Ron Lane was a woodcarver who lived in the New Forest region of Hampshire, England. Ron Lane was a resident of Dibden Purlieu in Hampshire, he was married to Eleanor. In his lifetime he produce hundreds of wood carvings. Many of his carvings sought to capture in wood the wildlife he saw around him, included sculptures of dogs, owls, mice and fishes. Sculptures on public display include: A sculpture of the madonna and child in St Michael & All Angels Church, Hampshire; the sculpture was dedicated in November 1971. Ron Lane gave a talk about his work in the church in 1972. An oak font cover in Inkpen; this font cover entitled "in praise of water" was made in 1972. It features walnut carvings of a series of water creatures including a vole, a dipper, a newt, a kingfisher, a teal. A sculpture of the madonna and child in St Mary's Church, Hampshire; the sculpture was a gift from two American parishioners in 1973. The Ron Lane Memorial Prize is a regional award for excellence in woodcarving. Bridget Joseph, "A man who knew wood" in The Countryman, Volume 85, No.
4, pages 151-3. Ron Lane, Wood Sculptor, 1969, British Pathé News Ron Lane, Artist in Wood, 1971, British Movietone News
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England. The county town is the city of Winchester, its two largest cities and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. First settled about 14,000 years ago, Hampshire's history dates to Roman Britain, when its chief town was Winchester; when the Romans left Britain, the area was infiltrated by tribes from Scandinavia and mainland Europe, principally in the river valleys. The county was recorded in the 11th century Domesday Book, divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent and cloth manufacture in the county, the fishing industry, a shipbuilding industry was established. By the 16th century, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester. By the mid-19th century, with the county's population at 219,210 in more than 86,000 dwellings, agriculture was the principal industry and 10 per cent of the county was still forest. Hampshire played a crucial military role in both World Wars.
The Isle of Wight left the county to form its own in 1974. The county's geography is varied, with upland to 286 metres and south-flowing rivers. There are areas of downland and marsh, two national parks: the New Forest, part of the South Downs, which together cover 45 per cent of Hampshire. Hampshire is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with an unemployment rate lower than the national average, its economy derived from major companies, maritime and tourism. Tourist attractions include the national parks and the Southampton Boat Show; the county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr; the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.
From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. Hampshire was the departure point of some of those who left England to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire; the towns of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Portsmouth, Virginia take their names from Portsmouth in Hampshire. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland; the first inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The majority of the population would have been concentrated around the river valleys. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, sea levels rose. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, with it a neolithic culture.
Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers. Hillforts declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown.
By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta Belgarum, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, a major port; the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia quickly. It is believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace; the part of th
Totton College is a further education college located in Totton, providing courses for 16- to 19-year-olds as well as adult education courses. These include NVQs, GCSEs and Access courses. Courses are available to students aged 14 and above who would benefit from additional hands-on experience and training in addition to their mainstream learning. A range of accredited professional and leisure courses are available to adults both in the daytime and evening. Opening in 1955 as Totton Grammar School, it became a sixth form college in 1969 and continued to expand their campus from the late 1980s onwards, its main campus is off Water Lane in Totton, but it has three other campuses in the Totton area and one other campus in the nearby Waterside area. The college offered a range of A-level courses but these were stopped from September 2015; the college merged with social justice charity, Nacro, in December 2015. Totton Grammar School opened as a secondary school in the spring term of 1955 and was run by the Hampshire County Council.
The school started with a first year intake in September, but, as the building was not yet ready, all the students had to be bussed to Eastleigh County High School, as nearer schools were operated by Southampton and not Hampshire CC. All 45 were taught as a single class by a Miss Stevens; this was split into 2 classes on the opening of the school building. As with many other Grammar Schools, entry to the first year, or first form, was conditional on passing the national 11-Plus examination at the age of 11 or 12. With a nationally fixed school-leaving age of 16, pupils went on to complete their O-level examinations in the fifth form. After that, the more academically-inclined pupils from any secondary school in the area could apply to stay on for a further two years, in what were known as the lower-sixth and upper-sixth forms, to sit A-levels. In reference to the public school system, the first five forms were split into four houses, made up of one class per year, named Ash, Beech and Oak; each one was given a colour and was used as the competitive focus of sports days, competitions and musical events.
When the government decided to change the secondary school system and to phase out the grammar schools, the decision was made for Totton Grammar school to convert itself to Totton Sixth Form College, to Totton College. The conversion started in 1969, the first Autumn without a first form, was completed four years the first Autumn without a fifth form and hence with no lower school; the college became independent of the local authority in 1993. At this point, the college started to expand outwards from the original school buildings with additional surrounding facilities; the Recreation Centre was built in 1988, accompanied by the Rugby Clubhouse for Tottonians Rugby Club in the late 1990s and the new Learning Resources Centre in 1998. At this point the college was starting to required more teaching space. In addition to the rooms in the LRC, the new South Wing and Calmore Road entrance was constructed in 2003 and the college acquired the Hanger Farm site, opened as an arts venue in 2004; the CoVE building for Foundation studies was constructed in 2006, the new student atrium in 2010 and a new building for Media and Hairdressing in 2012.
The latest addition was a new entrance hall area, completed in Summer 2013. The college experienced a difficult changeover of principal in 2011, as demonstrated by an Ofsted report in September 2011 that reduced the college's status from the previous'Good' in 2008 to'Inadequate'; the college has since undertaken major changes in structure. In 2015 it emerged that Totton college was in serious financial difficulties and was seeking a merger with another institution. In April it was announced that Totton College would no longer offer A-levels from September 2015 following the failure of take-over negotiations with Eastleigh College. In June 2015, it was announced; the addition of Totton College to Nacro was announced as the second largest not-for-profit merger 2015/16 by The Good Merger Index. Dr Maxine Room CBE was appointed as Interim Campus Principal at Totton College in October 2017, she will be in post as Campus Principal for 12–18 months, supported by Vice Principal Hannah Avoth. The previous Campus Principal was Derek Headrige, who joined the college in April 2016.
In April 2015 the interim Principal was Jo Landles. The Principal was Mike Gaston who took over from Mark Bramwell, who retired in June 2011 after 17 years, he was supported by Vice Principal. The college is governed by a Board of Governors that comprise the leadership team, members of staff, members of the public and parents and elected members from Totton College Students' Union who represent the student body; the college divides their subjects and courses into six distinct areas, five of which are referred to as faculties. Each faculty grouped together inside the college, are awarded a distinct colour identification and are headed by a leadership structure; as of September 2013, these are: Creative Industries - Art and Design, Beauty Therapy, Dance and Media Production, Graphic Design, Music, Performing Arts and Textiles. Coloured red with facilities above the refectory, the Media and Salon block, the West and South Wings. Humanities - Civilisation Studies, Critical Thinking, English Literatur
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery; the making of sculpture in wood has been widely practised, but survives much less well than the other main materials such as stone and bronze, as it is vulnerable to decay, insect damage, fire. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures. Outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan, in particular, are in wood, so are the great majority of African sculpture and that of Oceania and other regions. Wood is light and can take fine detail so it is suitable for masks and other sculpture intended to be worn or carried.
It is much easier to work on than stone. Some of the finest extant examples of early European wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Germany, Russia and France, where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England, many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. In the fall of 2018, after the presence of representatives in Iran, abadeh was chosen for first woodcarving city. Nickname of abadeh is the city of wood carving Chip carving Relief carving Scandinavian flat-plane Caricature carving Lovespoon Treen Whittling Chainsaw carving Pattern, Detailing and Smoothening the carving knife: a specialized knife used to pare and smooth wood; the gouge: a tool with a curved cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows and sweeping curves. The coping saw: a small saw, used to cut off chunks of wood at once; the chisel: large and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines and cleaning up flat surfaces.
The V-tool: used for parting, in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines. The U-Gauge: a specialized deep gouge with a U-shaped cutting edge. Sharpening equipment, such as various stones and a strop: necessary for maintaining edges. A special screw for fixing work to the workbench, a mallet, complete the carvers kit, though other tools, both specialized and adapted, are used, such as a router for bringing grounds to a uniform level, bent gouges and bent chisels for cutting hollows too deep for the ordinary tool; the nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. The direction in which wood is strongest is called "grain", it is smart to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it. However, a "line of best fit" is instead employed, since a design may have multiple weak points in different directions, or orientation of these along the grain would necessitate carving detail on end grain.
Carving blanks are sometimes assembled, as with carousel horses, out of many smaller boards, in this way, one can orient different areas of a carving in the most logical way, both for the carving process and for durability. Less this same principle is used in solid pieces of wood, where the fork of two branches is utilized for its divergent grain, or a branch off of a larger log is carved into a beak; the failure to appreciate these primary rules may be seen in damaged work, when it will be noticed that, whereas tendrils, tips of birds beaks, etc. arranged across the grain have been broken away, similar details designed more in harmony with the growth of the wood and not too undercut remain intact. The two most common woods used for carving in North America are basswood and tupelo. Chestnut, oak, American walnut and teak are very good woods. Decoration, to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is carved in pine, soft and inexpensive. A wood carver begins a new carving by selecting a chunk of wood the approximate size and shape of the figure he or she wishes to create or if the carving is to be large, several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size.
The type of wood is important. Hardwoods have greater luster and longevity. Softer woods are more prone to damage. Any wood can be carved but they all have different qualities and characteristics; the choice will depend on the requirements of carving being done: for example, a detailed figure would need a wood with a fine grain and little figure as a strong figure can interfere with'reading' fine detail. Once the sculptor has selected their wood, he or she begins a general shaping process using gouges of various sizes; the gouge is a curved blade. For harder woods, the sculptor may use gouges sharpened with stronger bevels, about 35 degrees, a mallet similar to a stone carver's; the terms gouge and chisel are open to confusion. A gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and a chisel is a tool with a flat cross-section. However, professional carvers tend to refer to them all as'ch
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri