Burlington County, New Jersey
Burlington County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The county is the second largest in New Jersey by total area behind Ocean County which has a total area of 915.40 sq mi and its county seat is Mount Holly. As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 448,596, making it the 11th-largest of the state's 21 counties, representing a 0.1% decrease from the 2010 United States Census, when the population was enumerated at 448,734, in turn an increase of 25,340 from the 423,394 enumerated in the 2000 Census. The most-populous place was Evesham Township, with 45,538 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Washington Township covered 102.71 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality in Burlington County. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $55,227, the tenth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 228th of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 158th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.
Burlington County is part of the Delaware Valley area, located east of the Delaware River. However, the county stretches across the state, its southeast corner reaches tidal estuaries leading to southern New Jersey's Great Bay, which separates the county from the Atlantic Ocean. Anglo-European records of Burlington County date to 1681, when its court was established in the Province of West Jersey; the county was formed on May 17, 1694, "by the union of the first and second Tenths." The county was named for a town in England. Burlington County was the seat of government for the Province of West Jersey until its amalgamation with East Jersey in 1702, forming the Province of New Jersey; the county was much larger and was partitioned to form additional counties as the population increased. In 1714 one partition to the north became Hunterdon County, which itself was partitioned to form three additional counties; the county seat had been in Burlington but, as the population increased in the interior, away from the Delaware River, a more central location was needed, the seat of government was moved to Mount Holly in 1793.
Increasing industrialization led to improvements in transportation which increased to profitability of agriculture in the county. Population increases in the coastal communities due to successful international trade and ship repair led to road improvements throughout the county. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 819.84 square miles, including 798.58 square miles of land and 21.26 square miles of water. Most of the land in the county is alluvial plain with little relief. There are a few anomalous hills, such as Apple Pie Hill and Arney's Mount, the highest of not only the entire county but among the highest in South Jersey at 240 feet above sea level; the low point is sea level along the Mullica rivers. The majority of the land is dotted with rivers and wetlands; some of the largest and most important rivers in Burlington County include Rancocas Creek, Assiscunk Creek, Pennsauken Creek, Mullica River, Batsto River and Wading River. The county borders Atlantic County, Camden County, Mercer County, Monmouth County and Ocean County in New Jersey.
Average temperatures in the county seat of Mount Holly have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.92 inches in February to 4.87 inches in August. Burlington County has a humid-subtropical / humid continental transition climate, with cold winters and hot summers. Severe weather is common in the warm months. Hurricanes have been known to strike Burlington County on occasion. Tornadoes are uncommon in the county. Severe thunderstorms, are quite common during the warm season. Snowfall is typical in the winter, with the snowfall averages in the county ranging from about 18 to 22 inches; the climate and weather of Burlington county is moderated by the nearby Atlantic Ocean, rain is common year-round. The county seat receives about 41 inches of rain per year. Another interesting weather phenomena that occurs in Burlington County is radiative cooling in the Pine Barrens, a large pine forest and reserve that takes up a good portion of Southern and Eastern Burlington County.
Due to sandy soil, on clear and dry nights these areas might be 10 to 15 °F colder than the surrounding areas, there is a shorter frost-free season in these places. The sandy soil of the Pinelands loses heat much faster than the other soils or urban surfaces in the region, so achieves a much lower temperature at night than the rest of the county; this effect is far less pronounced on moist, cloudy, or windy nights, as these three factors reduce the radiative cooling of the sandy soil. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 448,734 people, 166,318 households, 117,254.190 families residing in the county. The population density was 561.9 per square mile. There were 175,615 housing units at an average density of 219.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.84% White, 16.60% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 4.32% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.05% from other races, 2.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.42% of the population.
There were 166,31
WCAU, virtual channel 10, is an NBC owned-and-operated television station licensed to Philadelphia, United States. The station is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal, as part of a duopoly with Mount Laurel, New Jersey-licensed Telemundo owned-and-operated station WWSI. WCAU and WWSI share studios within the Comcast Technology Center on Arch Street in Center City, with some operations remaining at their former main studio at the corner of City Avenue and Monument Road in Bala Cynwyd, along the Philadelphia–Montgomery county line; the two stations share transmitter facilities in the Roxborough section of Philadelphia. In 1946, the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin secured a construction permit for channel 10, naming its proposed station WPEN-TV after the newspaper's WPEN radio stations; the picture changed in 1947, when The Philadelphia Record folded. The Bulletin inherited the Record's "goodwill", along with the rights to buy the radio station WCAU and the original WCAU-FM from their longtime owners, brothers Isaac and Leon Levy.
