Ishmael, a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran, was Abraham's first son according to Jews and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Sarah's handmaiden Hagar. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137; the Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca; the name Yishma'el existed in "various ancient Semitic cultures", including early Babylonian and Minæan. It is a theophoric name translated as "God has hearkened", suggesting that "a child so named was regarded as the fulfillment of a divine promise"; this is the account of Ishmael from Genesis Chapters 16, 17, 21, 25 In Genesis 16, the birth of Ishmael was planned by the Patriarch Abraham's first wife, who at that time was known as Sarai. She and her husband Abram sought a way to have children in order to fulfill the Abrahamic covenant, established in Genesis 15.
Sarai had yet to bear Abraham a child. She had the idea to offer her Egyptian handmaiden Hagar to her husband so that they could have a child by her. Abraham conceived a child with her. Hagar began to show contempt for Sarah. Hagar fled into the desert region between Abraham's settlement and Shur. Genesis 16:7-16 describes the naming of Ishmael, God's promise to Hagar concerning Ishmael and his descendants; this occurred at the well of Beer-lahai-roi, where Hagar encountered an angel of God, who said to her "Behold, you are with child / And shall bear a son. Abraham was blessed. God would make of Ishmael a great nation. However, God told Hagar; when Ishmael was born, Abraham was 86 years old. When he was 13 years old, Ishmael was circumcised at the same time as all other males in Abraham's household, becoming a part of the covenant in a mass circumcision, his father Abram, given the new name "Abraham" 99, was circumcised along with the others. At the time of the covenant, God informed Abraham that his wife Sarah would give birth to a son, whom he was instructed to name Isaac.
God told Abraham that He would establish his covenant through Isaac, when Abraham inquired as to Ishmael's role, God answered that Ishmael has been blessed and that He "will make him fruitful, will multiply him exceedingly. God mentioned that "He will be a wild donkey of a man, His hand will be over everyone, And everyone's hand will be against him. A year Ishmael's half-brother Isaac was born to Abraham by his first wife Sarah when she was 90 years old, after she had ceased showing any signs of fertility. On the day of feasting during which Abraham celebrated the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael was "mocking" or "playing with" Isaac and Sarah asked Abraham to expel Ishmael and his mother, saying: "Get rid of that slave woman and her son, for that slave woman's son will never share in the inheritance with my son Isaac." Her demand was painful for Abraham. Abraham agreed only after God told him that "in Isaac your seed shall be called", that God would "make a nation of the son of the bondwoman" Ishmael, since he was a descendant of Abraham, God having told Abraham "I will establish My covenant with ", while making promises concerning the Ishmaelite nation.
At the age of 14, Ishmael was freed along with his mother. The Lord's covenant made clear Ishmael was not to inherit Abraham's house and that Isaac would be the seed of the covenant: "Take your son, your only son, whom you love and go to the region of Moriah." Abraham sent them away. Hagar entered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba where the two soon ran out of water and Hagar, not wanting to witness the death of her son, set the boy some distance away from herself, wept. "And God heard the voice of the lad" and sent his angel to tell Hagar, "Arise, lift up the lad, hold him in thine hand. And God "opened her eyes, she saw a well of water", from which she drew to save Ishmael's life and her own. "And God was with the lad. After roaming the wilderness for some time and his mother settled in the Desert of Paran, where he became an expert in archery, his mother found him a wife from the land of Egypt. They had twelve sons, his sons were: Nebaioth Kedar, father of the Qedarites, a northern Arab tribe that controlled the area between the Persian Gulf and the Sinai Peninsula.
According to tradition, he is the ancestor of the Quraysh tribe, thus of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Adbeel Mibsam Mishma Dumah Massa Hadad Tema Jetur Naphish Kedemah Ishmael had one known daughter, Mahalath or Basemath, the third wife of Esau. Ishmael appeared with Isaac at the burial of Abraham. Ishmael died at the age of 137. Historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism b
The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ"; this calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 follows the year 1 BC; this dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, but was not used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication and commercial integration, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order; the abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years associated with the life of Jesus would neither be included in the BC nor the AD time scales. Terminology, viewed by some as being more neutral and inclusive of non-Christian people is to call this the Current or Common Era, with the preceding years referred to as Before the Common or Current Era. Astronomical year numbering and ISO 8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years; the Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table.
