A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Gosforth is an affluent, well established area of Newcastle upon Tyne, situated to the north of the city centre. Gosforth constituted an urban district from 1895 to 1974, when it became part of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne, it has a population of 23,620. There are three electoral wards that bear the Gosforth name: Dene and South Gosforth and West Gosforth, Gosforth. Modern-day Gosforth includes other wards such as Parklands; the origin of the area's name is thought to have come from the title Gese Ford, meaning "the ford over the Ouse", referring to a crossing over the local River Ouse or Ouseburn, but others think that it comes from the Old English Gosaford, meaning "a ford where the geese dwell", it is first recorded as Goseford in 1166. Richard Welford notes that the names of North and South Gosforth come from the north and south of the River Ouse. Gosforth is first mentioned in 1166, thus some think the settlement developed at this time and South Gosforth dates back past 1319, when it has been noted that the English Army retreated there from a siege on Berwick.
According to the 19th century publication, A Topographical Dictionary of England, the township of Gosforth was held of the crown by the Surtees family from 1100 to 1509, when it passed by marriage to Robert Brandling. In 1777, Gosforth contained 7 townships of North Gosforth, South Gosforth, Kenton, East Brunton and West Brunton. By order of the Local Government Board on 20 September 1872, the parishes of South Gosforth and Coxlodge were constituted into a district, governed by the South Gosforth Local Board. After the 1894 Local Government Act, it became the South Gosforth Urban District Council. A year by a Northumberland County Council order dated 14 March 1895, the title was changed again to Gosforth Urban District Council. On 15 July 1903, the District Council applied for an order from Northumberland County Council, to extend its boundaries to include the parishes of North Gosforth, East Brunton, West Brunton and the greater part of Kenton. On 9 September 1903, an inquiry was held into the Gosforth Scheme.
The parishes of Coxlodge and South Gosforth were amalgamated into the parish of Gosforth in 1908. Gosforth extended its boundaries after the County of Northumberland Review Order 1935, to include part of Castle Ward Rural District; this comprised parts of East Brunton and North Gosforth civil parishes. The Gosforth Urban District Council was abolished on 1 April 1974 to become part of the City of Newcastle Metropolitan Borough Council. In the 19th century, Gosforth was the location of a number of collieries, including Gosforth and Coxlodge Collieries. Gosforth Colliery was located in South Gosforth, while Coxlodge Colliery was west of the Great North Road. Coxlodge Colliery comprised three pits; the modern-day centre of Gosforth, straddling the Great North Road, originated in 1826 as a settlement known for several decades as Bulman Village. It consisted of a number of properties large enough to qualify occupiers for the franchise, built by the Bulman family in an attempt to provide voters for their cause in the 1826 elections.
A stone bearing the name'Bulman Village' survives and was incorporated in the façade of a building, the Halifax Bank building north of the Brandling Arms public house. The Blacksmith's Arms public house on Gosforth High Street stands on the site of the original blacksmith's forge. At the 2001 census there were 23,620 people living in Gosforth. In the 19th century Gosforth's population was deemed by the coal trade. In 1801 there were 1,385 inhabitants, most of whom lived in Kenton, were employed in the colliery there. In 1831 the population had risen to 3,546 due to the opening of the Fawdon and Coxlodge collieries. Between 1831 and 1871 the population only grew by a small amount to 3,723, due to the pits at Fawdon and Kenton having ceased to function. There have been a number of archaeological finds in Gosforth, with the earliest piece being a prehistoric flint flake, found in 1959. In 1863 a 2nd-century Greek Colonial coin was found in a garden in Bulman Village. A Roman altar was found in North Gosforth.
It has a large business complex called the Regent Centre, which houses organisations including HM Revenue & Customs. Gosforth's main high school is Gosforth Academy, some of the private schools in Gosforth are Westfield School and Newcastle School for Boys. St Nicholas Hospital is located in Gosforth, which houses the Jubilee Theatre, a Victorian Theatre built in 1899. Apart from South Gosforth, many residential districts of Gosforth are suffixed "Park". There is Bridge Park, Brunton Park, Gosforth Park, Grange Park, Greystoke Park, Grove Park, Kingston Park, Melton Park, Newcastle Great Park and Whitebridge Park. East of the Great North Road, Garden Village was developed on'garden suburb' lines in the 1920s to house workers at the nearby London & North Eastern Railway electric train depot. Areas of Gosforth have been used as a filming locations for television films. Gosforth Park was used as a location in 1971's Get Carter and Whitebridge Park, used in an episode of Wire in the Blood. Melton Park has the ruins of a chapel which dates back to late Norman times.
Brunton Park is a neighbouring estate to the Newcastle Great Park. The oldest parts in the estate have existed since the early 1930s; the rest of the estate was built during the 1950s. It contains a number of local convenience sho
A category of fine art, graphic art covers a broad range of visual artistic expression two-dimensional, i.e. produced on a flat surface. The term refers to the arts that rely more on line or tone than on colour drawing and the various forms of engraving. Graphic art further includes calligraphy, painting, computer graphics, bindery, it encompasses drawn plans and layouts for interior and architectural designs. Throughout history, technological inventions have shaped the development of graphic art. In 2500 BC, the Egyptians used graphic symbols to communicate their thoughts in a written form known as hieroglyphics; the Egyptians wrote and illustrated narratives on rolls of papyrus to share the stories and art with others. During the Middle Ages, scribes manually copied each individual page of manuscripts to maintain their sacred teachings; the scribes would leave marked sections of the page available for artists to insert drawings and decorations. Using art alongside the lettered text enhanced the religious reading experience.
Johannes Gutenberg invented an improved movable type mechanical device known as the printing press in 1450, the first outside of Asia. His printing press facilitated the mass-production of text and graphic art and replaced manual transcriptions altogether. Again during the Renaissance years, graphic art in the form of printing played a major role in the spread of classical learning in Europe. Within these manuscripts, book designers focused on typeface. Due to the development of larger fonts during the Industrial Revolution, posters became a popular form of graphic art used to communicate the latest information as well as to advertise the latest products and services; the invention and popularity of film and television changed graphic art through the additional aspect of motion as advertising agencies attempted to use kinetics to their advantage. The next major change in graphic arts came when the personal computer was invented in the twentieth century. Powerful computer software enables artists to manipulate images in a much faster and simpler way than the skills of board artists prior to the 1990s.
With quick calculations, computers recolor, scale and rearrange images if the programs are known. The scientific investigations into legibility has influenced such things as the design of street signs. New York City is in the process of changing out all of its street signs bearing all capital letters for replacement with signs bearing only upper and lower case letters, they estimate that the increased legibility will facilitate way-finding and reduce crashes and injuries significantly. Graphic artists applying for positions in today's job market are expected to be familiar with computers and a variety of software programs in order to create the most appealing, up to date designs. Graphic art software includes applications such as: Adobe Dreamweaver – a tool that facilitates the creation of webpages and dynamic internet content Adobe Illustrator – a software application that allows artists to manipulate vector graphics Adobe InDesign – desktop publishing software used for layout and design manipulation Adobe Photoshop – a bitmap graphics software including powerful graphics editing tools that provide a large variety of editing functionality CorelDRAW – similar to Adobe Illustrator, it is another vector graphic manipulation tool PhotoImpact – a digital photograph editor QuarkXPress – similar to Adobe InDesign, it is another computer publishing software tool Paint.net – photograph editing capabilities with lots of plugins to expand use GIMP – similar to paint.net and Photoshop Inkscape – similar to IllustratorBeside computers and software, graphic artists are expected to be creative with processing camera work, crop marks, masking.
One of the most common career paths for a graphic artist today is web design. With the popularity of the World Wide Web, the demand for web designers is immense. Graphic artists use their creativity with layouts and logos to market the products or services of the client’s business. In addition to creating graphical designs, graphic artists need to understand hypertext, web programming, web page maintenance in order to create a web page; the responsibility for effective communication falls under the auspices of the graphic designer. Communication design Crowdsourcing creative work Graphic design Printmaking Visual arts
St. Anthony, Newfoundland and Labrador
St. Anthony is a town on the northern reaches of the Great Northern Peninsula of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. St. Anthony serves as a main service centre for southern Labrador. St. Anthony and surrounding area has an approximate population of 4,330; the population of the town itself was 2,258 in 2016, compared with 2,418 in 2011, 2,476 in 2006 and 2,730 in 2001. According to the Canada 2011 Census: Population, 2016: 2,258 Population, 2011: 2,418 Population, 2006: 2,476 Population, 2001: 2,730 Population, 1996: 2,996 Population, 1991: 3,164 2006 to 2011 population change: -2.3% 2001 to 2006 population change: -9.3% 1996 to 2001 population change: -8.9% 1991 to 1996 population change: -5.3% Land: 37.02 Median household income: $45,103 The history of European settlement of St. Anthony reaches back to the early 16th century, when French and Basque fishermen used the well-sheltered harbour as a seasonal fishing station. By the time explorer Jacques Cartier came across the settlement in 1534, he reported it was named St. Anthony Haven.
More people began arriving in the mid-19th century. By 1857, a census found 71 inhabitants in 10 families. By 1874, the population rose to 110, by 1891, it was 139; the town grew in population after the arrival of Dr. Wilfred Grenfell in 1900. A salt fish plant and cold storage facility built in the 1930s and 1940s were a boon to the local economy. St. Anthony became an outpost for the U. S. military. In 1951, a Pinetree Line radar site was built on a nearby hill, by 1962, there were 250 servicemen stationed there; the site was operated by the 921st AC&W Squadron. Tourism has become an important industry to the town. Tourists come to visit historical sites related to Grenfell, to see the nearby Viking settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows or to see natural attractions such as icebergs and whales; the Coat of Arms of St. Anthony is therefore not legal. St. Anthony's most influential historic figure is Dr. Wilfred Thomason Grenfell. Born on February 28, 1865, in northern England. Grenfell entered the London Hospital Medical School in 1883.
While in London, Grenfell heard the American evangelist Dwight L. Moody; the event inspired him to a life of Christian charity. A member of the Royal National Mission To Deep Sea Fishermen, Grenfell was sent to investigate the conditions of fishermen in the Labrador region in 1892, he was said to be the first doctor to reach the region. He would establish a string of hospitals and schools for people in remote Newfoundland and Labrador towns, he chose Red Bay as the headquarters of the Grenfell Mission in 1900. However, in years the focus of the organization became St. Anthony, he began responsibility of health care for the more than thirty thousand residents in Northern Newfoundland and Southern Labrador. This health responsibility was maintained until 1981 when the Government bought the resources and took over responsibility for the health service for one dollar. Dr. Grenfell was most interested in the holistic approach to betterment of the lifestyle of the people of the province, he worked in areas of craft production and sale.
Grenfell worked to provide funds for his religious mission through speaking tours throughout the United States and Europe and he used colorized slides of the people and places he was operating his mission. He began to work from a non denominational Christian belief structure and religious conversion was his goal. Although the religious based mission was successful he was supported by volunteers who gave service to the mission. One notable volunteer was Josephine Colgate of the Colgate fortune. Grenfell died in 1940 and his ashes were interred at Tea House Hill in St. Anthony with those of his wife Lady Anne Grenfell. St. Anthony experiences a subarctic climate with short, warm summers. However, owing to the strong maritime influence, the winters are less cold than most of Canada at the same latitude, there is no permafrost with snow cover sometimes reaching as high as 276 centimetres; however its winters are still far more severe than Valentia Island off the coast of Ireland half a latitude farther north on the other side of the Atlantic which enjoys the moderating effects of the Gulf Stream.
St. Anthony is as much as 11.4 °C colder than London on a near exact latitude in an average year. Precipitation, driven the powerful Icelandic Low, is quite high year round, with an annual average of 1,300 millimetres; the town is at the end of the Great Northern Peninsula Highway. It is served by St. Anthony Airport. Is a popular tourist destination known for its whale watching. Dr. Wilfred Grenfell's work in St. Anthony is commemorated by several historic sites and museums, including: Grenfell House Museum: Built between 1909 and 1910, it was the home of Dr. Grenfell, his wife Anne, their three children. After Grenfell's retirement to Vermont, the house became a residence for mission workers, it opened as a museum in 1981. Grenfell Interpretation Centre: Interprets the life and times of Dr. Wilfred Grenfell through a gallery of interpretative paneling and displays; the centre is designed to be self touring and to provide a more modern interpretative experience for visitors. Tea House Hill: A 20-minute walking trail with interpretative panels and seating along the route.
The trail leads to the top of the hill where Dr. Grenfell, his wife and other colleagues' ashes are buried. Other attractions include: The Rotunda: A display of ceramic murals depicting the culture and history of the people of Newfoundland and Labrador; the mural was created by the acclaimed sculptor Jordi Bonet. Dockhouse Museum: which
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Central School of Art and Design
The Central School of Art and Design was a public school of fine and applied arts in London, England. It offered degree level courses, it was established in 1896 by the London County Council as the Central School of Crafts. Central became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with Saint Martin's School of Art to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design; the Central School of Arts and Crafts was established in 1896 by the London County Council. It grew directly from the Crafts movement of William Morris and John Ruskin; the first principal – from 1896 to 1900 as co-principal with George Frampton – was the architect William Richard Lethaby, from 1896 until 1912. He was succeeded in 1912 by Fred Burridge; the school was at first housed in rented from the Regent Street Polytechnic. In 1908 it moved to purpose-built premises in the London Borough of Camden. In the same year the Royal Female School of Art, established in 1842, was merged into the school; the Central School of Arts and Crafts was renamed the Central School of Art and Design on 1 May 1966.
It became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with Saint Martin's School of Art to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. The alumni of the Central School of Art and Design include: Terence Conran and writer, founder of Habitat Lucian Freud, painter Eric Gill and typographer Kathleen Hale and creator of Orlando the Marmalade Cat David Nightingale Hicks, interior decorator and designer Mike Leigh, film director, theatre director, writer Bill Moggridge, designer of the first laptop computer Victor Pasmore, abstract artist Gregoire Boonzaier, South African impressionist Vivian Stanshall, musician, of the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band Joe Strummer, musician, of The Clash Robert Collins, Stained-Glass Artist of Cincinnati, Ohio