karnataka Public School, Hanagal Road, Haveri K. L. E's English Medium CBSE School Gandhi Grameena Gurukula Hosarithi Lions English Medium School St. Michael English Medium School J. G. S. S. High School J. P. Rotary School Hukkerimath Shivabasaveshwar High School S M S Girls High School H. L. V. English Medium School Savanur Mrutyunjaya High School Kurubagonda Shri Kalidasa High School, Kaginele bus stand, Haveri S J M Primary and High School, Haveri St. Ann's English Medium School. Haveri S V S high school Abalur Sri Sangana Basaveshwara High School, Tumminakatti.
Govt High School Tumminakattii Govt High School, Tumminakatti. Colleges and places Gudleppa Hallikeri College Parivartana PU Science and Commerce College C B Kolli Polytechnic Govt. Engg. College Govt. Majeed College Savanur S. J. M PU College, Haveri Sri Sangana Basaveshwara PU College, Tumminakatti. Sri hukkerimata shivabasaveshwar high school haveri Government First Grade College, Haveri Government Women's First Grade College, Haveri lions English girls commerce College, haveri As of 2011 India census, Haveri had a population of 67102. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Haveri has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76%, female literacy is 64%. In Haveri, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Sachin kumar born in 1992
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle