Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them. Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and compares and contrasts different cultures; the term ethnologia is credited to Adam Franz Kollár who used and defined it in his Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates published in Vienna in 1783. as: “the science of nations and peoples, or, that study of learned men in which they inquire into the origins, languages and institutions of various nations, into the fatherland and ancient seats, in order to be able better to judge the nations and peoples in their own times.” Kollár's interest in linguistic and cultural diversity was aroused by the situation in his native multi-ethnic and multilingual Kingdom of Hungary and his roots among its Slovaks, by the shifts that began to emerge after the gradual retreat of the Ottoman Empire in the more distant Balkans.
Among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of human history, the formulation of cultural invariants, such as the incest taboo and culture change, the formulation of generalizations about "human nature", a concept, criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers. In some parts of the world, ethnology has developed along independent paths of investigation and pedagogical doctrine, with cultural anthropology becoming dominant in the United States, social anthropology in Great Britain; the distinction between the three terms is blurry. Ethnology has been considered an academic field since the late 18th century in Europe and is sometimes conceived of as any comparative study of human groups; the 15th-century exploration of America by European explorers had an important role in formulating new notions of the Occident, such as the notion of the "Other". This term was used in conjunction with "savages", either seen as a brutal barbarian, or alternatively, as the "noble savage".
Thus, civilization was opposed in a dualist manner to barbary, a classic opposition constitutive of the more shared ethnocentrism. The progress of ethnology, for example with Claude Lévi-Strauss's structural anthropology, led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear progress, or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of history as constituted by accumulative growth. Lévi-Strauss referred to Montaigne's essay on cannibalism as an early example of ethnology. Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a structural method, at discovering universal invariants in human society, chief among which he believed to be the incest taboo. However, the claims of such cultural universalism have been criticized by various 19th- and 20th-century social thinkers, including Marx, Foucault, Derrida and Deleuze; the French school of ethnology was significant for the development of the discipline, since the early 1950s. Important figures in this movement have included Lévi-Strauss, Paul Rivet, Marcel Griaule, Germaine Dieterlen, Jean Rouch.
See: List of scholars of ethnology Forster, Johann Georg Adam. Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, 5, London. Lévi-Strauss, Claude; the Elementary Structures of Kinship, Structural Anthropology Mauss, Marcel. Published as Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques in 1925, this classic text on gift economy appears in the English edition as The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Maybury-Lewis, David. Akwe-Shavante society, The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States. Clastres, Pierre. Society Against the State. Pop and Glauco Sanga. "Problemi generali dell La Ricerca Folklorica, No. 1, La cultura popolare. Questioni teoriche, pp. 89–96. What is European Ethnology? Webpage "History of German Anthropology/Ethnology 1945/49-1990 Languages describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, grouped by host nation-state. Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History - Over 160,000 objects from Pacific, North American, Asian ethnographic collections with images and detailed description, linked to the original catalogue pages, field notebooks, photographs are available online.
National Museum of Ethnology - Osaka, Japan Texts on Wikisource: Rhyn, G. A. F. Van. "Ethnology". The American Cyclopædia. McGee, W. J.. "Ethnology". New International Encyclopedia. "Ethnology". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907. "Ethnology and ethnography". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Ethnology". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Butler, Amos W.. "Ethnology". Encyclopedia Americana. "Ethnology". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
Guangzhou known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities. Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.
This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World". The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.
Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province, after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou and Fuzhou got their names; the character 廣 or 广—which appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty. Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city; the origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered, including that it may have referred to two local mountains. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh as Khanfu.
Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "穗", after its nickname "Rice City"; the city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation. The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story; the more recent City of Flowers is taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery. The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong". Although it and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was conflated with Guangdong by some authors, it was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region.
The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo" derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital. A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC; some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan, king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of mud. Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years. Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC, it remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia and Africa.
Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in
Liverpool Hope University
Liverpool Hope University is a public university in Liverpool, England. Growing out of its first founding colleges - one of the first UK institutions to provide teacher education for women - Liverpool Hope University now has three faculties: Arts and Humanities and Science. These faculties are organised into 19 departments; the university has received a Gold standing in UK's Teaching Excellence Framework. The University's philosophy is to ‘educate in the round’ – mind and spirit – in the quest for Truth and Goodness; the university has two campuses – the main Hope Park Campus in the suburb of Childwall and the Creative Campus just over the border in Everton 15 minutes walk to Liverpool city centre and 22 minutes walk to Liverpool Central train station. Two of the university's founding colleges, Saint Katherine's and Notre Dame were established in the 19th century; these colleges were in Liverpool City Centre respectively. These were among the first to provide opportunities for higher education to women.
They were supplemented on Merseyside when a second Catholic teacher education college, Christ's College, on a site adjacent to St Katharine's, admitted its first students in 1964. In 1980, these three colleges joined in an ecumenical federation under the holding title of Liverpool Institute of Higher Education. Archbishop Derek Worlock and Bishop David Sheppard wrote of this as being "a sign of hope". In 1995, a new Instrument and Articles of Government established a single, ecumenical College, a new name: Liverpool Hope. A company limited by guarantee and registered as a charity was formed. Meanwhile, expansion followed in student numbers; the status of a accredited institution of the University of Liverpool had been achieved in 1994. This gave full responsibility to the college for the quality and standards of its course provision and provided recognition of its academic standing. In 1998, the Accreditation Agreement with the University of Liverpool was renewed for five years and extended to cover taught postgraduate awards.
After extensive scrutiny by the Quality Assurance Agency in 2001 and 2002, Liverpool Hope gained taught degree awarding powers in August 2002. The college made an application to become a university, submitted in September 2004; the Privy Council approved the title "Liverpool Hope University" in July 2005, granting full university status under the leadership of Gerald J. Pillay, now the university's Vice-Chancellor & Rector. On 25 January 2006, Baroness Cox, Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords, was installed as the university's Foundation Chancellor. On 16 July 2013, The Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank was installed as the university's second Chancellor. In September 2007 work was completed on the student services building, named the'Gateway to Hope'; the building draws together all of the university's student services such as Registry, Accommodation Offices and the newly launched Student Success Zone. In January 2009 work began on a new £7.5m Centre for Music and Innovation at the Hope's Cornerstone campus.
The centre was opened in March 2010. In March 2009, the university awarded Vasily Petrenko, Chief Conductor of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, an honorary doctorate and made him a Visiting Professor of Music; the university's £8.5m Eden Building on the university's Hope Park campus opened in October 2010. The centre consists of a lecture theatre, meeting space and seminar and teaching rooms grouped around an internal street atrium. In 2010 the Creative Campus was completed with the opening of The Capstone, a new Music Teaching building and performance venue which includes the Hope Theatre concert hall and Angel Field, a new garden with an outdoor performance area; the main campus, Hope Park, is located in Childwall and the second campus, The Creative Campus, is located in Everton. The Sheppard-Worlock Library is the university's central library, based at the Hope Park campus. Housed within the Hilda Constance Building, the library offers extended hours throughout the year, including periods of 24-hour opening.
The Library takes its name from Archbishop Derek Worlock. The two men were noted for their work in healing sectarian divisions within Liverpool during the 1970s and 80s. In addition, they shared the ambition for an ecumenical foundation in Liverpool Hope. On a historic visit to London, Archbishop Derek Worlock and Bishop David Sheppard secured from the Secretary of State for Education permission to create an ecumenical institute of higher education; the story goes that the minister of state for further and higher education, Gordon Oakes, was not concerned about the constitution of the new institute as he believed it would not last a year. In 1997, one of the final acts of Jim Burke as Rector was to approve the building of a new library at a cost of £5.34million – the Sheppard-Worlock library which opened in 1997. It is a member of the Libraries Together: Liverpool Learning Partnership which formed in 1990. Under which, a registered reader at any of the member libraries can have access rights to the other libraries within the partnership.
In addition to a wealth of publications, research material, extensive computing facilities and stationery sales, the library plays host to a number of commercial activities in the business and education communities. The library houses a number of research collections
Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
The Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 known as Lyon 3, is a multidisciplinary public university in Lyon, based in Law and social sciences. It is under the purview of the Academy of Lyon. A total of 29,000 students study there for posgraduate degrees, it has three campuses in Lyon. The university is a member of the University of Lyon, the Coimbra Group and the European University Association. University Lyon 3 was established in the early 1970s, a division of teachers following the events of May 68 that rocked the academic world. There are departments of geography-planning, the engineer of the countryside in Annecy and history, a faculty of philosophy with more than 90 doctoral students. All three public universities in Lyon are derivative of the former University of Lyon established in 1896; the university has expanded its international relations and has relations with universities in various countries. Because of past extreme-right tendencies of some of its staff, the university was accused in the 1980s and 1990s of complacency with regard anti-Semitic and racist elements.
The Report on racism and Holocaust denial at the University Jean Moulin-Lyon 3, prepared under the direction of Henry Rousso at the request of the Minister of Education and released in October 2004, showed that the number of teachers involved was limited. The university is located on three different campuses: the first one, called "Les Quais", is by the Rhône, the second, called "Manufacture des Tabacs" in the SE part of Lyon, the last one in Bourg-en-Bresse. Faculty of Law Faculty of Philosophy School of Business administration Faculty of Arts Faculty of Languages The Lyon Law School, was created by decree issued on 29 October 1875, by Marshal Mac Mahon, was inaugurated by French President Felix Faure on 1 May 1896; the Faculty of Law of Lyon celebrates 130 years, largest centre for law students from the city of Lyon, it has all the legal training of the first year Degree tray until 8. The Lyon Law school enjoys a international reputation of distinction. In the latest edition of the Gourman Report, it was ranked 1st among France's provincial universities, 5th among European universities, behind Paris, Oxford and Heidelberg.
The Law School has always been in touch with foreign legal systems. Before the First World War, the Lyon Law School founded the Law school of Beirut, in Lebanon; these two cities and Beirut, were both on one of Silk Roads, which started in China and ended in Lyon. The Institute of Comparative Law was created by Édouard Lambert in 1920, now bears his name. Just before he passed away, this great comparative law specialist wrote the Egyptian Civil Code, still in effect today and has hardly been amended. Cambodia was the scene of the development of the Lyon Law School, before the Vietnam War. Quite the Dean of the Lyon Law School had been or was to become a Dean in Beirut or Phnom Penh; the law school is known for research of history of family law. It is famous in the field of Business Law, thanks to its master's degree in Business and Tax law, coupled with the most famous degree in the field of business Law in France: DJCE; the Faculty of law proposes the preparation of master 2 business and financial engineering ranked 7th, Master 2 audiovisual & media law ranked 4th among the best master's degrees by SMBG 2015.
The Law faculty includes the department of political science: international relations propose the preparation of master 2 international relations ranked 5th among the best master's degrees in international security and defense by SMBG ranking 2015. The faculty organise conferences with Interpol and France's National Police College on a regular basis; the Law School has a double diploma programme with the University of Essex in the United Kingdom, which allows students to access regulated professions in both countries. The professorial staff of the Faculty of Philosophy of Lyon 3 includes, or has included: Régis Debray, Jean-Jacques Wunenburger Jean-Claude Beaune Jean-Pierre Ginisti François Guéry Bruno Pinchard Bimbenet Etienne Jean-Joël Duhot, etc.. The IAE, standing for Institut d'Administration des Entreprises, is the school of business of the Jean Moulin University Lyon 3. Known as the IAE of Lyon, its main campus is located in the historical complex of the "Manufacture des Tabacs" in the heart of Lyon, France.
Founded in 1956 the IAE of Lyon has 6300 students in 2007, accounting for more than 28% of the 22,300 students at Lyon 3 University. In addition to the 150 some professors at the IAE, 400 executives from private, external companies contribute to the education; the various courses offered include four bachelor's degrees, eight professional bachelor's degrees, nine master's degrees and preparatory courses for the chartered accountants examination. The IAE of Lyon is one of the top French institutions for training in management; the school is internationalized and has an alumni network of 30,000 former students throughout the world. The Faculty of Arts of Lyon complements and collaborates with the University Lyon 2 and the ENS de Lyon, it offers courses in the Classics. The faculty in includes departments of
Sun Yat-sen University
Sun Yat-sen University, abbreviated SYSU and colloquially known in Chinese as Zhongda known as Zhongshan University, is a major Chinese public research university located in Guangzhou, China. It was founded in 1924 by and named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a revolutionary and the founding father of the Republic of China. With an educational tradition spanning nearly 100 years, the University has always been a preeminent research and cultural centre and the premier location for talent development in Southern China, has developed into a modern comprehensive university that enjoys a reputation as a top-tier university nationally and a renowned university internationally, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. The school's main campus referred to as the South Campus, is located in Haizhu District, inheriting the campus of the former Lingnan University. With its five campuses in the three cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, ten affiliated hospitals, the University is striving to become a world-class university and global centre of learning.
In ARWU World University Rankings 2018, Sun Yat-sen University ranks Top 6 among all universities in Greater China, Top 121 among all universities in the world. Ranked among the top-tier universities in mainland China, Sun Yat-sen University provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, medical science and managerial science; the university's assets include the world's second fastest supercomputer Tianhe-2, valued at 2.4 billion yuan. The university has the largest affiliated hospital system in mainland China; the university's Zhuhai Campus owns the largest teaching building in Asia measured by acreage. Two of the university's business education institutions, Sun Yat-sen Business School and Lingnan College are accredited by EQUIS, AACSB, AMBA. Only 3 business schools in mainland China hold this triple accreditation. In the beginning all the Sun Yat-sen Universities were adopted a statism educational model and based-on Dr. Sun Yat-sen's political philosophy, present-day Sun Yat-sen University is the result of multiple mergers as well as splits and restructurings that have involved more than a dozen academic institutions over time.
