Associação Atlética Ponte Preta
Associação Atlética Ponte Preta known as Ponte Preta, is a Brazilian football club located in Campinas, São Paulo. Ponte Preta is known as Macaca. Ponte Preta's biggest rival is from the same city, against whom matches are known as derby, they are known as "pontepretanos". Ponte Preta is the second oldest football team established in Brazil still in activity, founded on August 11, 1900, the oldest being Sport Club Rio Grande, of Rio Grande do Sul. Ponte Preta was founded on August 11, 1900 by Colégio Culto à Ciência students Miguel do Carmo, Luiz Garibaldi Burghi, Antonio de Oliveira, nearby a black painted wood railroad bridge, so the name Ponte Preta. Ponte Preta's first president was Pedro Vieira da Silva; the team's history is directly intertwined with the railroad business, flourishing in its city of Campinas. Most of the people involved with the foundation of the team were residents of the working class neighbourhood by the railroad. One of the team's first nicknames was the "Train of August 11th".
Ponte's stadium, the Estádio Moisés Luccareli, is located right by the railroad in a way where it is possible to see it when inside the stadium, according to the fans, when the train passes by during a game, it's a sign of good luck to come for the team. Ponte Preta is recognized, by FIFA, as one of the first teams in the Americas to accept black players, since its foundation in 1900; the club claims to be the first football team to have a black player in their roster, that player being the before mentioned Miguel do Carmo, part of their first squad. It is the first countryside team to play a national competition, in 1970. Pelé's last match in Brazil was against Ponte Preta. On September 2, 1974, at Vila Belmiro stadium, Santos defeated Ponte Preta 2–0. Ponte Preta lost the Campeonato Paulista final to Corinthians in 1977 in a controversial game that ended in a 2–1 final score. Rui Rey, an important piece of the Ponte Preta team, was shown a red card early in the game. Ponte Preta were considered the favorites for the championship that year.
On November 27, 2013, at the Romildo Ferreira stadium, Ponte Preta reached the 2013 Sudamericana final by defeating São Paulo in the semi finals. It was a historical time for the club, playing its first international cup; the final was against a Traditional Argentine team, with Ponte Preta finishing as runner up. Copa São Paulo de Juniores: Winners: 1981, 1982Campeonato Paulista Série A2: Winners: 1969Campeonato Paulista do Interior: Winners: 2009, 2013, 2015, 2018Copa Sudamericana: Runner up: 2013 Ponte Preta's stadium is Estádio Moisés Lucarelli known as "Majestoso", or "Estádio Majestoso", built in 1948, by its own fan's material and work, its maximum capacity is of 19,722 people, nowadays. The biggest public in it was in a State's Championship in 1970, against Santos, with an official public of 33,000, but it is said that there were about 40,000 people, as the gates were broken down, its nickname is "Majestoso", meaning the "Majestic One" because it was the third largest stadium in Brazil at the time of its inauguration.
In Majestoso's entrance hall there is a bust of the stadium's founder, Moisés Lucarelli facing the outside. In 2000, after a long series of defeats some superstitious fans argued that the founder ought to see the team playing and the bust was rotated 180 degrees; as the team's performance did not improve noticeably, the statue was put back in its original position. Ponte Preta supporters are known as "pontepretanos". A club from Maceió, adopted a similar name and colors as the Campinas club. There is a Norwegian futsal club named after Ponte Preta. Associação Atlética Ponte Preta's biggest rival is from the same city: Guarani; the games between Ponte Preta and Guarani, known as derby, are preceded by a week of tension and fights in the city of Campinas. It is a centenary rivalry, the greatest in Brazil's countryside and one of the most intense in the whole country; the club's mascot is a female monkey wearing Ponte Preta's home kit. It was intended as a derogatory term, reflecting the racism against the club and its fans.