The Bulletin sold the less-powerful WPEN and WCAU-FM, with the latter being renamed WPEN-FM. The Bulletin kept its FM station; the newspaper kept its construction permit for channel 10, renaming it WCAU-TV. WCAU-TV went on the air on May 1948 as Philadelphia's third television station, it secured an affiliation with CBS through the influence of the Levy brothers, who continued to work for the newspaper as consultants. WCAU radio had been one of CBS's original 16 affiliates when the network premiered in 1927. A year the Levy brothers persuaded their brother-in-law, William S. Paley, to buy the struggling network; the Levy brothers were directors at CBS for many years. Due to this long relationship, channel 10 signed on as CBS's third television affiliate. In the late 1950s, the Federal Communications Commission collapsed northern Delaware, southern New Jersey and the Lehigh Valley into the Philadelphia market; the Bulletin realized that channel 10's original tower, atop the PSFS Building in Center City, was not nearly strong enough to serve this larger viewing area.
In 1957, WCAU-TV moved to a new 1,200-foot tower in Roxborough, which added most of Delaware, the Jersey Shore and the Lehigh Valley to its city-grade coverage. In 1957, the Bulletin formed a limited partnership with the Megargee family, owner of CBS affiliate WGBI-TV in Scranton; as part of the deal, channel 22's call letters were changed to WDAU-TV. Soon afterward, the FCC ruled that the Bulletin could not keep both stations due to a large signal overlap in the Lehigh Valley. Although the Bulletin had only bought a minority stake in channel 22, the FCC ruled that this stake was so large that the two stations were a duopoly; the Bulletin could not afford to get a waiver to keep both stations, so it opted to keep its stake in WDAU-TV and sell the WCAU stations to CBS. CBS had to seek a waiver to buy the WCAU stations, as the signals of WCAU's AM and television stations overlapped with those of WCBS radio and WCBS-TV in New York City. However, in its application for a waiver, CBS cited NBC's then-ownership of WRCV-TV in Philadelphia and WRCA-TV in New York City.
The FCC granted the waiver, CBS took control in 1958. From 1965 to 1986, WCAU-TV was the only network-owned station in Philadelphia; as such, it was the only station in the city that did not or moderately preempt network programming. Channel 10 did, run an hour of Saturday morning cartoons during the 7 a.m. hour on a one-week delay in order to run the hour-long locally produced children's program, The Gene London Show, which ended in 1977. Beginning in 1978, WCAU-TV began preempting an hour of Sunday morning cartoon reruns and in the beginning of 1979 the station preempted an hour of the Saturday morning cartoons. By 1980, the station was running the entire Saturday morning cartoon lineup again and by early in 1981, the Sunday morning hour of children's programs was brought back. In 1994, CBS entered into a long-term affiliation agreement with Westinghouse Broadcasting, owners of Philadelphia's longtime NBC affiliate, KYW-TV. Westinghouse converted three of KYW-TV among them, into CBS affiliates.
CBS was reluctant to include KYW-TV in the deal since it had been a distant third in the Philadelphia ratings for more than a decade. In contrast, WCAU was a solid runner-up to ABC-owned station WPVI-TV. CBS decided to affiliate with channel 3 and sell channel 10, ending a 47-year relationship with the station. NBC and New World Communications emerged as the leading bidders for WCAU. NBC had wanted to own a station in Philadelphia for many years, it succeeded in 1956, when it extorted Westinghouse into exchanging channel 3 and KYW radio for NBC's Cleveland stations, WTAM-AM-FM and WNBK television. However, after Westinghouse complained, the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department nullified the swap in June 1965. New World got into the bidding becaus
WLS-TV, virtual channel 7, is an ABC owned-and-operated television station licensed to Chicago, United States. The station is owned by the ABC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. WLS-TV's studios are located on North State Street near the Chicago Theatre in the Chicago Loop, its transmitter is located atop the Willis Tower on South Wacker Drive; the station first signed on the air on September 17, 1948 as WENR-TV. It was the third television station to sign on in the Chicago market behind WGN-TV, which debuted six months earlier in April, WBKB, which changed from an experimental station to a commercial operation in September 1946; as one of the original ABC-owned stations on channel 7, it was the second station to begin operations after New York City, before Detroit, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The station's original call letters were taken from co-owned radio station WENR, which served as an affiliate of the ABC Radio Network. In February 1953, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, the former theater division of Paramount Pictures.
UPT subsidiary Balaban and Katz owned WBKB. The newly merged American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, as the company was known could not keep both stations because of Federal Communications Commission regulations enforced that forbade the common ownership of two television stations licensed to the same market; as a result, WBKB's channel 4 license was sold to CBS, which subsequently changed that station's call letters to WBBM-TV. The old WBKB's on-air and behind-the-scenes staff stayed at the new WBBM-TV, while the WBKB call letters and management moved to channel 7. Sterling "Red" Quinlan served as the station's general manager from the early 1950s to the mid-1960s, became a giant in early Chicago television. Quinlan was instrumental in starting the careers of Frank Reynolds and Bob Newhart; the station courageously aired The Tom Duggan Show in the mid-1950s, which became the most popular show in the Chicago market, far outdrawing other network competition. Channel 7 had its call letters changed to WLS-TV on October 7, 1968, named after WLS Radio, which ABC had wholly owned since 1959 when the network bought the 50% interest it did not hold in the station from the Prairie Farmer magazine.
ABC merged WLS with WENR, its shared-time partner, in 1954. In 1963, Al Parker worked in that capacity for 26 years; until his departure, he served as an announcer for AM Chicago and The Oprah Winfrey Show. He died September 30, 2000 at the age of 74. WLS-TV had claimed to be "Chicago's first television station" in its sign-ons and sign-offs during for its first three decades, but admitted to its true roots with WENR with its 30th anniversary in 1978. On January 17, 1984, WLS-TV launched Tele1st, an ABC-owned overnight subscription television service that carried a mix of films and lifestyle programs for four hours per night six days a week after the station's sign-off at 2:00 a.m.. Tele1st was created with the concept of allowing users to record programming for viewing. Scrambling codes that were sent to the box and relayed to the VCR were changed on a monthly basis, requiring subscribers to record additional footage airing before and after that night's schedule to retrieve codes to play back the recorded programs properly.
Tele1st was deemed a failure, attributing only 4,000 subscribers at its peak, ceased operations on June 30, 1984. The station's digital channel is multiplexed: Prior to February 24, 2011, WLS-DT3 has been airing ABC 7 News NOW with weather programming from The Local AccuWeather Channel; the ABC O&Os have discontinued their Local AccuWeather channels on February 24, 2011, replacing its programming with a letterboxed standard-definition simulcast of their Live Well subchannels. WLS-DT3 served as a charter affiliate of Laff diginet from its launch in January 2015. To accommodate the WXFT channel share which took effect in December 2017, WLS-TV discontinued the third Laff subchannel, which shifted over to a subchannel of WXFT's sister station, WGBO-DT2, reduced the Live Well feed from a reduced-bitrate 720p broadcast to a 480i format. WLS-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 7, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate.
The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 52, among the high band UHF channels that were removed from broadcast use as a result of the transition, to its analog-era VHF channel 7 for post-transition operations. WLS operated its digital signal at low power to protect the digital signal of WOOD-TV in Grand Rapids, Michigan (which broadcasts on channe
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Edgewater Park, New Jersey
Edgewater Park is a township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States and a northeastern Delaware Valley suburb of Philadelphia. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 8,881. Edgewater Park was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 26, 1924, from portions of Beverly Township; the township was named for its location along the Delaware River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 3.040 square miles, including 2.894 square miles of land and 0.146 square miles of water. The township borders Burlington Township, Willingboro Township, Delanco Township and both Bensalem Township and Bristol Township across the Delaware River. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Capitol Hill and Wallrope Works; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,881 people, 3,683 households, 2,323.973 families residing in the township. The population density was 3,068.8 per square mile.
There were 3,926 housing units at an average density of 1,356.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 57.71% White, 27.32% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 3.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 6.50% from other races, 4.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.92% of the population. There were 3,683 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.00. In the township, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.5 years. For every 100 females there were 91.6 males.
For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 87.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $53,502 and the median family income was $68,572. Males had a median income of $45,865 versus $40,400 for females; the per capita income for the township was $26,916. About 9.7% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 7,864 people, 3,152 households, 2,099 families residing in the township; the population density was 2,701.8 people per square mile. There were 3,301 housing units at an average density of 1,134.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 68.07% White, 21.40% African American, 0.17% Native American, 3.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.20% from other races, 3.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.60% of the population. As of the 2000 Census, 1.9% of residents identified themselves as being of Turkish American ancestry, the second-highest of any municipality in the United States and highest in the state.
There were 3,152 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.03. In the township the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the township was $48,936, the median income for a family was $52,016. Males had a median income of $38,156 versus $27,304 for females; the per capita income for the township was $22,920. About 7.3% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over.
Edgewater Park is governed under the Township form of government. The five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters at-large in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election in a three-year cycle. At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor and another as Deputy Mayor; as of 2017, members of the Edgewater Park Township Committee are Mayor Lauren Kremper, Deputy Mayor Bill A. Belgard, Azunnah C. Amutah, Michael J. Trainor; the fifth Township Committee seat, held by John G. McElwee, is vacant after McElwee's death on August 24, 2017 at the age of 55. In January 2017, the Township Committee selected Azunnah C. Amutah from three candidates nominated by the Democratic municipal committee to assume the term expiring in December 2017, held by Barbara Perkins, who resigned from office in December 2016.
Chief Gene J. DiFil
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipality's population was 28,572, reflecting the former township's population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough. Princeton was founded before the American Revolution, it is the home of Princeton University, which bears its name and moved to the community in 1756 from its previous location in Newark. Although its association with the university is what makes Princeton a college town, other important institutions in the area include the Institute for Advanced Study, Westminster Choir College, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton Theological Seminary, Opinion Research Corporation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Siemens Corporate Research, SRI International, FMC Corporation, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Amrep and Dwight, Berlitz International, Dow Jones & Company.
Princeton is equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to many major highways that serve both cities, receives major television and radio broadcasts from each, it is close to Trenton, New Jersey's capital city, Edison. The New Jersey governor's official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in what was Princeton Borough became the first Governor's mansion, it was replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a colonial mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a museum property of the New Jersey Historical Society. Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live and Work In by Money Magazine in 2005. Throughout much of its history, the community was composed of two separate municipalities: a township and a borough; the central borough was surrounded by the township. The borough seceded from the township in 1894 in a dispute over school taxes. Princeton Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization.
The borough and township had equal populations. The Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the late part of the 17th century; the first European to find his home in the boundaries of the future town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern. In this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township. Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook. Nathaniel Fitz Randolph, a native of the town, attested in his private journal on December 28, 1758, that Princeton was named in 1724 upon the making/construction of the first house in the area by James Leonard, who first referred to the town as Princetown when describing the location of his large estate in his diary; the town bore a variety of names subsequently, including: Princetown, Prince's Town and Princeton. Although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.
Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, but no evidence backs this contention. A royal prince seems a more eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names: Kingston and Princessville; when Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property and the population. Based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons. Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century. According to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265; the numbers have become stagnant. Aside from housing the university of the same name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton in 1777, when George Washington forced the British to evacuate southern New Jersey. After the victory, the town hosted the first Legislature under the State Constitution to decide the State's seal and organization of its government.
In addition, two of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Stockton and John Witherspoon lived in Princeton. Princetonians honored their citizens' legacy by naming two streets in the downtown area after them. On January 10, 1938 Henry Ewing Hale called for a group of citizens to discuss opening a "Historical Society of Princeton." The Bainbridge House would be dedicated for this purpose. The house was used once for a meeting of Continental Congress in 1783, a general office, as the Princeton Public Library; the House is owned by Princeton University and is leased to the Princeton Historical Society for one dollar per year. The house has kept its original staircase and paneled walls. Around 70% of the house has been unaltered. Aside from safety features such as wheelchair access and electrical work, the house was has been restored to its original look. During the most stirring events in its history, Princeton was a wide spot in the ro