The most recent merger happened in 2001, when Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science merged with Sun Yat-sen University and became Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science. In 1924, Dr. Sun Yat-sen founded the National Canton University and inscribed in his own handwriting the school motto of "Study Extensively, Enquire Accurately, Reflect Carefully, Discriminate Clearly, Practise Earnestly." After the death of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the national government, set up during the first cooperation between the Communists and Nationalists formally decreed to change its name to Sun Yat-sen University on July 17, 1926, in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. In 1926, there were five National Sun Yat-sen Universities: National First Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, National Second Sun Yat-sen University in Wuhan, National Third Sun Yat-sen University in Zhejiang, National Fourth Sun Yat-sen University in Nanjing (the current Nanjing University, National Fifth Sun Yat-sen University in Zhengzhou. In the 1930s, there were seven schools in the university: the Schools of Arts, Law, Agricultural Studies and Education.
In 1935, Tsinghua University, Peking University and Sun Yat-sen University set up the first graduate schools in China and began to enroll graduate students. In the 1950s, colleges and departments were readjusted nationwide, Sun Yat-sen University became a national top-tier comprehensive university with the liberal arts and sciences as its backbone disciplines. One of the predecessors of the Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science was the Pok Tsai Medical School, founded in 1866, was the earliest institution of learning of western medicine in China, where Sun Yat-sen once studied and engaged in revolutionary activities; the Pok Tsai Medical School evolved into the College of Medicine of Lingnan University in 1936. The Kung Yee Medical School and Hospital in Guangzhou was founded in 1908. In 1925, the Kung Yee institutions were taken over by the government and became the Medical Department of the National First Sun Yat-sen University. In 1953, the Colleges of Medicine in Sun Yat-sen University and Lingnan University merged to form the College of Medicine of South China, joined by the Guangdong Guanghua College of Medicine in 1954.
The university was renamed Guangzhou College of Medicine and Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science successively, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science in 1985, which has developed steadfastly into a comprehensive medical university with multi-schools and multiple levels, has reached national advanced level and achieved remarkable successes in scientific research in medical genetics, tumor study, parasite study, the kidney disease of internal medicine, organ transplant, infectious liver disease, biological medical project and molecular medical science. In 2001, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science merged with Sun Yat-sen University and became Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science. Lingnan University was a private university established by Andrew Happer, MD and a group of American missionaries in
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Nationalism is a political and economic ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference, that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, that the nation is the only rightful source of political power, it further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, religion and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements, it encourages pride in national achievements, is linked to patriotism. Nationalism is combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism or socialism for example. Nationalism as an ideology is modern. Throughout history, people have had an attachment to their kin group and traditions, to territorial authorities and to their homeland, but nationalism did not become a widely-recognized concept until the 18th century.
There are three paradigms for understanding the origins and basis of nationalism. Primordialism proposes that there have always been nations and that nationalism is a natural phenomenon. Ethnosymbolism explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon and stresses the importance of symbols and traditions in the development of nations and nationalism. Modernism proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that needs the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist. There are various definitions of a "nation", which leads to different strands of nationalism. Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared ethnicity and culture, while civic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared citizenship and institutions, is linked to constitutional patriotism; the adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has been a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to mismatch between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in an anomie that nationalists seek to resolve.
This anomie results in a society reinterpreting identity, retaining elements deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities foreign powers that are controlling them. National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are important in nationalism. In practice, nationalism can be seen as positive or negative depending on context and individual outlook. Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Conversely, radical nationalism combined with racial hatred was a key factor in the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. More nationalism was an important driver of the controversial annexation of Crimea by Russia.
The terminological use of'nations','sovereignty' and associated concepts was refined with the writing by Hugo Grotius of De Jure Belli ac Pacis in the early 17th century. Living in the times of the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands and the Thirty Years' War between Catholic and Protestant European nations, it is not surprising that Grotius was concerned with matters of conflicts between nations in the context of oppositions stemming from religious differences; the word nation was usefully applied before 1800 in Europe to refer to the inhabitants of a country as well as to collective identities that could include shared history, language, political rights and traditions, in a sense more akin to the modern conception. Nationalism as derived from the noun designating'nations' is a newer word, it became important in the 19th century. The term became negative in its connotations after 1914. Glenda Sluga notes that "The twentieth century, a time of profound disillusionment with nationalism, was the great age of globalism."
Nationalism has been a recurring facet of civilizations since ancient times, though the modern sense of national political autonomy and self-determination was formalized in the late 18th century. Examples of nationalist movements can be found throughout history, from the Jewish revolts of the 1st and 2nd centuries, to the re-emergence of Persian culture during the Sasanid period of Persia, to the re-emergence of Latin culture in the Western Roman Empire during the 4th and 5th centuries, as well as many others. In modern times, examples can be seen in the emergence of German nationalism as a reaction against Napoleonic control of Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine around 1805–14. Linda Colley in Britons, Forging the Nation 1707–1837 explores how the role of nationalism emerged about 1700 and developed in Britain reaching full form in the 1830s. Historians of nationalism in Europe begin with the French Revolution, not only for its impact on French nationalism but more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on Eu