His system was to replace the Diocletian era, used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table, AD 532; when he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ". Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred. "However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus. Among the sources of confusion are: In modern times, incarnation is synonymous with the conception, but some ancient writers, such as Bede, considered incarnation to be synonymous with the Nativity.
The civil or consular year began on 1 January but the Diocletian year began on 29 August. There were inaccuracies in the lists of consuls. There were confused summations of emperors' regnal years, it is not known. Two major theories are that Dionysius based his calculation on the Gospel of Luke, which states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar", hence subtracted thirty years from that date, or that Dionysius counted back 532 years from the first year of his new table, it has been speculated by Georges Declercq that Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was intended to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time, it was believed by some that the resurrection of the dead and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus; the old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament.
It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Jesus was born in the year 5500 with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had passed in the time of Dionysius; the Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. In this same history, he used another Latin term, ante vero incarnationis dominicae tempus anno sexagesimo, equivalent to the English "before Christ", to identify years before the first year of this era. Both Dionysius and Bede regarded Anno Domini as beginning at the incarnation of Jesus, but "the distinction between Incarnation and Nativity was not drawn until the late 9th century, when in some places the Incarnation epoch was identified with Christ's conception, i.e. the Annunciation on March 25". On the continent of Europe, Anno
A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, whether or not it takes place in a special building. Informal and open-air places of worship are called musalla, while mosques used for communal prayer on Fridays are known as jāmiʿ. Mosque buildings contain an ornamental niche set into the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca, ablution facilities and minarets from which calls to prayer are issued; the pulpit, from which the Friday sermon is delivered, was in earlier times characteristic of the central city mosque, but has since become common in smaller mosques. Mosques have segregated spaces for men and women; this basic pattern of organization has assumed different forms depending on the region and denomination. Mosques serve as locations for prayer, Ramadan vigils, funeral services, Sufi ceremonies and business agreements, alms collection and distribution, as well as homeless shelters. Mosques were important centers of elementary education and advanced training in religious sciences.
In modern times, they have preserved their role as places of religious instruction and debate, but higher learning now takes place in specialized institutions. Special importance is accorded to the Great Mosque of Mecca, Prophet's Mosque in Medina and the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. In the past, many mosques in the Muslim world were built over burial places of Sufi saints and other venerated figures, which has turned them into popular pilgrimage destinations; the first mosque was built by Muhammad in Medina. With the spread of Islam, mosques multiplied across the Islamic world. Sometimes churches and other temples were converted into mosques, which influenced Islamic architectural styles. While most pre-modern mosques were funded by charitable endowments, modern states in the Muslim world have attempted to bring mosques under government control. Increasing government regulation of large mosques has been countered by a rise of funded mosques of various affiliations and ideologies, many of which serve as bases for different Islamic revivalist currents and social activism.
Mosques have played a number of political roles. The rates of mosque attendance vary depending on the region; the word'mosque' entered the English language from the French word mosquée derived from Italian moschea, from either Middle Armenian մզկիթ, Medieval Greek: μασγίδιον, or Spanish mezquita, from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد, translit. Masjid, either from Nabataean masgĕdhā́ or from Arabic Arabic: سَـجَـدَ, translit. Sajada ultimately from Aramaic sĕghēdh; the first mosque in the world is considered to be the area around the Ka‘bah in Mecca, now known as Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarâm. A Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the First Mosque on Earth, the Second Mosque was the Temple in Jerusalem. Since as early as 638 AD, the Sacred Mosque has been expanded on several occasions to accommodate the increasing number of Muslims who either live in the area or make the annual pilgrimage known as Ḥajj to the city. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622, though the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa may have been constructed at around the same time.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to establish another mosque in Medina, now known as the Masjid an-Nabawi, or the Prophet's Mosque. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city; the Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the features still common in today's mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab and the tiered pulpit called the minbar. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a large courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, as Islam spread outside the Arabian Peninsula with early caliphates; the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while still operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam, Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Hussein ibn Ali.
