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In medicine, dialysis is the process of removing excess water and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally. This is referred to as renal replacement therapy. Dialysis is used in patients with developing loss of kidney function, called acute kidney injury, or worsening kidney function, called Stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Dialysis is used as a temporary measure in either acute kidney injury or in those awaiting kidney transplant and as a permanent measure in those for whom a transplant is not indicated or not possible. In Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, dialysis is paid for by the government for those who are eligible; the first successful dialysis was performed in 1943. In research laboratories, dialysis technique can be used to separate molecules based on their size. Additionally, it can be used to balance buffer between a sample and the solution "dialysis bath" or "dialysate" that the sample is in. For dialysis in a laboratory, a tubular semipermeable membrane made of cellulose acetate or nitrocellulose is used.

Pore size is varied according to the size separation required with larger pore sizes allowing larger molecules to pass through the membrane. Solvents and buffer can diffuse across the semipermeable membrane, but larger molecules are unable to pass through the pores; this can be used to purify proteins of interest from a complex mixture by removing smaller proteins and molecules. The kidneys have an important role in maintaining health; when the person is healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals. The acidic metabolism end-products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are excreted through the kidneys; the kidneys function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin and renin. Erythropoietin is involved in the production of red blood cells and calcitriol plays a role in bone formation. Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the compromised endocrine functions of the kidney. Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through ultrafiltration.

Dialysis uses purified water. Dialysis works on the principles of the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane. Diffusion is a property of substances in water. Blood flows by one side of a semi-permeable membrane, a dialysate, or special dialysis fluid, flows by the opposite side. A semipermeable membrane is a thin layer of material that pores. Smaller solutes and fluid pass through the membrane, but the membrane blocks the passage of larger substances; this replicates the filtering process that takes place in the kidneys when the blood enters the kidneys and the larger substances are separated from the smaller ones in the glomerulus. The two main types of dialysis and peritoneal dialysis, remove wastes and excess water from the blood in different ways. Hemodialysis removes wastes and water by circulating blood outside the body through an external filter, called a dialyzer, that contains a semipermeable membrane; the blood flows in the dialysate flows in the opposite.

The counter-current flow of the blood and dialysate maximizes the concentration gradient of solutes between the blood and dialysate, which helps to remove more urea and creatinine from the blood. The concentrations of solutes found in the urine are undesirably high in the blood, but low or absent in the dialysis solution, constant replacement of the dialysate ensures that the concentration of undesired solutes is kept low on this side of the membrane; the dialysis solution has levels of minerals like potassium and calcium that are similar to their natural concentration in healthy blood. For another solute, dialysis solution level is set at a higher level than in normal blood, to encourage diffusion of bicarbonate into the blood, to act as a pH buffer to neutralize the metabolic acidosis, present in these patients; the levels of the components of dialysate are prescribed by a nephrologist according to the needs of the individual patient. In peritoneal dialysis and water are removed from the blood inside the body using the peritoneum as a natural semipermeable membrane.

Wastes and excess water move from the blood, across the peritoneal membrane and into a special dialysis solution, called dialysate, in the abdominal cavity. There are three primary and two secondary types of dialysis: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, hemodiafiltration and intestinal dialysis. In hemodialysis, the patient's blood is pumped through the blood compartment of a dialyzer, exposing it to a permeable membrane; the dialyzer is composed of thousands of tiny hollow synthetic fibers. The fiber wall acts as the semipermeable membrane. Blood flows through the fibers, dialysis solution flows around the outside of the fibers, water and wastes move between these two solutions; the cleansed blood is returned via the circuit back to the body. Ultrafiltration occurs by increasing the hydrost

Ali Eghbali Dogahe

Ali Eghbali Dogahe was an Iranian pilot and Major General in the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, during the Iran-Iraq War. His date of death can not be confirmed, he was born on 29 September 1949 in Dogahe, Gilan province. After graduating from Amir Kabir high school, he joined the Imperial Iranian Air Force on 4 December 1967. Having finished the military training, English course, flight preparatory courses with a prop aircraft and T-33, he was dispatched to Williams Air Force base in Arizona, Phoenix, he mastered in advanced aircraft piloting and flying with fighter jets and returned to Iran. He resumed his duty in the Imperial Iranian Air Force on 24 January 1970 as tactical fighter jets pilot. In 1974 he was sent again to the United States to attend a training course in aerial photography interpretation and aerial information and mission management, he was married to Farideh Hashemi in 1975. They had one son, called Afshin. Soon after the beginning of Iran-Iraq war, he voluntarily joined the combat forces of Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force.

