John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Edward John "Johnnie" Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer, styled Viscount Althorp until June 1975, was a British peer and nobleman. He was the father of Diana, Princess of Wales, which makes him the maternal grandfather of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex second and sixth in the line of succession to the British throne. Lord Spencer was born Edward John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the only son and younger child of Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, on 24 January 1924, he was educated at Eton, the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, the Royal Agricultural College. Popularly known to his family and friends as Johnnie Althorp, he served as a Captain in the Royal Scots Greys from 1944 to 1945, was Mentioned in Despatches. From 1947 to 1950, he served as Aide-de-Camp to His Excellency Lieutenant-General Sir Willoughby Norrie Governor of South Australia. Spencer held the offices of County Councillor for Northamptonshire, High Sheriff of Northamptonshire and Justice of the Peace for Norfolk.
He served as Equerry to King George VI and to Queen Elizabeth II, was invested as a member of the Royal Victorian Order in 1954. He was known by the courtesy title Viscount Althorp until 1975 when he became the 8th Earl Spencer upon his father's death, he was Member of the House of Lords from 9 June 1975 until his own death. On 1 June 1954 Spencer and Frances Ruth Roche, the younger daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy, were married in Westminster Abbey by Percy Herbert, Bishop of Norwich; the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attended the wedding ceremony. They had five children: Lady Sarah McCorquodale, married Neil Edmund McCorquodale on 17 May 1980 and had issue. Jane Fellowes, Baroness Fellowes, married Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes in March 1978 and had issue; the Honourable John Spencer, died within ten hours of his birth on 12 January 1960. Diana, Princess of Wales, had issue. Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, married first Victoria Lockwood from 1989 to 1997 and had issue, married second Caroline Hutton from 2001 to 2007 and had issue, married third Karen Villeneuve on 18 June 2011 and had issue.
John and Frances Spencer divorced in 1969. Frances married Peter Shand Kydd and in 1976, Lord Spencer married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the former wife of the 9th Earl of Dartmouth, the daughter and only child of the romantic novelist Barbara Cartland and Alexander McCorquodale. In 1978, Spencer suffered a severe stroke, from which, at one stage, he was not expected to recover, which kept him in hospital for eight months, he died of a heart attack on 29 March 1992, was succeeded by his son Charles, the brother of Diana, Princess of Wales. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer at Find a Grave Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Diana, Princess of Wales's jewels
Diana, Princess of Wales, was the was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. She owned a collection of jewels–both as a member of the British royal family and as a private individual, they were separate from the state regalia of the Crown Jewels. Most of her jewels were either presents from foreign royalty, on loan from Queen Elizabeth II, wedding presents, purchased by Diana herself, heirlooms belonging to the Spencer family, her jewellery was a mix of precious stones and costume pieces reported by the media as being "priceless", which the Princess found amusing. Most of the jewellery dates from the 20th centuries. At formal occasions, such as banquets, the Princess wore jewellery lent to her by the Queen, who owns more than 300 items of jewellery. Born into an affluent aristocratic family, Diana Spencer owned some high quality jewellery. Prior to her marriage to Prince Charles, the Princess wore two rings on her right hand.
The rings remained in the Princess's collection but were seen in public during her marriage. She was photographed wearing both rings on her left hand; as a teenager, Diana wore a gold choker with a'D' pendant. In 2017, a sterling silver'D' necklace owned by the princess as a teenager sold at auction for around US$8,000. Diana was photographed wearing her initial necklace as a nursery assistant while still dating Charles, she was photographed wearing sterling silver earrings with five diamonds. After marrying Charles, the princess wore the gold'D' choker. On her 18th birthday, Diana was given a triple-strand pearl choker by the Spencer family. Both of Diana's older sisters had received matching chokers on their 18th birthdays, it consisted of three rows of pearls with a pearl cluster clasp. The Princess altered the clasp to be all pearls; the wedding of Charles and Diana took place on 29 July 1981 at London. The Princess wore little jewellery at her wedding, billed as the "Wedding of the Century", she wore diamond earrings that belonged to Frances Shand Kydd.
She wore her Spencer family tiara, her engagement ring, a wedding band placed on her finger by Charles at the ceremony. Her wedding dress designers, the Emanuels attached an 18-carat gold horseshoe trinket studded with white diamonds to the label of the dress; the earrings that Diana wore on her wedding day were composed of a central pear-shaped diamond surrounded by around 50 smaller diamonds. While the Princess never borrowed her mother's diamond earrings, Frances wore the earrings at a number of important occasions, including Prince Harry's christening in 1984, her son's wedding in 1992, the funeral of her daughter in 1997. After her death in 2004, the earrings were inherited by her eldest daughter, Lady Sarah McCorquodale. For many years, Frances Shand Kydd's diamond earrings were a part of the traveling Diana Exhibition. In 2011, it made headlines when Sarah McCorquodale withdrew them from the exhibition to wear at the wedding ball of her nephew, Prince William. Though this piece was once said to date from the 18th century, the Spencer Tiara is made up of other pieces of jewellery of varying ages and from different jewellers that has gone through several changes over time.
