Financial District, San Francisco
The Financial District is a neighborhood in San Francisco, that serves as its main central business district. It is home to the city's largest concentration of corporate headquarters, law firms, insurance companies, real estate firms and loan banks, other financial institutions. All six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, Salesforce.com— are located in the district. The area is marked by the cluster of high-rise towers in the triangular area east of Kearny Street, south of Washington Street, west of the Embarcadero that rings the waterfront, north of Market Street; the city's tallest buildings, including 555 California Street and the Transamerica Pyramid, many other tall buildings, such as 101 California Street and 345 California Street are located there. Montgomery Street is the traditional heart of the district. Since the 1980s, restrictions on high-rise construction have shifted new development to the adjacent South of Market area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center.
This area is sometimes called the South Financial District by real estate developers, or included as part of the Financial District itself. Under Spanish and Mexican rule, the area was the site of a harbor named Yerba Buena Cove with a small civilian outpost named Yerba Buena that served to support the military population of the Presidio and the Mission Dolores; the sandy, marshy soils of the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula discouraged the Spanish, Mexican governments from establishing a preeminent town there, who focused their pueblo settlement efforts in the Pueblo of San José with its fertile land. It was not until 1835 that the first settlers established themselves on the shore of Yerba Buena Cove, with the first town plan surveyed in 1839. Yerba Buena's potential as a seaport made it the eventual center for European and American settlement. After gold was discovered in the Sierra Nevada Foothills in 1848, Yerba Buena's location on the natural harbor of San Francisco Bay acted as a magnet for European and American settlers, as well as gold and job seekers from a multitude of countries.
Following Californian independence and American annexation and the California Gold Rush, the area boomed and the Bay shoreline, which ended near Montgomery Street, was filled in and extended to The Embarcadero. Gold Rush wealth and business made it the financial capital of the west coast as many banks and businesses set up in the neighborhood; the west coast's first and only skyscrapers, were built in the area along Market Street. The neighborhood was destroyed in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire. By 1910, the area was rebuilt with low-rise, masonry-clad buildings ranging from six to twelve stories in height. During the late 1920s, several Neo-Gothic high rises, reaching three to four hundred feet in height, were constructed, including the Standard Oil Building, Russ Building, Hunter-Dulin Building, Shell Building, the Pacific Telephone Building. With the onset of the Great Depression and statewide height restrictions due to earthquake fears, few new buildings were constructed, the district remained low-rise until the late 1950s.
Due to new building and earthquake retrofitting technologies, the height restrictions were lifted, fueling a skyscraper building boom. This boom accelerated under mayor Dianne Feinstein during the 1980s, something her critics labelled as "Manhattanization"; this caused widespread opposition citywide leading to the "skyscraper revolt" similar to the "freeway revolt" in the city years earlier. The skyscraper revolt led to the city imposing strict, European-style height restrictions on building construction citywide. Due to these height restrictions, lack of buildable lots, changes in the local real estate market, new development in the area has shifted to South of Market Street since the 1980s; the area south of Market, east of Third Street, north of Folsom Street, west of the Embarcadero is sometimes called the South Financial District, or included as part of the Financial District itself. To encourage new development south of Market, to help fund the replacement for the Transbay Terminal, many height limits were raised in the area.
As a result, nearly all new high rise construction since the 1980s has taken place South of Market. Notable examples include the JPMorgan Chase Building, 555 Mission Street, 101 Second Street, the Four Seasons Hotel, The Paramount, the Millennium Tower. According to TRI Commercial, the traditional Financial District provides 30,000,000 sq ft of office space, the South Financial District offers about 28,000,000 sq ft. Altogether, the combined Financial District employs over 220,000 office workers. Adjacent to the Financial District to the west is the Union Square shopping district. To the northwest is Chinatown, to the north is North Beach and Jackson Square. To the east lies the Embarcadero waterfront and the Ferry Building. To the south lies Market Street and the South of Market district; the Financial District is served by more than two dozen Muni bus and rail lines, including one cable car line, as well as Montgomery Street Station and Embarcadero Station in the BART system. The nickname "FiDi" is employed, analogous to nearby SoMa.