He has been named by the Iranian media as the youngest flight coach. In his last mission, Major General Eghbali, was the leader of a group of fighter jets when they were instructed to bombard a base in Mosul on 23 October 1980. Having arrived to the first planned site, two Northrop F-5 fighter jets were not able to find their first target and redirected their route to a base in the neighbourhood of Kirkuk air base. After bombardment of this base and en route to Iran, Ali Eghbali's jet was shot down by a rocket of Iraqi air force in the air space of east of Mosul, he managed to eject. Since this incident, there had been no confirmed report of his situation, but he was believed to be captured by Iraqi forces. There had been no confirmed reports of his death since he went missing, until his body parts were returned to Iran on 27 July 2002, it is assumed that he was died while being a prisoner of war in Iraq. His wife confirmed that the body parts belong to Ali Eghbali Dogahe and they were buried in Behesht-e Zahra.

According to several Iranian media outlets, he was torn in half, half was buried in a cemetery in Nineveh and the other half was buried in a cemetery in Mosul. Based on the follow up of Prisoners and Missing War Veterans Searching Committee belonging to the International Red Crescent along with the bodies of several other pilots from the Air Force were turned to Iran after 22 years being away from the country. Http://

Kamtapur Liberation Organisation

The Kamtapur Liberation Organisation is a militant organisation based in Northeast India whose objective is to carve out a separate Kamtapur nation from India. The proposed state is to comprise six districts in West Bengal and four contiguous districts of Assam which are Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri and South Dinajpur and Malda, Bongaigaon and Goalpara, Kishanganj districts in Bihar and Jhapa Disstt. in Nepal. The KLO was formed to address problems of the Koch Rajbongshi people such as large-scale unemployment, land alienation, perceived neglect of Kamtapuri language and grievances of economic deprivation; the beginning of the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation can be traced to the attempts of certain members of the Koch Rajbongshi people belonging to the All Kamtapur Students Union to organise an armed struggle for a separate Kamtapur nation. For this purpose, they approached the United Liberation Front of Asom; the KLO came into existence on December 28, 1995. Tamir Das alias Jibon Singha is the chairman of the KLO.

He was arrested in October 1999 but regained control over the outfit after he was released by the Assam Police in a bid to make the other KLO cadres surrender. Milton Burman alias. Insurgency in Northeast India Koch Rajbongshi people Koch dynasty Kamata Kingdom Koch Bihar Koch Hajo Uttar Bango Tapsili Jati O Adibasi Sangathan About KLO at SATP

From the House of the Dead

From the House of the Dead is an opera in three acts by Leoš Janáček. The libretto was adapted by the composer from the 1862 novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, it was the composer's last opera, premiered on 12 April 1930 at the National Theatre Brno, two years after his death. Janáček worked on this opera from February 1927 to 8 June 1928, knowing that it would be his last, for it he broke away from the habit he had developed of creating characters modeled on his love interest Kamila Stösslová, although the themes of loneliness and isolation can be seen as a response to her indifference to his feelings. There is only one female character, the setting, a Siberian prison, presents a large ensemble cast instead of one or several prominent leads. There is no narrative to the work as a whole, but individual characters narrate episodes in their lives, there is a play-within-a-play in act 2. From the House of the Dead was finished when Janáček died. Two of his students, believing the orchestration was incomplete, "filled out" large portions of the score and adapted the ending to be more optimistic in tone.

In addition to the work of Břetislav Bakala and Osvald Chlubna, Ota Zitek made changes to the text and sequence of events in the opera. Decades a version closer to the composer's intentions superseded that version, it is the one most heard today; some productions, still use the earlier version's ending to lessen the bleakness of the story. The opera requires a vast orchestra, including chains as a percussion instrument to evoke the sound of the prisoners; the words of prisoners' songs from the Dostoevsky novel are used in part by Janáček. An arrangement in the form of a suite of the opera by conductor František Jílek has been performed by Brno Philharmonic. A Siberian prison camp on a winter morning The prisoners get up, two get into a dispute, as the rumour is spread that a nobleman will be the new arrival, he is a political prisoner. The prison governor interrogates him and orders him to be flogged; the prisoners have found a wounded eagle and tease the bird until the guards order them to their work.

The prisoners lament their fate. Another, Luka Kuzmitch, tells how he incited a rebellion and killed an officer in his first prison camp. Just as he describes his own flogging, Goryantchikov is dragged in, half dead. Six months at the Irtysh river Goryantchikov has befriended the young tartar Alyeya, asks him about his family and offers to teach him to read and write; the prisoners finish work as a holiday begins and a priest blesses the food and the river. Skuratov tells his story: He loved a German girl, but when she was to be married to an old relative, Skuratov shot the groom. For the holiday, the prisoners stage a play about Don Juan and Kedril and the pantomime about a beautiful, but unfaithful miller's wife. After the play, a prisoner tries to provoke Goryantchikov, as the nobleman has the means to drink tea in prison. Alyeya gets injured; the prison hospital Goryantchikov looks after Alyeya, happy that he now knows how to read and write. Luka lies dying of tuberculosis and insults Tchekunov for his servile mannerism towards Goryantchikov.

Shapkin tells the story of his arrest as a vagrant. Skuratov has gone mad. During the night, Shishkov interrupted by the impatient questions of Tcherevin. A rich merchant had a daughter, whom a friend of Shishkov's, one Filka Morozov, claimed to have dishonoured, she was married to Shishkov. When he discovered that she still loved Filka, Shishkov killed her. Just Luka dies and Shishkov recognises him as Filka. A guard fetches Goryantchikov. Second scene. A drunk prison governor apologises to Goryantchikov for the whipping and tells him that he has been pardoned and is free; the prisoners release the healed eagle before the guard orders. Supraphon, 1964: Václav Bednár, Jaroslav Horácek, Ivo Žídek, Beno Blachut, Přemysl Kočí.

HMS Dartmouth (1698)

HMS Dartmouth was a 50-gun fourth-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 3 March 1698 at Southampton. She was rebuilt according to the 1706 Establishment at Woolwich Dockyard, relaunched on 7 August 1716 and formed part of the naval task force sent to Scotland to help subdue the Jacobite rising of 1719. On 8 October 1736, Dartmouth was ordered to be taken to pieces at Woolwich and rebuilt according to the 1733 proposals of the 1719 Establishment, she was relaunched on 22 April 1741. Dartmouth blew up, killing most of her crew, near Cape St Vincent on 8 October 1747 in action with the Spanish ship of the line Glorioso. Voyage of the Glorioso Media related to HMS Dartmouth at Wikimedia Commons

Jay T. Will

Jay T. Will was an American martial artist, he trained under Ed Parker and Al Tracy in American Kenpo and was promoted by the latter to the rank of 8th degree black belt. Jay T. Will taught over 10,000 students, he was well known as a tournament competitor and as a referee, a media commentator on martial arts competitions, he appeared in over 20 films and appeared on television many times. He taught martial arts at law enforcement agencies, the Ohio State University, Wittenberg University; some of the honors Mr. Will received include: "Top Ten Karate Competitors" Karate Illustrated, 1972 Ohio State Black Belt Open Champion, 1972 Tournament of Champions Black Belt Champion, 1972 East Coast vs West Coast Black Belt Champion, 1971 Kenpo Black Belt Grand Champion, 1973 Ohio-Pennsylvania Black Belt Grand Champion, 1972 Pro-Am Black Belt Grand Champion, 1972 & 1973 PKA Referee of the Year, 1982 & 1983 Karate Instructor of the Year, Black Belt, 1976 Kenpo Instructor of the Year, Inside Kung-Fu, 1984His numerous film and television appearances made him one of the most recognized martial artists in America.

Jay T. Will worked as a stuntman in both film and television; some of his television work included. A few of his film credits include City on Fire and Jaguar Lives, he was an active member of SAG. He was included in many more. Mr. Will was the proud father of his daughters Shawn Haven Bleu, he completed his undergraduate at San Jose State University where he met his first wife, Kathleen Will. He authored two books: Kenpo Karate for Self-Defense and Advanced Kenpo Karate. In 1985 he "was convicted on charges of possession of cocaine for sale, after authorities discovered $750,000 worth of the drug in his Columbus, Ohio karate school." TRIVIA * Mr. Will's Best Man in his wedding was son of John Wayne. Biography Jay T. Will on IMDb