The centre element was a wedding present from Lady Sarah Isabella Spencer to Cynthia, Viscountess Althorp, when she married Albert, Viscount Althorp, the future 7th Earl Spencer, in 1919. This piece was remounted by the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company at some point, Garrard was asked to create four matching pieces in 1937 to add on; the oldest bits are at the ends. The full current appearance dates from around 1935; the tiara includes diamonds in silver settings mounted in gold in various floral shapes: stylized tulips, star-shaped flowers, scrolling foliage. It was worn by both of Lady Diana Spencer's older sisters and Sarah, at their weddings before it was worn by Diana. However, Diana's mother, did not wear the tiara when she married into the Spencer family in 1954. While Diana's mother-in-law, Queen Elizabeth II, loaned her the Queen Mary's Lover's Knot Tiara for the wedding, the princess-to-be decided to stick to her family roots and go with the Spencer tiara for the big day. Diana wore the Spencer Tiara throughout her life as it was said that it was lighter and easier to wear than the other royal items.
Diana, Princess of Wales, received many pieces of jewellery from Queen Elizabeth II. Some of the most famous pieces Diana wore were tiaras. In 1913, Garrard & Co were asked by Queen Mary to make a replica of a tiara owned by her grandmother, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, using the Queen Mary's own diamonds and pearls; the tiara, in its French neo-classical design, has 19 oriental pearls suspended from lover's knot bows each centred with a large brilliant diamond. Mary left the tiara to Elizabeth II, who gave it to Diana in 1981 as a wedding present. Diana was to wear the tiara during her wedding but she instead opted for her Spencer family tiara; the Princess wore this piece often as it was given to her on loan. Diana complained about the ` swinging pearls', she most notably wore it with her'Elvis dress' on a visit to Hong Kong in 1989, but on her divorce from Prince Charles it was returned to the Queen. Diana was allowed to keep her jewellery as part of the divorce settlemen
IMDb is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos and video games, internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries and fan reviews and ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. A fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc. a subsidiary of Amazon. As of October 2018, IMDb has 5.3 million titles and 9.3 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users. The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site. Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors; the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast and other demographics of media product and personalities.
However, name, character name, plot summaries, title changes are screened before publication, take between 24 and 72 hours to appear. All registered users choose their own site name, most operate anonymously, they have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. Users are invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating, displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.
In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled "Those Eyes", about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists; when these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.
By late 1990, the lists included 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database". The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. In 1993, it moved onto the World Wide Web, under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database; the database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates.
However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom. Founder Col. Needham became the primary owner as well as the figurehead. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising and partnerships. In 1998, Jeff Bezos, owner, CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for $55 million and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals.
IMDbPro was launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009, his service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance. In 2011, Prince William was married Catherine Middleton.
The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis. Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03 pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Wales—heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II—and Diana, Princess of Wales, his names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, he was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat" or "Wills"—a name coined by the press. Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne. At age seven, he told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her. You've got to be King."William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age.
In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, because of William's young age, his first public appearance was on 1 March 1991—Saint David's Day—during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club, he suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all". William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children.
She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, bought them items owned by teenagers, such as video games. Diana, by divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time; the Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral. William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham and was tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove, he participated in football, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, cross country running, he was admitted.
There, he studied Geography and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an'A' in Geography, a'C' in Biology, a'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team; the decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, two uncles, two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton; the royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution, he is a boy: in the next few years the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile.
As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and als
Maurice Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy
Edmund Maurice Burke Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy was a British Conservative Party politician, an Irish peer and the maternal grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales. Roche was born on 15 May 1885 in Chelsea, the elder of twin sons of the Hon. James Roche and his American wife, Frances Ellen Work, he was educated at Harvard University and graduated in 1909. He returned to England on succeeding to his father's Irish peerage in 1920, he was a naturalized American citizen but resumed British nationality following his succession to the title. He rented Park House, Norfolk from the royal family. At the 1924 general election, he contested and won the local parliamentary constituency, King's Lynn, holding the seat until he stood down at the 1935 general election, he was elected the town's mayor in 1931. On 17 September 1931, Lord Fermoy married Ruth Sylvia Gill, the youngest daughter of Col. William Gill, at St. Devenick’s, Bieldside and they had three children: Hon. Mary Cynthia, married Hon. Sir Anthony Berry, Denis Geoghegan, Michael Gunningham Hon. Frances Ruth, married John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, Peter Shand Kydd Hon. Edmund James Burke the 5th Baron Fermoy, married Lavinia PitmanLord Fermoy joined the Royal Air Force in 1939 at the start of World War II but when the incumbent Member of Parliament for King’s Lynn was killed on active service in 1943, he resigned his commission and stood for re-election.
He retired from politics. Lord Fermoy died three weeks later, he was succeeded by his only son. His life was the subject of the book Lilac Days, by Gavan Naden and Maxine Riddington, where it was claimed he had a 30-year affair with an American, Edith Travis. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Fermoy