The area is referred to as "Downtown" as well, although "Downtown" may include the broader Union Square, Tenderloin, SoMa districts as well. The District is home to numerous corporate headquarters, including all six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson Corporation, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, Salesfor
Marina District, San Francisco
The Marina District is a neighborhood located in San Francisco, California. The neighborhood sits on the site of the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition, staged after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake to celebrate the reemergence of the city. Aside from the Palace of Fine Arts, all other buildings were demolished to make the current neighborhood; the Marina has the highest non-Hispanic white resident percentage of any recognized neighborhood in San Francisco. The area is bounded to the east by Van Ness Fort Mason; the northern half of the Marina is a shoreline of the San Francisco Bay, features the Marina Green, a picturesque park adjacent to the municipal boat marina from which the neighborhood takes its name. Much of the Marina is built on former landfill, is susceptible to soil liquefaction during strong earthquakes; this phenomenon caused extensive damage to the entire neighborhood during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The area in the 19th century prior to the 1906 earthquake consisted of bay shallows, tidal pools, sand dunes, marshland similar to nearby Crissy Field.
Human habitation and development came in the mid to late 19th century in the form of a sandwall and of a road from the nearby Presidio to Fort Mason. Most of the sand dunes were leveled out and a hodgepodge of wharves and industrial plants was built extending from what is now Laguna Street to Steiner Street. However, all of this was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. During reconstruction of the city after the 1906 earthquake, the area was chosen as the site of the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. Although rubble from the earthquake was used as part of the land reclamation, most of the landfill came from dredging mud and sand from the bottom of the Bay. After the end of the exposition in 1915, the land was sold to private developers, who tore down nearly all of the fair's attractions and developed the area into a residential neighborhood; this major redevelopment was completed in the 1920s. In the 1930s, with the completion of the nearby Golden Gate Bridge, Lombard Street was widened, soon developed into a strip of roadside motels.
The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused severe liquefaction of the fill upon which the neighborhood is built, causing major damage including a small firestorm. Firefighters resorted to pumping water directly from the Bay, to replace water unavailable from broken water mains; the neighborhood was rebuilt. Physically, the neighborhood appears to have changed little since its construction in the 1920s; the neighborhood is most famous for the Palace of Fine Arts, which until 2013 housed the Exploratorium, a renowned hands-on science museum and children's educational center, which takes up much of the western section of the neighborhood. The Palace is the only building left standing in its original location within the 1915 Exposition fairgrounds; the grounds around the Palace are a popular year-round attraction for tourists and locals, are a favorite location for weddings and wedding party photographs for couples. Chestnut Street is another main attraction for travelers from around the world. Stretching from Fillmore Street down to Divisadero, Chestnut is lined with a collection of stores to shop, as well as restaurants, coffee shops and bars to visit.
The neighborhood is noted for its demographics, which since the 1980s have shifted from middle-class families and pensioners, to professionals in their twenties and thirties. These now make up more than half of the population, although a small, affluent older population remains. San Francisco's Academy of Art University has a campus housing building at the Southern edge of the neighborhood on Lombard Street; the San Francisco Police Department Northern Station serves the Marina District. It is in the San Francisco Unified School District and is within the Sherman Elementary School attendance area; as of 2018 Sherman has about 20 teachers. A16 "Strangers in the night – Bars, cheap sex, boozy anthropology". San Francisco Bay Guardian. Google maps
South of Market, San Francisco
South of Market is a large neighborhood in San Francisco, United States, located just south of Market Street, contains several sub-neighborhoods including: South Beach, Mission Bay, Rincon Hill. SoMa is home to many of the city's museums, to the headquarters of several major software and Internet companies, to the Moscone Conference Center; the area's boundaries are Market Street to the northwest, San Francisco Bay to the northeast, Mission Creek to the southeast, Division Street, 13th Street and U. S. Route 101 to the southwest, it is the part of the city in which the street grid runs parallel and perpendicular to Market Street. The neighborhood includes many smaller sub-neighborhoods such as: South Park, Yerba Buena, South Beach, Financial District South, overlaps with several others, notably Mission Bay, the Mission District; as with many neighborhoods, the precise boundaries of the South of Market area are fuzzy and can vary depending on the authority cited. From 1848 until the construction of the Central Freeway in the 1950s, 9th Street was the official boundary between SoMa and the Mission District.
