Srikalahasti is a holy town in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipality and the mandal headquarters of Srikalahasti mandal in Tirupati revenue division; the town is a part of Tirupati Urban Development Authority, located on the banks of the River Swarnamukhi. The Srikalahasti Temple is one of the important ancient Shiva temples of Southern India; this Srikalahasti town is named after Sri and Hasti that once worshiped Shiva Lingam here and attained Moksham. The Srikalahasti temple was built during Pallava period and the current structures were built by Chola king Kulothunga Cholan I, II and III during the 11th century. A huge hundred pillared mantapam was built by Sri Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara dynasty during the 16th century, an important feature of this shrine. A historical reference to this temple occurs in the works of Nakkeerar, a Tamil poet during the Tamil Sangam Dynasty, he called it as Southern Kailash. Nakkeera composed hundreds of Tamil stanzas to praise Srikalahasteeswara.
Dhoorjati, a Telugu poet native of this place and one among the ashtadiggajas of Sri Krishnadevaraya's court, composed a hundred stanzas on Sri Kalahasteeswara. As per another legend and Adishesha had a dispute to find out, superior, to prove the superiority Adishesha encircled the Kailasam, Vayu tried to remove this encircle by creating Twister; because of the twister, 8 parts from kailasam fell into 8 different places which are Trincomalee, Tiruchirappalli, Rajathagiri, Neerthagiri and Swethagiri Thirupangeeli. Srikalahasti is located at 13°45′N 79°42′E on the bank of river Swarnamukhi, it is located 38 km north of Tirupati central. As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 80,056; the total population constitute, 38,995 males and 41,061 females — a sex ratio of 1053 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 8,224 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 4,227 are boys and 3,997 are girls — a ratio of 946 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 78.66% with 56,501 literates higher than the national average of 73.00%.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government-aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are Telugu. Srikalahasthi has educational institutions ranging from elementary schools to engineering and degree colleges. Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology is an engineered by Srikalahasteeswara Trust board; the town depends on agriculture and tourism. The main crops are sugar cane and ground nuts. Hundreds of Kalamkari artists bring some revenue. Pilgrims visiting the Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala visit the Srikalahasti temple. Srikalahasti is famous for Kalamkari textiles. Srikalahasti railway station is located on the Gudur-Katpadi Branch line section of Guntakal Division of the South Central Railway. Andhra Pradesh State owned Bus services APSRTC operates buses from Tirupati and Nellore. Tirupati Airport is located within 25 km
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who attend on a monarch, or another central figure. Hence the word court may be applied to the coterie of a senior member of the nobility. Royal courts may have their seat in a designated place, several specific places, or be a mobile, itinerant court. In the largest courts, the royal households, many thousands of individuals comprised the court; these courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue, nobility, those with court appointments and may include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern and Eastern courts included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia, concubines were a more visible part of the court. Lower ranking servants and bodyguards were not properly called courtiers, though they might be included as part of the court or royal household in the broadest definition.
Entertainers and others may have been counted as part of the court. A royal household is the highest-ranking example of patronage. A regent or viceroy may hold court during the minority or absence of the hereditary ruler, an elected head of state may develop a court-like entourage of unofficial, personally-chosen advisors and "companions"; the French word compagnon and its English derivation "companion" connote a "sharer of the bread" at table, a court is an extension of the great individual's household. Wherever members of the household and bureaucrats of the administration overlap in personnel, it is reasonable to speak of a "court", for example in Achaemenid Persia, Ming China, Norman Sicily, the Papacy before 1870, the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A group of individuals dependent on the patronage of a great man, classically in ancient Rome, forms part of the system of "clientage", discussed under vassal. Individual rulers differed in tastes and interests, as well as in political skills and in constitutional situations.
Accordingly, some founded elaborate courts based on new palaces, only to have their successors retreat to remote castles or to practical administrative centers. Personal retreats might arise far away from official court centres. Etiquette and hierarchy flourish in structured court settings, may leave conservative traces over generations. Most courts featured a strict order of precedence involving royal and noble ranks, orders of chivalry, nobility; some courts featured court uniforms. One of the major markers of a court is ceremony. Most monarchal courts included ceremonies concerning the investiture or coronation of the monarch and audiences with the monarch; some courts had ceremonies around the sleeping of the monarch, called a levée. Orders of chivalry as honorific orders became an important part of court culture starting in the 15th century, they were the right of the monarch, as the fount of honour, to grant. The earliest developed courts were in the Akkadian Empire, in Ancient Egypt, in Asia in China during the Shang dynasty, but we find evidence of courts as described in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and in Asia in the Zhou Dynasty.
Two of the earliest titles referring to the concept of a courtier were the ša rēsi and mazzāz pāni of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. In Ancient Egypt we find a title translated as high great overseer of the house; the royal courts influenced by the court of the Neo-Assyrian Empire such as those of the Median Empire and the Achaemenid Empire would have identifiable developed courts with court appointments and other features associated with courts. The imperial court of the Achaemenid Empire at Persepolis and Pasargadae is the earliest identifiable complex court with all of the definitive features of a royal court such as a household, court appointments and court ceremony. Though Alexander the Great had an entourage and the rudimentary elements of a court it was not until after he conquered Persia that he took many of the more complex Achaemenid court customs back to the Kingdom of Macedonia to develop a royal court which would influence the courts of Hellenistic Greece and the Roman Empire; the Sasanian Empire adopting and developing the earlier court culture and customs of the Achaemenid Empire would influence again the development of the complex court and court customs of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire.
The imperial court of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople would contain at least a thousand courtiers. The court's systems became prevalent in other courts such as those in the Balkan states, the Ottoman Empire, Russia. Byzantinism is a term, coined for this spread of the Byzantine system in the 19th century; the courts of Chinese Emperors were among the most complex of all. The Han Dynasty, Western Jin Dynasty, Tang Dynasty occupied the large palace complex at Weiyang Palace located near Chang'an, the Manchu dynasty occupied the whole Forbidden City and other parts of Beijing, the present capital city of China. However, by the Sui Dynasty the functions of the royal household and the imperial government were divided. During the Heian period, Japanese Emperors and their families developed an exquisitely refined court that played an important role in their culture. After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, a true court culture can be recognized in the entourage of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great and in the court of Charlemagne.
In the Roman East, a brilliant court continued to surround the Byzantine emperors. In
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. A monarch either inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch reigns for life or until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy in different eras. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, emir or sultan.
Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title in older texts. A king can be a queen's husband and a queen can be a king's wife. If both of the couple reign, neither person is considered to be a consort. Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have ruled, the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king; some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death, the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals. In recent centuries, many states have become republics. Advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership, as illustrated in the classic phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!". In cases where the monarch serves as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch. A form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship. Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time. Hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the medieval era and sometimes into the 19th century. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters; the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed.
In most realms and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives, but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, most also received the title, jure uxoris. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, outcomes were idiosyncratic; as the average life span increased, an eldest son was more to reach majority age before the death of his father, primogeniture became favoured over proximity, tanistry and election. In 19
The word Puranas means "ancient, old", it is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics myths and other traditional lore. Composed in Sanskrit, but in regional languages, several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu and Devi; the Puranas genre of literature is found in both Jainism. The Puranic literature is encyclopedic, it includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, genealogies of gods, kings, heroes and demigods, folk tales, temples, astronomy, mineralogy, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy; the content is inconsistent across the Puranas, each Purana has survived in numerous manuscripts which are themselves inconsistent. The Hindu Puranas are anonymous texts and the work of many authors over the centuries. There are 18 Maha Puranas and 18 Upa Puranas, with over 400,000 verses; the first versions of the various Puranas were composed between the 3rd- and 10th-century CE. The Puranas are considered a Smriti, they have been influential in the Hindu culture, inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism.
Their role and value as sectarian religious texts and historical texts has been controversial because all Puranas praise many gods and goddesses and "their sectarianism is far less clear cut" than assumed, states Ludo Rocher. The religious practices included in them are considered Vaidika, because they do not preach initiation into Tantra; the Bhagavata Purana has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre, is of non-dualistic tenor. The Puranic literature wove with the Bhakti movement in India, both Dvaita and Advaita scholars have commented on the underlying Vedantic themes in the Maha Puranas. Douglas Harper states that the etymological origins of Puranas are from Sanskrit Puranah "ancient, former," from pura "formerly, before," cognate with Greek paros "before," pro "before," Avestan paro "before," Old English fore, from Proto-Indo-European *pre-, from *per-." Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata, is hagiographically credited as the compiler of the Puranas. The ancient tradition suggests that there was but one Purana.