The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious and social center for Fustat during its prime. Like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools and tombs; the Great Mosque of Kairouan in present-day Tunisia was the first mosque built in northwest Africa, with its present form serving as a model for other Islamic places of worship in the Maghreb. It includes naves akin to a basilica; those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mo
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Ishmael in Islam
Ishmael is the figure known in Judaism and Islam as Abraham's son, born to Hagar. In Islam, Ishmael is regarded as an ancestor to Muhammad, he became associated with Mecca and the construction of the Kaaba. Stories of Ishmael are not only found in Jewish and Christian texts, such as the Bible and rabbinic Midrash, but Islamic sources; these sources include the Quran, Quranic commentary, historiographic collections like that of Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Isra'iliyat. Ishmael was the first son of Abraham; the story of the birth of Ishmael is assigned special significance in Islamic sources. However, many Islamic scholars and hadith support the Jewish and Christian view that Abraham sent Hagar and Ishmael away at God's command, in accordance with Sarah's proclamation, "this boy will not be an heir with my son Isaac". There are many versions of the story. One such example is from Ibn Kathir whose account states that an angel tells the pregnant Hagar to name her child Ishmael and prophesies, "His hand would be over everyone, the hand of everyone would be against him.
His brethren would rule over all the lands." Ibn Kathir comments. Ishmael and Hagar being taken to Mecca by Abraham in Islamic texts is an important part in the story of Ishmael, as it brings the focus to Mecca and is the beginning of Mecca's sanctification as a holy area. Islamic tradition says Abraham was ordered by God to take Hagar and Ishmael to Mecca, Abraham returned to Mecca to build the Kaaba. In many of these accounts, the Sakina, or the angel Gabriel guides them to the location of the Kaaba, at which point Abraham builds it and afterwards, leaves the other two there, it is said that Hagar asks Abraham who he is entrusting herself and Ishmael to as he leaves them. He answers that he is entrusting them to God, to which Hagar makes a reply that shows her faith, stating that she believes God will guide them. Hagar and Ishmael run out of water and Ishmael becomes thirsty. Hagar is distressed and searches for water, running back and forth seven times between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah.
Hagar is remembered by Muslims for this act during the Hajj, or pilgrimage, in which Muslims run between these same hills as part of the Sa'yee. When she returns to Ishmael, she finds either him or an angel scratching the ground with their heel or finger, whereupon water begins flowing and Hagar collects some or dams it up; this spring or well is known as Zamzam. At some point, a passing tribe known as the Jurhum investigates, they ask Hagar if they can settle there, which she allows, many versions say as Ishmael grew up he learned various things from the tribe. There are numerous versions of each differing in various ways; the versions used in this summary, as well as others, can be found in al-Tabari's history and are recounted in Reuven Firestone's Journeys in Holy Lands. Most Muslims believe that Abraham was told to sacrifice his son, though the Qur'an does mention the son; the multiple versions suggest that the dhabih was an oral story, circulating before being written as it is in the Qur'an and in additional commentaries.
Norman Calder explains, "oral narrative is marked by instability of form and detail from version to version, by an appropriate creative flexibility which makes of every rendering a unique work of art." Each version is indeed a "unique work of art," differing from another in various ways to present certain ideas, such as the importance of Ishmael over Isaac because he was the first child. The general narrative pertaining to Ishmael in Islamic literature describes the sacrifice either as a test or as part of a vow; some versions tell of the devil trying to stop God's command from being obeyed by visiting Hagar and Abraham. Every time the devil says Abraham is going to sacrifice Ishmael, each person answers that if God commanded it, they should obey. Abraham tells Ishmael about the order and Ishmael is willing to be sacrificed and encourages Abraham to listen to God. Ishmael is portrayed as telling Abraham some combination of instructions to bring his shirt back to Hagar, bind him sharpen the knife, place him face down, all so that there will be no wavering in the resolve to obey God.