This co-option of a derogatory term as team mascot was copied by Palmeiras fans, who adopted the pig as their mascot instead of taking offense from it, other teams. Torcida Jovem Serponte 1977 – Oscar and Polozzi 1978 – Odirlei 1980 – Carlos 1981 – Zé Mario 1982 – Carlos and Juninho Fonseca 2000 – Mineiro Ponte Preta had one of the most powerful teams in the history of Brazilian female Basketball during the early 1990s, winning the World Club Championship twice; as of April 25, 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Ponte Preta Sumaré Futebol Clube O Início de uma Paixão: a fundação e os primeiros anos da Associação Atlética Ponte Preta, José Moraes dos Santos Neto, Editora Komedi, 2000 História da Associação Atlética Ponte Preta, em sete volumes: 1900–2000, Sérgio Rossi, R. Vieira Gráfic
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today’s botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’’Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy’’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
Transport in São Paulo
Transport in São Paulo plays a key role in the date-to-day life of the people of São Paulo. Although lacking in strong infrastructure, various methods of public transport are offered in the city, including a complex bus system run by SPTrans, various subway and railway lines. A contactless smartcard is used for fare collection for the buses and railway systems. São Paulo has three airports. Over 16,000 buses form the bulk of public transport in São Paulo. Except for a small network overseen by the EMTU, all bus lines are operated by concessionaires under the supervision of SPTrans, a municipal company responsible for the planning and management of public transport; some of the SPTrans buses are painted in white, while others are painted with region-specific colors. Until informal transport vans had a large presence in the city, but the vast majority of such vans are now registered with the city council and operating under the same color scheme used in the main system. To increase efficiency in the city, São Paulo is implementing a bus rapid transit system called the Expresso Tiradentes.
There is a system of reserved bus lanes, which are placed on large avenues and connected with the underground or suburban train stations. With 13 lines, 178 stations and a total length of 369 km, the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Transport Network is the largest rail transport system in Latin America; the network transports about 8 million people daily and it is operated by four different companies. Two are state-owned: São Paulo Metro with 6 lines, 84 stations and 96 km of lines, the Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos, with 7 lines, 94 stations and 273 km of lines; the other two are private: ViaQuatro, which won the public-private partnership to operate Line 4 - Yellow for 30 years, renewable for another 30 years. São Paulo used to have tram lines during the first half of the 20th century, but they were eradicated due to the expansion of the bus system. Connections between lines operated by different companies is free, with the only two exceptions being Tatuapé and Corinthians-Itaquera stations, where connections are paid during rush-hours and free during other periods.
There are 4 lines operated by the São Paulo Metro and 2 under construction: Line 1 - Blue: The first Metrô line built. Connects the North and the South Side of São Paulo. Connections are available for the Green, Red and Lilac lines, CPTM trains; the line serves Jabaquara bus terminals. Line 2 - Green: Transverses the Avenida Paulista ridge, connecting Ipiranga to Vila Madalena, connecting to the Blue and Lilac metro lines, as well as to the Silver monorail line, it provides connections to CPTM trains. Line 3 - Red: One of São Paulo's busiest lines, it connects the East Side to the West Side. Connections to the Blue and Yellow lines are possible; the Barra Funda bus terminal is located on this line. Line 6 - Orange: Announced in 2008 and with its construction initiated in 2015, the Orange Line will connect the borough of Freguesia do Ó, in the northwestern side of the city to downtown São Paulo. Connections to the Blue and Yellow lines will be possible, to CPTM trains; as of February 2019, construction is paralyzed due to problems with funding.
Line 15 - Silver: It is the first high-capacity monorail line in the country. It runs east from Vila Prudente station; as of February 2019, six stations are open with an expansion to Jardim Colonial under construction and another to Cidade Tiradentes, further east, is under development. Line 17 - Gold: Monorail line that will connect Morumbi station with the Congonhas Airport. Connection with the Lilac line eill be possible to CPTM train service; as of February 2019, the line is expected to open in late 2020. Further expansion to this line is expected as plans to expand it westward, crossing the Pinheiros River and connecting to the Yellow line, eastward, connecting to the Blue line, are under development; the following line is operated by ViaQuatro: Line 4 - Yellow: Connects the central Luz station to the West and South Sides in a route constructed below the Consolação and Rebouças avenues. Connections are available to the Blue and Red lines and to CPTM trains; the following line is operated by ViaMobilidade Line 5 - Lilac: Connects the South Side of São Paulo to the Blue and Green lines and to CPTM trains.