Vishnu Purana mentions that Vyasa entrusted his Puranasamhita to his disciple Lomaharshana, who in turn imparted it to his disciples, three of whom compiled their own samhitas. These three, together with Lomaharshana's, comprise the Mulasamhita, from which the eighteen Puranas were derived; the term Purana appears in the Vedic texts. For example, Atharva Veda mentions Purana in XI.7.24 and XV.6.10-11:"The rk and saman verses, the chandas, the Purana along with the Yajus formulae, all sprang from the remainder of the sacrificial food, the gods that resort to heaven. He changed his place and went over to great direction, Itihasa and Purana, verses in praise of heroes followed in going over." The Shatapatha Brahmana mentions Itihasapuranam and recommends that on the 9th day of Pariplava, the hotr priest should narrate some Purana because "the Purana is the Veda, this it is". However, states P. V. Kane, it is not certain whether these texts suggested several works or single work with the term Purana.
The late Vedic text Taittiriya Aranyaka uses the term in the plural. Therefore, states Kane, that in the Vedic period at least, the Puranas referred to three or more texts, that they were studied and recited In numerous passages the Mahabharata mentions'Purana' in both singular and plural forms. Moreover, it is not unlikely that, where the singular'Puranam' was employed in the texts, a class of works was meant. Further, despite the mention of the term Purana or Puranas in the Vedic texts, there is uncertainty about the contents of them until the composition of the oldest Dharmashastra Apastamba Dharmasutra and Gautama Dharmasutra, that mention Puranas resembling with the extant Puranas. Another early mention of the term'Itihas-purana' is found in the Chandogya Upanishad, translated by Patrick Olivelle as "the corpus of histories and ancient tales as the fifth Veda"; the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad refers to purana as the "fifth Veda",According to Thomas Coburn and early extra-puranic texts attest to two traditions regarding their origin, one proclaiming a divine origin as the breath of the Great Being, the other as a human named Vyasa as the arranger of existing material into eighteen Puranas.
In the early references, states Coburn, the term Purana occurs in singular unlike the era which refers to a plural form because they had assumed their "multifarious form". While both these traditions disagree on the origins of the Puranas, they affirm that extant Puranas are not identical with the original Purana. According to the Indologists J. A. B. van Buitenen and Cornelia Dimmitt, the Puranas that have survived into the modern era are ancient but represent "an amalgam of two somewhat different but never different separate oral literatures: the Brahmin tradition stemming from the reciters of the Vedas, the bardic poetry recited by Sutas, handed down in Kshatriya circles". The original Puranas comes from the priestly roots while the genealogies have the warrior and epic roots; these texts were collected for the "second time between the fourth and sixth centuries A. D. under the rule of the Gupta kings", a period of Hindu renaissance. However, the editing and expan
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529. He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda, he became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India. Indeed, when the Mughal Emperor Babur was taking stock of the potentates of north India, Krishnadevaraya was rated the most powerful and had the most extensive empire in the subcontinent. Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Vijayanagara.
The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built; the king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, prone to fits of anger. He maintained himself to a high level of physical fitness through daily exercises. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able the administrator but an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and attending to the wounded; the south Indian poet Muku Timmana praised him as the destroyer of the Turkics. The rule of the king Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory; the first decade of his rule was one of the long sieges, bloody conquests, victories. His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans, the Gajapatis of Odisha, involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade.
The feudal chiefs of Ummattur and Kammas of Dharanikota who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued. The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler; the Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu, the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya. He defeated many local rulers like Dharanikota Kammas who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha and seized lands up to the Krishna river. Ganga Raja, the Ummatur chief, was defeated; the chief drowned in the Kaveri in 1512.
The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river; the Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Odisha. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into Coastal Andhra region, in control of Gajapati Prataparudra Deva; the Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. The campaign lasted for a year. Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi; the Gajapati army was met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal, Gajapati Prataprudra Deva.
Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army accosted the Adapa Kamma dynasty army allies to Gajapatis at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Krishnadevaraya planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya; the confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarusu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya; as per treaty, the Krishna river became boundary of Odisha Kingdom. Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510; the Emperor obtained Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants.
He utilized Portuguese expertise in
Tenali Ramakrishna was a poet, thinker and a Special Advisor in the court of Sri Krishnadevaraya. He was a Telugu poet who hailed from what is now the Andhra Pradesh region known for his wit and humour, he was one of the Ashtadiggajas or the eight poets at the court of Krishnadevaraya, the Vijayanagara emperor. When he was a child his father was led to death. So, to overcome the depression that Rama faced, his mother Lakshamma took him to Vijayanagara where he was a advisor and 8th scholar at Krishnadevaraya’s court. Tenali Ramakrishna was a great scholar of several languages that included Kannada, Malayalam, Telugu and Tamil, he was advisor in court of Krishnadevaraya. Tenali Ramalingacharyulu was born in a Telugu-speaking Niyogi Hindu Brahmin family as Garlapati Ramakrishna, in a village called Thumuluru during the early part of the sixteenth century while it is believed that he was born in Tenali, his father was Garlapati Ramayya, who served as a priest in the Ramalingesvara Swami temple in Tenali.
Ramayya died. His mother Lakshamma returned to her native place in Tenali to live with her brother. Ramakrishna so came to be known as Tenali Ramakrishna. Tenali Ramakrishna did not receive any formal education during his childhood, but became a great scholar, due to his thirst for knowledge; as per a well-known tale, the Vaishnava scholars rejected to accept him as a disciple, as he was a Shaiva. While roaming aimlessly, he met a sage, who advised him to worship the goddess Kali, he appeased the goddess with his devotion. Kali appeared before him and admired his sense of humor and blessed him that one day, he would be acclaimed as a great poet in the court of King Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara, he joined the famous troupe of'Mela'. When the troupe came to Vijayanagara to perform in front of the king, Ramakrishna's performance caught the eye of the King and other people, he shared his life story with Krishnadevaraya, who granted him the post of the comic poet in the court, completing the Ashtadiggajas group.
Ramakrishna attained fame as a great jester poet. He was known as a Special Advisor in the Court of Sri Krishnadevaraya. Royal Priest Lakshmi Kumar Tathacharya was jealous of him, he made many plans to defeat Tenali Rama but he did not get any success. After the Death of King Krishnadevaraya in 1530, he did not further continue in the court and returned to the Tenali. Just a few years he died from a snakebite; the records state that Ramakrishna was instrumental in protecting the King Krishnadevaraya many times, coming to his rescue in critical situations. A popular story narrates how Ramakrishna protected Vijayanagara from the Delhi Sultanate by his timely wit and strategy. Tenali Rama was noted for his wit. Tenali Ramakrishna's great work Panduranga Mahatmyam is a Kāvya of high merit, remarkable for its sonorous dignity of phrasing, is counted as one of the Pañcha Mahā Kāviyas of Telugu literature, it contains a legendary account of a shrine of Vishnu as Panduranga, at Pandharpur consecrated by the ministration of Saint Pandarika.
A brahmin named Nigama Sharma, who wasted his life in dissipation and debauchery, breathed his last in Pandharpur. A controversy ensures between servants of Vishnu; the former were anxious to carry him to hell as he lived a wicked life and the latter claimed him for heaven, as he died in that sacred place. Indeed, the verdict is in favour of the servants of Vishnu Tenali took the theme for Panduranga Mahatmyam from the Skanda Purana and enhanced it with many stories about the devotees of Panduranga. An imaginary character named'Nigama Sarma Akka' was created by Tenali Ramakrishna and he built a story around her without giving her a name, he composed many extempore poems called'Chatuvu'. Tenali Ramakrishna attained the status of a folk hero when he was the court poet of Krishnadevaraya, but at the same time, he composed serious works on religion. Three of his narrative poems are available today, his first poem, Udbhataradhya Charitamu about the Shaiva teacher Udbhata, based on Palakuriki Somanatha's Basava Puranam.
Udbhataradhya Charitamu deals with the sanctity of Varanasi. Because of Tenali Ramakrishna's affinity towards Shaivite religion, he was known as Tenali Ramalinga Kavi. However, he had great devotion for Vaishnavism as well, reflected in his work Panduranga Mahatyam. Tenali was called, he was entitled by "Kumara Bharathi", for his works. The most popular stories about the lifestyle and coordination of Rayalu and Ramalinga spread the message of intellect, time tuning, strategic stroking besides lively wit and humour. Tenali Ramakrishna is a 1956 Telugu film directed by B. S. Ranga; this film was made in Tamil and is named as Tenali Raman. N. T. Rama Rao appeared as Sri Krishnadevaraya in both films where Tenali Ramakrishna is played by A. Nageswara Rao in Telugu and Tenali Raman is played by Sivaji Ganesan in Tamil. Hasyaratna Ramakrishna is a 1982 Kannada film directed by B. S. Ranga; the film stars Anant Aarathi in the lead roles. In the film, Anant Nag plays the role of Ramakrishna. Tenali Rama, a 1990 Hindi TV series aired in Doordarshan made by T.
S. Nagabharana in which Vijay Kashyap played the lead role, it was based on short-stories by Kamala Laxman. The Adventures of Tenali Raman, an animated series by Cartoon Network in 2003. Tenaliraman is 2014 Tamil film featuring Vadivelu as Tenali Raman as well as Krishna Devaraya; the film was based on the comic reliefs of Tena