As Abraham attempts to slay Ishmael, either the knife is turned over in his hand or copper appears on Ishmael to prevent the death and God tells Abraham that he has fulfilled the command. Unlike in the Bible, there is no mention in the Qur'an of an animal replacing the boy. Since the sacrifice of a ram cannot be greater than that of Abraham's son, this replacement seems to point to either the religious institutionalisation of sacrifice itself, or to the future self-sacrifices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions in the cause of their faith. From that day onward, every Eid al-Adha once a year Muslims around the world slaughter an animal to commemorate Abraham's sacrifice and to remind themselves of self-abnegation in the way of Allah. Historiographic literature incorporates the Biblical narrative in which a ram is provided, slaughtered i
The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims, a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, can support their family during their absence. Speaking, Hajj means heading to a place for the sake of visiting. In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to Kaaba, the ‘House of God’, in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia; the rites of Hajj, which according to Islam go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who re-built Kaaba after it had been first built by Prophet Adam, are performed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat and Sawm; the Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world, after the Arba'een Pilgrimage in Karbala, Iraq.
The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, a Muslim who fulfils this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, their submission to God; the word Hajj means "to attend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions. The pilgrimage occurs from the last month of the Islamic calendar; because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions; the Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba, runs back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars.
After the sacrifice of their animal, the Pilgrims are required to shave their head. They celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha. Pilgrims can go to Mecca to perform the rituals at other times of the year; this is sometimes called the "lesser pilgrimage", or ‘Umrah. However if they choose to perform the Umrah, they are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so, because Umrah is not a substitute for Hajj. In 2017, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform hajj was reported as 1,752,014 and 600,108 Saudi Arabian residents bringing the total number of pilgrims to 2,352,122; the word in Arabic: حج comes from the Hebrew: חג ḥag, which means "holiday", from the triliteral Semitic root ח-ג-ג. The meaning of the verb is "to circle, to go around". Judaism uses circumambulation in the Hakafot ritual during Hoshanah Rabbah at the end of the Festival of Sukkot and on Simchat Torah. From this custom, the root was borrowed for the familiar meaning of holiday and festivity.
In the Temple, every festival would bring a sacrificial feast. In Islam, the person who commits the Hajj to Mecca has to turn around the Kaaba and to offer sacrifices; the present pattern of Hajj was established by Muhammad. However, according to the Quran, elements of Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham. According to Islamic tradition, Abraham was ordered by God to leave his wife Hajara and his son Ishmael alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. In search of water, Hajara ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah but found none. Returning in despair to Ishmael, she saw the baby scratching the ground with his leg and a water fountain sprang forth underneath his foot. Abraham was commanded to build the Kaaba and to invite people to perform pilgrimage there; the Quran refers to these incidents in verses 2:124-127 and 22:27-30. It is said that the archangel Gabriel brought the Black Stone from Heaven to be attached to the Kaaba. In pre-Islamic Arabia, a time known as jahiliyyah, the Kaaba became surrounded by pagan idols.
In 630 CE, Muhammad led his followers from Medina to Mecca, cleansed the Kaaba by destroying all the pagan idols, reconsecrated the building to Allah. In 632 CE, Muhammad performed his only and last pilgrimage with a large number of followers, instructed them on the rites of Hajj, it was from this point. During the medieval times, pilgrims would gather in big cities of Syria and Iraq to go to Mecca in groups and caravans comprising tens of thousands of pilgrims under state patronage. Hajj caravans with the advent of the Mamluk Sultanate and its successor, the Ottoman Empire, were escorted by a military force accompanied by physicians under the command of an amir al-hajj; this was done in order to protect the caravan from Bedouin robbers or natural hazards, a
Eid al-Adha called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year, considered the holier of the two. It honors the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son as an ct of obedience to God's command. But, before Abraham could sacrifice his son, God provided a lamb to sacrifice instead. In commemoration of this, an animal is sacrificed and divided into three parts: one part of the share is given to the poor and needy. In the Islamic lunar calendar, Eid al-Adha falls on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. In the international calendar, the dates vary from year to year drifting 11 days earlier each year. In languages other than Arabic, the name is simply translated into the local language, such as English Feast of the Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului, Hungarian Áldozati ünnep. In Spanish it is known as Fiesta del Borrego, it is known as عید البقرة ʿĪd al-Baqarah in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and in the Middle East, as عید قربان Id-e Qorbān in Iran, Kurban Bayramı in Turkey, কোরবানীর ঈদ Korbanir Id in Bangladesh, as عید الكبير ʿĪd el-Kebīr in the Maghreb, as Tfaska Tamoqqart in Jerba Berber, as Iduladha, Hari Raya Aiduladha, Hari Raya Haji or Qurban in Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, as بکرا عید Bakrā Īd or بڑی عید Baṛī Īd in Pakistan and India, Bakara Eid in Trinidad and as Tabaski or Tobaski in Senegal and Odún Iléyá by Yorúbà People in Nigeria West Africa.
