Dicaearchus of Messana written Dicearchus or Dicearch, was a Greek philosopher, geographer and author. Dicaearchus was Aristotle's student in the Lyceum. Little of his work remains extant, he wrote on the history and geography of Greece, of which his most important work was his Life of Greece. He made important contributions to the field of cartography, where he was among the first to use geographical coordinates, he wrote books on philosophy and politics. He was the son of one Pheidias, born at Messana in Sicily, though he passed the greater part of his life in Greece, in Peloponnesus, he was a disciple of Aristotle, a friend of Theophrastus, to whom he dedicated some of his writings. He died about 285 BC. Dicaearchus was esteemed by the ancients as a philosopher and as a man of most extensive information upon a great variety of things, his work is known only from the many fragmentary quotations of writers. His works were geographical, political or historical and mathematical; the fragments extant, moreover, do not always enable us to form a clear notion of the works to which they once belonged.
The geographical works of Dicaearchus were, according to Strabo, criticised in many respects by Polybius. Among his geographical works may be mentioned: Life of Greece – The Bios Hellados, in three books is Dicaearchus’ most famous work. In the mid 1st century BC it inspired Jason of Nysa’s Bios Hellados and Varro's De Vita Populi Romani, it exists in only 24 fragments, but he attempted to write a biography of the Greek nation from earliest times to the reign of Philip II. The most famous passages are those cited by Varro and Porphyry which suggest a dualistic view of progress. For example, the invention of agriculture alleviates hunger through the creation of surplus, but surplus in turn proves to be an incitement to greed which leads to war; every human advance solves one problem but engenders another. Passages which detailed human institutions and their history suggest he thought these could arrest decline. For example, his definition of country and tribe, is about the right ordering of human relations within the polis.
Dicaearchus explained the saying, "sharing stops choking", as a reference to how humans learned to distribute surplus fairly. Many fragments are interested in the origins of the culture of Greece; this is in contrast to the debased symposiastic Greek culture of which he complains in some of his other works. His interest in defining Greek culture in its heyday is thus polemical: he wishes to attack current fashions in music by reminding his readership of their original forms; the link between political decline and cultural debasement was made by his fellow Peripatetic and friend Aristoxenus. In a celebrated passage, he compared the introduction of the ‘New Music’ into Greek theatres to the barbarization of the Poseidoniates in the Bay of Naples. Circuit of the Earth – This work was the text written in explanation of the geographical maps which Dicaearchus had constructed and given to Theophrastus, which seem to have comprised the whole world, as far as it was known. Description of Greece – This is a fragment of a work dedicated to "Theophrastus", consisting of 150 iambic lines.
It was attributed to Dicaearchus, but the initial letters of the first twenty-three lines show that it was the work of one "Dionysius, son of Calliphon". On the heights of mountains – A work which may have been part of his Circuit of the Earth, it was the earliest known attempt. Descent into Trophonius – A work which consisted of several books, and, as we may infer from the fragments quoted from it, contained an account of the degenerate and licentious proceedings of the priests in the cave of Trophonius; some other works, such as Spartan Constitution, Olympic Dialogue, Panathenaic Dialogue, several others, seem to have been chapters of the Life of Greece. Of a political nature was: Three-city Dialogue – A work, the subject of much dispute, it was a study of comparative government. Following Aristotle, Dicaearchus divided all governments into three categories: the democratic and monarchical, He advocated a "mixed" government, echoing the Spartan system, in which elements of all three categories play a part.
This may have been an inspiration for Cicero's De Republica. Among his philosophical works may be mentioned: Lesbian Books – In three books, which derived its name from the fact that the scene of the philosophical dialogue was laid at Mytilene in Lesbos. In it Dicaearchus endeavoured to prove. Cicero when speaking of a work On the Soul means this work. Corinthian Dialogue – In three books, was a sort of supplement to the Lesbiakoi, it is the same work as the one which Cicero, in another passage, calls On Human Destruction. According to Burkert Aristoxenus and Dicaearchus are the most important accounts for information regarding Pythagoras. A work On the Sacrifice at Ilium seems to have referred to the sacrifice which Alexander the
Innico Siscara was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Anglona-Tursi. On 19 December 1616, Innico Siscara was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul V as Bishop of Anglona-Tursi. On 31 December 1616, he was consecrated bishop by Giovanni Garzia Mellini, Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati with Galeazzo Sanvitale, Archbishop Emeritus of Bari-Canosa, Alessandro Guidiccioni, Bishop of Lucca, serving as co-consecrators, he served as Bishop of Anglona-Tursi until his death in 1619. While bishop, he was the principal co-consecrator of. Giovanni Dominico Giaconi, Bishop of Guardialfiera. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Tursi-Lagonegro". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Tursi-Lagonegro". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018
The Watshishou River is a salmon river in the east of the Côte-Nord region of Quebec, Canada. The Watshishou River originates in Lake Watshishou, flows south via Lake Holt and Little Lake Holt to enter the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; the river is 80 kilometres long, receives water from many lakes. It drains a basin of 1,044 square kilometres. Quebec Route 138 crosses the river near its mouth, it enters the Jacques Cartier Strait between Havre-Saint-Pierre and Natashquan, west of the Little Watshishou River. In its upper course the river flows through the unorganized territory of Lac-Jérôme. Lower down it flows through the municipality of Aguanish; the river's mouth is in the municipality of Baie-Johan-Beetz in Minganie Regional County Municipality. The river basin lies between the basins of the Véronique River to the west and the Little Watshishou River to the east; the river basin contains the Lake Davy Old Forest. In the last 15 kilometres none of the land of the coastal region exceeds 150 metres in elevation.
The terrain is smooth, sloping down to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. To the east of Watshishou Harbor the Morne Watshishou stands out at over 60 metres; the topnym Watshishou is the same as the "R. Oueachechou" on Boishébert's 1715 map, Oydchechou on Bellin's 1744 map. Maps spell it Watcheeshoo, Watscheeshoo and Watchichou; the Dictionary of Rivers and Lakes of the Province of Quebec gives it as Watshishou. In the Innu language it means "white mountain" or "bright mountain", it refers to the landmark polished granite Watshishou Hill, 45 metres high to the east of the mouth of the Watshishou River. Others say the word comes from shu, meaning small mountain. Another Innu name for the river is Uetiheu Hipu, meaning "it rejoins". Lac Holt Fishing Lodge provides access to the Watshishou, Big Holt and Little Holt lakes, can be reached by float plane from Havre-Saint-Pierre; the lodge offers wading below rapids. Fish include brook trout, Arctic char, landlocked Atlantic salmon. A 2018 North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization Rivers Database Report gave the status of the river as "Not Threatened With Loss".
In May 2015 the Ministry of Forests and Parks of Quebec announced a sport fishing catch-and-release program for large salmon on sixteen of Quebec's 118 salmon rivers. These were the Mitis, Pigou, aux Rochers, Magpie, Saint-Jean, Piashti, Little Watshishou, Nabisipi and Natashquan rivers; the Quebec Atlantic Salmon Federation said that the measures did not go nearly far enough in protecting salmon for future generations. In view of the declining Atlantic salmon population catch-and-release should have been implemented on all rivers apart from northern Quebec