It will be the only metro line to connect to the Silver monorail line after it opens in 2020. As of February 2019, plans of expanding the line north to Ipiranga are under development. There are seven lines operated by CPTM: Line 7 - Ruby: Formerly the northern part of the old São Paulo Railway, it connects the Luz station downtown to the city of Francisco Morato, crossing all of the northwestern side of the city. An operational extension connects Francisco Morato to the city of Jundiaí; this is the longest line of the railway system in São Paulo. Line 8 - Diamond: Formerly part of the old Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana, it connects the Júlio Prestes station downtown to Itapevi, going across the western side of the city. An operational extension with another train links this line to four more stations in Itapevi; the last station is placed near the border with São Roque. The Júlio Prestes station houses the State of the Art concert hall Sala Cidade de São Paulo. Line 9 - Emerald: It is located along the Nações Unidas Avenue, connects the region of the Interlagos Spee
Associação Portuguesa de Desportos
Associação Portuguesa de Desportos called Portuguesa or Lusa, is a sports club, a Brazilian football team from São Paulo in São Paulo state, founded on August 14, 1920 by the Portuguese population of the city. On August 14, 1920, the five Paulista clubs representing the Portuguese community of São Paulo met at Salão da Câmara Portuguesa de Comércio to merge, founded Associação Portuguesa de Esportes, they chose the colors of Portugal: red. The club merged with Mackenzie College in 1920, was renamed Mackenzie-Portuguesa. In 1940, the club changed its name to its current name. In 1956, Portuguesa bought from São Paulo a big piece of land located in the limits between the northeast and center of the city. In the land, the Canindé stadium was built, as well as the official headquarters and social club. In the 2011 season Portuguesa participated on the São Paulo State Championship Série A1 when they were eliminated in the Quarterfinals by São Paulo, in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B and in the Copa do Brasil, when they were eliminated in the First Round by Bangu.
After a comeback victory against Americana, on October 22, 2011, the club achieved promotion to Campeonato Brasileiro Série A 2012. On November 8, 2011, after a 2–2 draw against Sport Recife, the club won the 2011 Série B, the first national title won by the club; the title crowned a strong campaign with 23 Wins, 12 Draws and only 3 losses. The offensive and fast-paced style of play implemented by the team's coach and the great amount of 82 goals scored led to the nickname of "Barcelusa", referring to FC Barcelona's style of playing. Lusa ended the 2011 Season with a 2–0 win over Icasa, finishing 21 straight games undefeated. In 2012, the "Barcelusa" squad struggled in the Campeonato Paulista following the losses of players Marco Antonio and Edno, which led to the relegation to the Campeonato Paulista Série A2 after a 4–2 loss to Mirassol and combined results on other games; the chairman disappointment with the awful campaign in a much considered easy tournament led to the dismissal of the team's coach, after 14 months working for the Lusa side.
The team turned sights on Geninho, confirmed the former Brazilian champion as their new manager. The team mounted a good campaign in the Copa do Brasil, but fell through at the Round of 16 after a 2–0 defeat to Bahia. Lusa started the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A with their goalkeeper Wéverton Pereira da Silva negotiating with his departure to play for Atlético Paranaense. Without a good replacement at the Youth Squad nor the added Glédson, Lusa started negotiating with the two-time UEFA Champions League champion and former A. C. Milan goalkeeper Dida, signed the 38-year-old keeper to wear their colors until the end of the "Brasileirão" tournament; the keeper started for the first time for Lusa in a match against São Paulo FC, had a good showing in a 1–0 win for the Lusa side. Lusa played against Neymar's Santos, again at home, with amazing saves by the veteran goalkeeper and losing several clear scoring chances at the first half, the game ended 0–0, with Lusa mounting two wins, three losses and two draws starting the tournament.