The following names are used as other names of Eid al-Adha: Īd al-Azhā / Īdul-Azhā / Iduladha is used in Urdu, Assamese, Bengali and Austronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian. ʿĪd al-Kabīr /ʿĪd el-Kebīr meaning "Greater Eid" is used in Yemen and North Africa. Local language translations are used in Pashto, Kashmiri and Hindi, Bengali and Malayalam as well as Manding varieties in West Africa such as Bambara, Jula etc.. ʿĪd al-Baqarah meaning "Eid of Cows" is used in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. Although the word baqarah properly means a cow, it is semantically extended to mean all livestock sheep or goats; this extension is used in Hindi and Urdu as a similar name "Bakra-Eid / Bakrid" meaning "Goat Eid" is used for the occasion. Qurbon Hayiti meaning "Eid of Sacrifice" is used in Uzbekistan. Lebaran Haji is used in the Philippines; the word عيد ʻīd means "festival," "celebration," "feast day," or "holiday." It comes from the triliteral root عين ʻayn واو wāw دال dāl, with associated root meanings of "to go back, to rescind, to accrue, to be accustomed, habits, to repeat, to be experienced.
Arthur Jeffery contests this etymology, believes the term to have been borrowed into Arabic from Syriac, or less Targumic Aramaic. The word ًأضحى'aḍḥan means "sacrificial animal." It comes from the triliteral root ضاد ḍād حاء ḥā' واو wāw, with associated meanings "daylight… to appear, to appear conspicuously… sacrificial animal, to sacrifice." No occurrence of this root with a meaning related to sacrifice occurs in the Qur'an. In modern Arabic, the verb ضحّى ḍaḥḥā means "to sacrifice," and a ضحيّة ḍaḥiyyah is a sacrificial offering; the first element in the Persian name عيدِ قربان Id-e Qorbān is identical to Arabic ʻīd, above. The second is from Arabic قربان qurbān, meaning "offering, sacrifice." Christians use the term to mean eucharistic host. In the Islamic Arabic tradition, it is held to derive from the root قاف qāf راء rā' باء bā', with associated meanings of "closeness, proximity… to moderate. Arthur Jeffery recognizes the same Semitic root, but believes the sense of the term to have entered Arabic through Aramaic.
Turkish Kurban Bayramı uses the same first element as the Persian قربان qorbān. Bayram means "holiday" in Turkish, with close cognates in other Turkish languages, its ultimate etymology is contested. One of the main trials of Abraham's life was to face the command of God to sacrifice his dearest possession, his son; the son is named in the Quran, whereas it is stated as Isaac in the Bible. Upon hearing this command, Abraham prepared to submit to the will of God. During this preparation, Shaitan tempted Abraham and his family by trying to dissuade them from carrying out God's commandment, Abraham drove Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. In commemoration of their rejection of Satan, stones are thrown at symbolic pillars during the Stoning of the Devil during Hajj rites; when Abraham attempted to cut his son's throat on mount Arafat, he was astonished to see that his son was unharmed and instead, he found an animal, slaughtered. Abraham had passed the test by his willingness to carry out God's command.
This story originates in the Tora, the first book of Moses. The Quran refers to the Akedah as follows: Abraham had shown that his love for God superseded all others: that he would lay