Since the 1950s, the boundary has been 11th Street, or the Central Freeway. The entire Mission Bay neighborhood may or may not be counted as part of SoMa, Excluding the entire Mission Bay neighborhood puts the southeastern boundary at Townsend. Redevelopment agencies, social service agencies, community activists exclude the more prosperous areas between the waterfront and 3rd Street; some social service agencies and nonprofits count the economically distressed area around 6th, 7th, 8th streets as part of the Mid-Market Corridor. The terms "South of Market" and "SoMa" refer to both a comparatively large district of the city as well as a much smaller neighborhood; the smaller neighborhood consists of the largest contiguous portion of the South of Market area that, at any given point in time, is in the early stages of gentrification, still retains much of the older character of the larger district. While many San Franciscans refer to the neighborhood by its full name, South of Market, there is a trend to shorten the name to SOMA or SoMa in reference to SoHo in New York City, and, in turn, Soho in London.
Before being called South of Market this area was called "South of the Slot", a reference to the cable cars that ran up and down Market along the slots through which they gripped cables. While the cable cars have long since disappeared from Market Street, some "old timers" still refer to this area as "South of the Slot". Since 1847, the official name of the South of Market area has been the "100 Vara Survey" or "100 Vara" for short. Since the mid-20th century, the official name has been forgotten, today is found in history books, legal documents, title deeds, civil engineering reports. In 1847 Washington A. Bartlett, alcalde of the pueblo of San Francisco, commissioned surveyor Jasper O'Farrell to extend the boundaries of the pueblo in a southerly direction by creating a new subdivision. At the time, the streets of San Francisco were aligned with the compass points, running north to south, or east to west; each block was divided into six lots 50 varas on a side. O'Farrell decided that the streets in the new subdivision should run parallel with or perpendicular to the only existing road in the area, Mission Road, thus be aligned with the half-points of the compass, i.e. northeast to southwest, northwest to southeast.
He decided to make the new blocks twice as long and twice as wide, with each lot 100 varas on a side. O'Farrell created "a grand promenade" linking the old pueblo with the new subdivision, Market Street. Since downtown San Francisco north of Lower Market Street has been known as 50 Vara, while the South of Market area is known as 100 Vara. During the mid-19th century, SOMA became a burgeoning pioneer community, consisting of low-density residential buildings, except for a business district that developed along 2nd and 3rd streets, emerging industrial areas near the waterfront. Rincon Hill became an enclave for the wealthy, while nearby South Park became an enclave for the upper middle class. By the early 20th century, heavy industrial development due to its proximity to the docks of San Francisco Bay, coupled with the advent of cable cars, had driven the wealthy over to Nob Hill and points west; the neighborhood became a working-class and lower-middle-class community of recent European immigrants, power stations and factories.
The 1906 earthquake destroyed the area, many of the quake's fatalities occurred there. Following the quake, the area was rebuilt with wider than usual streets, as the focus was on the development of light to heavy industry; the construction of the Bay Bridge and U. S. Route 101 during the 1930s saw large swaths of the area demolished, including most of the original Rincon Hill. From the late 19th century to the mid-20th century, the South of Market area was served by several streetcar lines owned by the Market Street Railway Company, including the No. 14 Mission Street electric railway line, the No. 27 Bryant Street line, the 28 Harrison, 35 Howard, 36 Folsom, 41 Second and Market, the No. 42 First and Fifth Street line. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, South of Market was home not only to warehousing and light industry, but to a sizable population of transients, seamen, ot
Chinatown, San Francisco
The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and one of the largest Chinese enclave outside Asia. It is the largest of the four notable Chinatowns within the City. Since its establishment in 1848, it has been important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in North America. Chinatown is an enclave that continues to retain its own customs, places of worship, social clubs, identity. There are two hospitals, several parks and squares, numerous churches, a post office, other infrastructure. While recent immigrants and the elderly choose to live here because of the availability of affordable housing and their familiarity with the culture, the place is a major tourist attraction, drawing more visitors annually than the Golden Gate Bridge. Chinatown is located in downtown San Francisco, covers 24 square blocks, overlaps five postal ZIP codes, it is within an area of 1⁄2 mi long by 1⁄4 mi wide with the current boundaries being Kearny Street in the east, Broadway in the north, Powell in the west, Bush Street in the south.
Within Chinatown there are two major north-south thoroughfares. One is Grant Avenue, with the Dragon Gate at the intersection of Bush Street and Grant Avenue, designed by landscape architects Melvin Lee and Joseph Yee and architect Clayton Lee; the other, Stockton Street, is frequented less by tourists, it presents an authentic Chinese look and feel reminiscent of Hong Kong, with its produce and fish markets and restaurants. It is dominated by mixed-use buildings that are three to four stories high, with shops on the ground floor and residential apartments upstairs. A major focal point in Chinatown is Portsmouth Square. Since it is one of the few open spaces in Chinatown and sits above a large underground parking lot, Portsmouth Square bustles with activity such as T'ai Chi and old men playing Chinese chess. A replica of the Goddess of Democracy used in the Tiananmen Square protest was built in 1999 by Thomas Marsh and stands in the square, it is made of bronze and weighs 600 lb. According to the San Francisco Planning Department, Chinatown is "the most densely populated urban area west of Manhattan", with 34,557 residents living in 20 square blocks.
In the 1970s, the population density in Chinatown was seven times the San Francisco average. During the time from 2009 to 2013, the median household income was $20,000 - compared to $76,000 citywide - with 29% of residents below the national poverty threshold; the median age was the oldest of any neighborhood. As of 2015, two thirds of the residents lived in one of Chinatown's 105 single room occupancy hotels, 96 of which had private owners and nine were owned by nonprofits. There are two public housing projects in Ping Yuen and North Ping Yuen. Most residents are monolingual speakers of Cantonese; the areas of Stockton and Washington Streets and Jackson and Kearny Streets in Chinatown are entirely Chinese or Asian, with blocks ranging from 93% to 100% Asian. Many of those Chinese immigrants who gain some wealth while living in Chinatown leave it for the Richmond District, the Sunset District or the suburbs. Working-class Hong Kong Chinese immigrants began arriving in large numbers in the 1960s.
Despite their status and professional qualifications in Hong Kong, many took low-paying employment in restaurants and garment factories in Chinatown because of limited English. An increase in Cantonese-speaking immigrants from Hong Kong and Mainland China has led to the replacement in Chinatown of the Taishanese dialect by the standard Cantonese dialect. Due to such overcrowding and poverty, other Chinese areas have been established within the city of San Francisco proper, including one in its Richmond and three more in its Sunset districts, as well as a established one in the Visitacion Valley neighborhood; these outer neighborhoods have been settled by Chinese from Southeast Asia. There are many suburban Chinese communities in the San Francisco Bay Area in Silicon Valley, such as Cupertino and Milpitas, where Taiwanese Americans are dominant. Despite these developments, many continue to commute in from these outer neighborhoods and cities to shop in Chinatown, causing gridlock on roads and delays in public transit on weekends.
To address this problem, the local public transit agency, Muni, is planning to extend the city's subway network to the neighborhood via the new Central Subway. Unlike in most Chinatowns in the United States, ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam have not established businesses in San Francisco's Chinatown district, due to high property values and rents. Instead, many Chinese-Vietnamese – as opposed to ethnic Vietnamese who tended to congregate in larger numbers in San Jose – have established a separate Vietnamese enclave on Larkin Street in the working-class Tenderloin district of San Francisco, where it is now known as the city's "Little Saigon" and not as a "Chinatown" per se. San Francisco's Chinatown was the port of entry for early Chinese immigrants from the west side of the Pearl River Delta, speaking Hoisanese and Zhongshanese, in the Guangdong province of southern China from t
The Muni Metro is a light rail system serving San Francisco, operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, a division of the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. With an average weekday ridership of 162,500 passengers as of the fourth quarter of 2017, Muni Metro is the United States' third busiest light rail system. Muni Metro operates a fleet of 151 Breda light rail vehicles, which are being supplemented and replaced by Siemens S200 SF LRVs. Muni Metro is the modern incarnation of the traditional streetcar system that had served San Francisco since the late 19th century. While many streetcar lines in other cities, in San Francisco itself, were converted to buses after World War II, five lines survived until the early 1980s, when they were rerouted into the newly built Market Street Subway; the system today traverses a number of different types of rights of way, including tunnels, reserved surface trackage with at-grade street crossings, streetcar sections operating in mixed traffic.
The system has undergone expansion, most notably the Third Street Light Rail Project, completed in 2007, which started the first new rail line in San Francisco in over half a century. Other projects, such as the Central Subway, are underway; the first street railroad in San Francisco was the San Francisco Market Street Railroad Company, incorporated in 1857 and began operating in 1860, with track along Market Street from California to Mission Dolores. Muni Metro descended from the municipally-owned traditional streetcar system started on December 28, 1912, when the San Francisco Municipal Railway was established; the first streetcar line, the A Geary, ran from Kearny and Market Streets in the Financial District to Fulton Street and 10th Avenue in the Richmond District. The system expanded, opening the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1917, allowing streetcars to run to the southwestern quadrant of the city. By 1921, the city was operating 25 miles of cable car lines; the last line to start service before 2007 was the N Judah, which started service after the Sunset Tunnel opened in 1928.
In the 1940s and 1950s, as in many North American cities, public transit in San Francisco was consolidated under the aegis of a single municipal corporation, which began phasing out much of the streetcar network in favor of buses. However, five used streetcar lines traveled for at least part of their routes through tunnels or otherwise reserved right-of-way, thus could not be converted to bus lines; as a result, these lines, running PCC streetcars, continued in operation. Original plans for the BART system drawn up in the 1950s envisioned a double-decked subway tunnel under Market Street in downtown San Francisco. However, by 1961 these plans were altered; the new tunnel would be connected to the existing Twin Peaks Tunnel. The new underground stations would feature high platforms, the older stations would be retrofitted with the same, which meant that the PCCs could not be used in them. Hence, a fleet of new light rail vehicles was ordered from Boeing-Vertol, but were not delivered until 1979–80 though the tunnel was completed in 1978.
The K and M lines were extended to Balboa Park during this time, providing further connections to BART. On February 18, 1980, the Muni Metro was inaugurated, with weekday N line service in the subway; the Metro service was implemented in phases, the subway was served only on weekdays until 1982. The K Ingleside line began using the Metro subway on weekdays on June 11, 1980, the L Taraval and M Ocean View lines on December 17, 1980, lastly the J Church line on June 17, 1981. Meanwhile, weekend service on all five lines continued to use PCC cars operating on the surface of Market Street through to the Transbay Terminal, the Muni Metro was closed on weekends. At the end of the service day September 19, 1982, streetcar operations on the surface of Market Street were discontinued the remaining PCC cars taken out of service, weekend service on the five light rail lines was temporarily converted to buses. On November 20, 1982, the Muni Metro subway began operating seven days a week. At the time, there were no firm plans to revive any service on the surface of Market Street or return PCCs to regular running.
However, tracks were rehabilitated for the 1983 Historic Trolley Festival and the inauguration of the F Line, served by heritage streetcars, followed in 1995. By the late 1980s, Muni scheduled 20 trains per hour through the Market Street Subway at peak periods, with all trains using the crossover west of Embarcadero station to reverse direction.. To allow for high frequencies on the surface branches, eastbound trains were combined at West Portal and Duboce Portal, westbound trains split at those locations. Two-car N Judah trains and one-car J Church trains combined at the Duboce Portal, while two-car L Taraval trains alternately combined with two-car M Ocean View and K Ingleside trains at West Portal to form four-car trains. However, this provided suboptimal service. In the mid- to late-1990s, San Francisco grew m
Tenderloin, San Francisco
The Tenderloin is a neighborhood in downtown San Francisco, in the flatlands on the southern slope of Nob Hill, situated between the Union Square shopping district to the northeast and the Civic Center office district to the southwest. It encompasses about 50 square blocks, is a large wedge/triangle in shape, it is bounded on the north by Geary Street, on the east by Mason Street, on the south by Market Street and on the west by Van Ness Avenue. The northern boundary with Lower Nob Hill has been set at Geary Street; the terms "Tenderloin Heights" and "The Tendernob" refer to the area around the indefinite boundary between the Upper Tenderloin and Lower Nob Hill. The eastern extent, near Union Square, overlaps with the Theater District. Part of the western extent of the Tenderloin and Hyde Streets between Turk and O'Farrell, was named "Little Saigon" by the City of San Francisco; the Tenderloin took its name from an older neighborhood in New York with similar characteristics. There are several explanations of.
Some said it was a reference to the neighborhood as the "soft underbelly" of the city, with allusions to vice and corruption graft. Another popular explanation folklore, attributes the name to a New York City police captain, Alexander S. Williams, overheard saying that when he was assigned to another part of the city, he could only afford to eat chuck steak on the salary he was earning, but after he was transferred to this neighborhood he was making so much money on the side soliciting bribes that now he could eat tenderloin instead. Another version of that story says that the officers who worked in the Tenderloin received a "hazard pay" bonus for working in such a violent area, thus were able to afford the good cut of meat, yet another story likely apocryphal, is that the name is a reference to the "loins" of prostitutes. The Tenderloin borders the Mission/Market Street corridor, which follows the Spaniards' El Camino Real, which in turn traced an ancient north–south Indian trail; the Tenderloin is sheltered by Nob Hill, far enough from the bay to be on solid ground.
There is evidence. In the 1960s, the area was excavated to develop the BART/MUNI subway station at Civic Center; the Tenderloin has been a downtown residential community since shortly after the California Gold Rush in 1849. However, the name "Tenderloin" does not appear on any maps of San Francisco prior to the 1930s; the area had an active nightlife in the late 19th century with many theaters and hotels. Notorious madam Tessie Wall opened her first brothel on O'Farrell Street in 1898. All of the buildings in the neighborhood were destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and the backfires that were set by firefighters to contain the devastation; the area was rebuilt with some hotels opening by 1907 and apartment buildings shortly thereafter, including the historic Cadillac Hotel. By the 1920s, the neighborhood was notorious for its gambling, billiard halls, boxing gyms, "speakeasies", theaters and other nightlife depicted in the hard boiled detective fiction of Dashiell Hammett, who lived at 891 Post Street, the apartment he gave to Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon.
Around this time, due to Red Light Abatement Act and other vice began to be pushed out from the Barbary Coast district to the more southern and less business-occupied Tenderloin. In the mid-20th century the Tenderloin provided work for many musicians in the neighborhood's theaters, burlesque houses and clubs and was the location of the Musician's Union Building on Jones Street; the most famous jazz club was the Black Hawk at Hyde and Turk Streets where Dave Brubeck, Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, Gerry Mulligan, other jazz greats recorded live albums for Fantasy Records in the late 1950s and early 1960s. With housing consisting entirely of single-room-occupancy hotel rooms and one bedroom apartments, the Tenderloin housed single adults and couples. After World War II, with the decline in central cities throughout the United States, the Tenderloin lost population, creating a large amount of vacant housing units by the mid-1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, after the Vietnam War, the Tenderloin received large numbers of refugees from Southeast Asia—first ethnic Chinese from Vietnam Khmer from Cambodia and Hmong from Laos.
The low-cost vacant housing, the proximity to Chinatown through the Stockton Street Tunnel, made the area appealing to refugees and resettlement agencies. Studio apartments became home for families of four and five people and became what a local police officer called "vertical villages." The Tenderloin increased from having just a few children to having over 3,500 and this population has remained. A number of neighborhood Southeast Asian restaurants, bánh mì coffee shops, ethnic grocery stores, video shops, other stores opened at this time, which still exist; the Tenderloin has a long history as a center of alternate sexualities, including several historic confrontations with police. The legendary female impersonator Ray Bourbon, a performer during the Pansy Craze, was arrested in 1933 while his show "Boys Will Be Girls" was being broadcast live on the radio from Tait's Cafe at 44 Ellis Street. In the evening of August 13, 1961, 103 gay and lesbian patrons were raided in the Tay-Bush Inn, a café visited by gay and lesbian patrons.
As a response to police harassment, S. F. bar owners formed the San Francisco Tavern Guild. A study into prostitution in the Tenderloin found that
Noe Valley, San Francisco
Noe Valley is a neighborhood in the central part of San Francisco, California. Speaking, Noe Valley is bounded by 21st Street to the north, 30th Street to the south, Dolores Street to the east, Grand View Avenue to the west; the Castro is north of Noe Valley. The neighborhood is named after José de Jesús Noé, the last Mexican alcalde of Yerba Buena, who owned what is now Noe Valley as part of his Rancho San Miguel. Noé sold the land to be known as Noe Valley, to John Meirs Horner, a Mormon immigrant, in 1854. At this time the land was called Horner's Addition; the original Noé adobe house was located in the vicinity of the present day intersection of 23rd Street and Douglass Street. Along with nearby neighborhood Corona Heights, Noe Valley was the site of two quarries until 1914. Noe Valley was developed at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century in the years just after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; as a result, the neighborhood contains many examples of the "classic" Victorian and Edwardian residential architecture for which San Francisco is famous.
As a working-class neighborhood, Noe Valley houses were built in rows, with some of the efficient, low-cost homes being more ornate than others, depending on the owner's taste and finances. Today, Noe Valley has one of the highest concentration of row houses in San Francisco, with streets having three to four and sometimes as many as a dozen on the same side. However, few facades in such rows of houses remain unchanged since their creation in the late 19th and early 20th century. Many Noe Valley streets were laid out and named by John Meirs Horner, who named Elizabeth Street after his wife and Jersey Street after the state where he was born. Most of Noe Valley is still called Horner's Addition for tax purposes by the city assessor's office. Present day 24th Street was named "Park Street," and 25th Street was named "Temple Street" to commemorate John Meirs Horner's Mormon faith. St. Paul's Catholic Church known as Parroquia De San Pablo, is a famous church located at Church and Valley Street.
It was the filming location for the movie Sister Act. Like many other San Francisco neighborhoods, Noe Valley started out as a working-class neighborhood for employees and their families in the area's once-thriving blue-collar economy but has since undergone successive waves of gentrification and is now considered an upscale neighborhood, it is home to many urban professionals young couples with children. It is colloquially known for the many strollers in the neighborhood; the median sale price for homes in Noe Valley as of September 2015 was $2.37 million. One of the attractions of Noe Valley is that the adjacent Twin Peaks blocks the coastal fog and cool winds from the Pacific, making the microclimate sunnier and warmer than surrounding neighborhoods. Traffic flow is limited – one main north access through Castro Street to Eureka Valley, one main west access up Clipper Street toward the former Twin Peaks toll plaza and west of the city, several east accesses to the Mission District through 24th Street, Cesar Chavez, other numbered streets, the main north–south Church Street access used by the J Church Muni Light Rail.
Public transit includes the J Church. The 24 Muni Bus runs through Noe Valley, its route switches to Noe Street at 26th Street. It exits the neighborhood via 30th Street; the neighborhood is residential, although there are two bustling commercial strips, the first along 24th Street, between Church Street and Diamond Street, the second, less dense corridor along Church Street, between 24th Street and 30th Street. Ruth Asawa was a resident of Noe Valley from 1962 until her death in August 2013. Carlos Santana graduated from James Lick Middle School on Noe Street in the early 1960s, as did Benjamin Bratt in the following decade. Famous residents include Scott Hutchins, Evan Williams, Mark Zuckerberg, Terry Karl. San Francisco Bay Area portal The Noe Valley Voice, the neighborhood's newspaper