Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009, his service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance. In 2011, Prince William was married Catherine Middleton.
The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis. Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03 pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Wales—heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II—and Diana, Princess of Wales, his names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, he was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat" or "Wills"—a name coined by the press. Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne. At age seven, he told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her. You've got to be King."William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age.
In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, because of William's young age, his first public appearance was on 1 March 1991—Saint David's Day—during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club, he suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all". William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children.
She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, bought them items owned by teenagers, such as video games. Diana, by divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time; the Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral. William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham and was tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove, he participated in football, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, cross country running, he was admitted.
There, he studied Geography and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an'A' in Geography, a'C' in Biology, a'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team; the decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, two uncles, two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton; the royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution, he is a boy: in the next few years the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile.
As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and als
Prince of Scotland
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland are two of the titles of the heir apparent to the throne of the United Kingdom. The current holder of these titles is Prince Charles, who bears the other Scottish titles of Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles and Baron of Renfrew, is known outside Scotland as the Prince of Wales; the title of Prince of Scotland originated in a time when Scotland was a kingdom separate from England. The title was held by the heir apparent to the Scottish throne, in addition to his being Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Great Steward of Scotland. Before the English and Scottish crowns were united under James VI and I, sources indicate it was intended to be used in much the same way the title Prince of Wales was used to designate the heir-apparent to the English throne, although the Scottish heir-apparent was addressed only as Duke of Rothesay until that time; the title of Prince of Scotland originated from a charter granting the Principality of Scotland to the future James I of Scotland, the heir apparent, granted on December 10, 1404, by Robert III.
During the reign of James III, permanency was enacted to the title. The designation "Principality of Scotland" implied not Scotland as a whole but lands in western Scotland, in areas such as Renfrewshire and Kirkcudbrightshire appropriated as patrimony of the Sovereign's eldest son for his maintenance. In modern times, the Prince remains in these lands; the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Act 2000, abolished most remaining feudal duties and privileges attaching to the Principality, leaving the Prince's status as titular. Prior to the 2000 Act the Principality was feued out to tenants and brought in a small income. All title deeds in Ayrshire and Renfrewshire required to be sealed with the Prince's seal. Revenue gained from feudal dealings were counted as income for the Duchy of Cornwall, a more substantial estate held by the monarch's child, heir apparent; the Great Stewardship of Scotland was granted to Walter Fitz Alan by David I, came to the Sovereign through the accession of Robert II, son of Robert I's daughter Marjorie and Walter Stewart, 6th Great Steward of Scotland, on 9 April 1327.
Since that date it has been enjoyed by the Sovereign's eldest son. The titles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland are conjoined in legislation. Since James VI became the King of England and Ireland in 1603, the titles have fallen from habitual use, the holder from on also being Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Wales and Duke of Rothesay, which were preferred, is now referred to, except as the last in the conventional list of the Prince of Wales's titles. Similar to the process of Crown consent, in order for any bill affecting, directly or by implication, the personal property or interests of the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland to be heard in Parliament, Parliament shall not debate any question whether the Bill be passed or approved unless such consent to those provisions has been signified at a meeting of the Parliament. In the Scottish Parliament such consent is signified by a member of the Scottish Government; when the Sovereign had no son, there has been uncertainty as to who should bear and use the titles and enjoy the revenues of the Principality.
Both Mary, Queen of Scots, George II of Great Britain used the titles and styles, but on the accession of George VI there was a difference between the opinion of the Lord Lyon and the advice given by the Scottish Lords of Appeal to the Garter King of Arms. The matter remains unresolved, but is unlikely to be of practical significance for some time
International Campaign to Ban Landmines
The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose stated objective is a world free of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, where mine and cluster munitions survivors see their rights respected and can lead fulfilling lives. The coalition was formed in 1992 when six organisations with similar interests agreed to cooperate on their common goal; the campaign has since grown and spread to become a network with active members in some 100 countries – including groups working on women, veterans, religious groups, the environment, human rights, arms control and development—working locally and internationally to eradicate antipersonnel landmines. A prominent supporter was Princess of Wales; the organization and its founding coordinator, Jody Williams, jointly received the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to bring about the Mine Ban Treaty. The signature of this treaty is seen as the campaign's greatest success; the prize was received on the organisation's behalf by its co-founder, Rae McGrath of the Mines Advisory Group and by Tunn Channareth, a Cambodian mine victim and ICBL activist.
The ICBL monitors the global mine and cluster munition situation, conducts advocacy activities, lobbying for implementation and universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty, humanitarian mine action programs geared toward the needs of mine-affected communities, support for landmine survivors, their families and their communities, a stop to the production and transfer of landmines, including by non-State armed groups. The ICBL participates in the periodical meetings of the Mine Ban Treaty process, urges states not parties to the treaty to join and non-state armed groups to respect the mine ban norm, condemns mine use and promotes public awareness and debate on the mine issue, organizing events and generating media attention. In 2011, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and Cluster Munition Coalition merged into one unified structure, now known as the ICBL-CMC, in order to realize operational efficiencies and reinforce complementary work; the ICBL and the CMC campaigns remain separate and continue to remind governments of their commitments to implement and promote both treaties.
Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor continues its unique civil society monitoring program on the humanitarian and developmental consequences of landmines, cluster munitions, explosive remnants of war. The activities of the ICBL-CMC are supported by a Governance Board representative of various elements of the ICBL that provides strategic and human resources oversight. An Advisory Committee provides the working of the campaign. Four ambassadors serve as campaign representatives at speaking events and other conferences worldwide, they include Jody Williams, Tun Channareth, Song Kosal, Margaret Arech Orech. The ICBL has 14 staff members based in Geneva, Lyon and Ottawa. Additionally, the ICBL-CMC hosts several interns each year; the Mine Ban Treaty, or the Ottawa Treaty, is the international agreement that bans anti-personnel mines. Entitled The Convention on the Prohibition, Stockpiling and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on Their Destruction, the treaty is sometimes referred to as the Ottawa Convention.
The Mine Ban Treaty was adopted in Oslo, Norway, in September 1997 and signed by 122 States in Ottawa, Canada, on 3 December 1997. As of March 2018, there were 164 States Parties to the Ottawa Treaty; the mine ban treaty suggest several agendas to member states: Never use antipersonnel mines, nor to "develop, otherwise acquire, retain or transfer" them Destroy mines in their stockpiles within four years Clear mined areas in their territory within 10 years In mine-affected countries, conduct mine risk education and ensure that mine survivors, their families and communities receive comprehensive assistance Offer assistance to other States Parties, for example in providing for survivors or contributing to clearance programs Adopt national implementation measures in order to ensure that the terms of the treaty are upheld in their territory Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor is the ICBL-CMC's research and monitoring arm. It is the de facto monitoring regime for the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008.
It monitors and reports on States Parties' implementation of and compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions, more it assesses the problems caused by landmines, cluster munitions, other explosive remnants of war. The Monitor represents the first time that NGOs have come together in a coordinated and sustained way to monitor humanitarian law or disarmament treaties, to document progress and problems, thereby putting into practice the concept of civil society-based verification. Since its creation in 1998, Monitor research has been carried out by a global network of in-country researchers, most of them ICBL-CMC campaigners, all content undergoes rigorous editing by the Monitor's Editorial Team prior to publication. Mines Advisory Group Geneva Call, an NGO inspired by the ICBL that focuses on non-state a