Lusa pulled off a trade with Clube Atlético Paranaense, bringing aboard striker Bruno Mineiro. The negotiation proved to be positive, since the new number 9 started scoring goals at will: in 12 games, he scored 11 times, becoming one of the top scorers in the league, pursuing the likes of Vagner Love, Fred and Luís Fabiano. After twenty-seven games in the Brasileirão, Lusa survived a series of difficult games to maintain its spot out of the relegation zone. Playing against Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras and Coritiba Football Club, Lusa won both games by three goals to none at home. Playing Fluminense, São Paulo and Atlético Mineiro, Lusa lost the first two games, but benefited from the absence of superstar Neymar to beat Santos away by 3–1 and allowed Atlético Mineiro to escape out of Canindé with a draw. Despite having Brazilian international and former Ballon d'Or winner Ronaldinho, the Atlético side struggled to get out of the strong midfield pressure and ball possession imposed by Lusa, which had played the majority of the second half with a one-man advantage after defender Leonardo Silva was sent off.
Playing against Sport Club do Recife, Bruno Mineiro scored a hat-trick in a turnaround win by 5–1, becoming the new league scoring leader, trespassing Fred. Fred and BM9 are close friends, having played with Fluminense's striker at the youth level in América Mineiro. In December 2012, Péricles Chamusca was announced with a one-year contract, he was fired in April 2013. A day after Chamusca's dismissal, the club announced Edson Pimenta, as new coach. On April 16, 2013, Portuguesa was eliminated by Naviraiense in 2013. Only nine days Lusa won promotion to Campeonato Paulista Série A1, after a 2–1 victory against Capivariano. Although Portuguesa finished the championship just above the relegation positions, it was punished by the Superior Court of Sport Justice for irregularly calling in a player during a match against Grêmio – Héverton, suspended for a red card received at his previous Copa do Brasil match. With the punishment, the team lost four points – three for the irregular usage of a player and a fourth one which the team won due to the game resulting in a tie – and ended up
Campinas is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city and the third most populous municipality in São Paulo state; the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan Region of Campinas, contains twenty municipalities with a total population of 3,656,363 people. Campinas means grass fields in Portuguese and refers to its characteristic landscape, which comprised large stretches of dense subtropical forests along the many rivers, interspersed with rolling hills covered by low-lying vegetation. Campinas' official crest and flag has a picture of the mythical bird, the phoenix, because it was reborn after a devastating epidemic of yellow fever in the 1800s, which killed more than 25% of the city's inhabitants; the city was founded on July 1774, by Barreto Leme. It was a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the "Bandeirantes" who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves.
In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a growing population center, with many coffee and sugarcane farms. The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos' seaport, in 1867, was important for its growth. In the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower from Italy. Coffee became the city became wealthy. In consequence, a large service sector was established to serve the growing population, in the first decades of the 20th century, Campinas could boast of an opera house, banks, movie theaters, radio stations, a philharmonic orchestra, two newspapers, a good public education system, hospitals, such as the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, and the Casa de Saúde de Campinas, the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, founded by Emperor Pedro II. The construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.
Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles. It was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography and the mimeograph; the area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 square kilometres. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometres northwest of São Paulo, its neighboring cities are Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north. Most of the original vegetation of the city was devastated. Like 13 other municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city is subject to severe environmental stress, Campinas is considered one of the areas liable to flooding and silting. To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area in Campinas. There are several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which has a high level of pollution.
Today, Campinas houses the area of relevant ecological interest Mata de Santa Genebra, 251 acres, established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. This is the now second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Tijuca Forest, in Rio de Janeiro; the city has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood, Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees. The city lies in a transition region between the tropical climates to the north and subtropical climates to the south, with many sources classifying it as having a humid subtropical climate, but others giving for it a tropical savanna climate. If it were not for the moderating effects of the city's altitude its climate would be tropical. Winters are dry and mild, summers rainy with warm to hot temperatures; the warmest month is February, with an average temperature of 24 °C, an average maximum of 29.1 °C and average minimum of 19.0 °C. The coldest month, sees respective temperatures of 17.8 °C, 24.2 °C and 11.4 °C average maximum and minimum.
Fall and spring are transitional seasons. The average annual rainfall is the driest month in August, when there is only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, the hot, dry days during the winter have been frequent surpassing 30 °C between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir