House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q
Nepean Sailing Club
The Nepean Sailing Club is located on Lac Deschênes in Ottawa, Canada. The club is based in Dick Bell Park, along Carling Avenue, adjacent to Andrew Haydon Park in the former city of Nepean; the club was opened on July 29, 1979 with an initial membership of 350. Construction on the original 300 metre breakwater was completed by 1983. Griffiths Rankin Cook Architects won an architectural award in 1990 for the design of the main clubhouse; the main areas include vehicle launch ramps. Membership today is 1900 members; the club maintains its emphasis on sailing. The club has floating dock facilities for over 500 boats; the club maintains an active dry sail program for day-sailing. The sailing season extends from mid-April to late October. Sail training programs are active during the summer months for adults; every year the club hosts sailing regattas that attract sailors from across Canada and internationally. The local racing scene consists of fleet, PY and PHRF races on an daily basis along with special racing events on weekends throughout the season.
Many racing events are held in cooperation with the nearby Britannia Yacht Club and Club de Voile Grande-Rivière. Mondays see the women's racing. Tuesdays are PHRF. Wednesdays see 5o5s, Lasers racing one design and Albacores and Fireballs combining for handicap racing. Thursdays see C&C27s, Tanzer 22s, Sharks race one design, J24s and Kirby 25s racing level, with three fleets of JAM racing PHRF. A distance race or regatta can be observed every weekend; the Nepean Sailing Club maintains an active Able Sail program with a fleet of Martin 16 boats, wheel-chair access, an active team of volunteers who escort the boats. A number of trophies and awards are presented for evening and series events in addition to the trophies listed in Special events; the aggregate trophies awarded on basis of points earned in evening and weekend events include the Nautilus Trophy, Journal Trophy, Kelpie Cup, C&C 27 Overall Champion, Jam Dish. Interclub awards are scored for series racing: The Chandlery Cup, Kirby 25 Best Performance Trophy, Authentic Yachts Trophy, NSC Beagle Bown, Keepers.
Mondays see the women's PHRF racing and the skiffs and Lasers racing. Tuesdays are PHRF keelboats. Wednesdays see 5o5s, Lasers racing one design and Albacores and Fireballs combining for handicap racing. Thursdays see C&C27s, Tanzer 22s, Mirage 24s race one design with three fleets of jib and main racing PHRF. NSC has a racing program involving both. NSC fields teams to compete against other clubs in team racing. BYC has a regular weekday evening racing schedule and a weekend racing schedule organized by the membership. Members of the NSC High Performance Team have the opportunity to learn what it is like to compete against the best in the world, the experience they gain at races and regattas will help them as they progress in their sailing careers. A distance race or regatta can be observed every weekend; some events are open to any member of a club of the Canadian Yachting Association. Some events are interclub, which means that boats from all sailing clubs on Lac Deschênes may participate. Many racing events are held in cooperation with the nearby Britannia Yacht Club and Club de voile Grande-Rivière.
BYC & NSC have a schedule of cruising and day sailing events organized by the membership for fun, as memorials for members who serve in the Canadian Forces, as fundraisers for local charities. Nepean Sailing Club features a restaurant named "The Galley", it is open to the public, features a patio overlooking the harbour. The Galley can be found on the upper floor of the clubhouse, has a large room that can be rented for events. For birdwatchers, species in or passing through the area include Arctic tern, black tern, New World blackbirds, black brant, Canada geese, common goldeneye, common merganser, common tern, double-crested cormorants, great blue heron, green-winged teal, killdeer, northern pintails, red-throated loon, ring-billed gull, spotted sandpiper, loggerhead shrike, least bittern, wood ducks; the fish species in the Ottawa River near BYC include small mouth bass and walleye. The reptiles and salamanders include American eels, American ginseng, American bullfrog, green frog, painted turtles, snapping turtles, spotted turtle, spring peeper.
The mammals in the area include beaver, eastern chipmunks, muskrat, porcupine, red foxes, red squirrels, woodchucks. As a Provincial Training Centre for 2012, NSC supports the training of Athletes at the Olympic level; as a Development Training Centre for 2012, NSC supports the training of Athletes from the Grassroots to the National Team Level and supports the development of Coaches from Level 1 to Level 4-5. The Britannia Yacht Club is developing a joint marketing campaign with the Nepean Sailing Club to increase awareness of recreational and competitive sailing in Ottawa. Through Advantage Boating, there are adult and children`s Learn to Sail Programs. Media related to Nepean Sailing Club at Wikimedia Commons Official website
1957 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1957 was held June 10, 1957, to select the 265 members of the House of Commons of Canada. In one of the great upsets in Canadian political history, the Progressive Conservative Party, led by John Diefenbaker, brought an end to 22 years of Liberal rule, as the Tories were able to form a minority government; the Liberal Party had governed Canada since 1935. Under Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and Louis St. Laurent, the government built a welfare state. During the Liberals's fifth term in office, the opposition parties depicted them as arrogant and unresponsive to Canadians' needs. Controversial events, such as the 1956 "Pipeline Debate" over the construction of the Trans-Canada Pipeline, had hurt the government. St. Laurent, nicknamed'Uncle Louis', remained popular, but exercised little supervision over his cabinet ministers. In 1956, Tory leader George A. Drew unexpectedly resigned due to ill health. In his place, the PC party elected charismatic Diefenbaker.
The Tories ran a campaign centred on their new leader, who attracted large crowds to rallies and made a strong impression on television. The Liberals ran a lacklustre campaign, St. Laurent made few television appearances. Uncomfortable with the medium, the Prime Minister read his speeches from a script and refused to wear makeup. Abandoning their usual strategy of trying to make major inroads in Liberal-dominated Quebec, the Tories focused on winning seats in the other provinces, they were successful. With the remaining seats won by other parties, the PC party only had a plurality in the House of Commons, but the margin was sufficient to make John Diefenbaker Canada's first Tory Prime Minister since 1935; the Tories had last governed Canada under R. B. Bennett, elected in 1930. Bennett's government had limited success in dealing with the Depression, was defeated in 1935, as Liberal William Lyon Mackenzie King, who had served two times as Prime Minister, was restored to power; the Liberals won five consecutive majorities between 1935 and 1953.
The Liberals worked with the civil service and their years of dominance saw prosperity. When Mackenzie King retired in 1948, he was succeeded by his Minister of Justice, Louis St. Laurent, a bilingual Quebecer who took office at the age of 66. An adept politician, St. Laurent projected a gentle persona and was affectionately known to many Canadians as Uncle Louis. In actuality, St. Laurent was uncomfortable away from Ottawa, was subject to fits of depression, on political trips was managed by advertising men from the firm of Cockfield Brown. St. Laurent led the Liberals to an overwhelming triumph in the 1949 election, campaigning under the slogan "You never had it so good"; the Liberals won a fifth successive mandate in 1953, with St. Laurent content to exercise a relaxed leadership style. With over twenty years of parliamentary majorities, Liberal ministers did as they wished with little regard for the opposition parties; the Mackenzie King and St. Laurent governments laid the groundwork for the welfare state, a development opposed by many Tories.
C. D. Howe, considered one of the leading forces of the St. Laurent government, told his Tory opponents when they alleged that the Liberals would abolish tariffs if the people would let them, "Who would stop us?... Don't take yourselves too seriously. If we wanted to get away with it, who would stop us?" At the start of 1956, the Tories were led by former Ontario premier George A. Drew, elected PC leader in 1948 over Saskatchewan MP John Diefenbaker. Drew was the fifth man to lead the Tories in their 21 years out of power. None had come close to defeating the Liberals; the Liberals, had won 125 seats, maintained their majority. In the 1953 election, the PC party won 51 seats out of the 265 in the House of Commons. Subsequently, the Tories picked up two seats from the Liberals in by-elections, the Liberals lost an additional seat to the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. After over two decades in opposition, the Tories were associated with that role in the public eye; the Tories were seen as the party of the wealthy and of English-speaking Canada and drew about 30% of the vote in federal elections.
The Tories had enjoyed little success in Quebec in the past forty years. By 1956, the Social Credit Party was becoming a potential rival to the Tories as Canada's main right-wing party. Canadian journalist and author Bruce Hutchison discussed the state of the Tories in 1956: When a party calling itself Conservative can think of nothing better than to outbid the Government's election promises. In 1955, the Tories, through a determined filibuster, were able to defeat amendments to the Defence Procurement Act, which would have made temporary, extraordinary powers granted to the government permanent. Drew led the Tories in a second battle with the government the following year: in the so-called "Pipeline Debate", the government invoked closure repe
Nepean is a part of Ottawa, located west of Ottawa's inner core. It was an independent city until amalgamated with the Regional Municipality of Ottawa–Carleton in 2001 to become the new city of Ottawa. However, the name "Nepean" continues in common usage in reference to the area; the population of Nepean is about 180,000 people. Although the neighbouring municipality of Kanata formed the entrepreneurial and high tech centre of the region, Nepean hosted noted industries such as Nortel Networks, JDS Uniphase and Gandalf Technologies; as with the rest of the National Capital Region, Nepean's economy was heavily dependent on federal government employment. Most of Nepean's employed residents commute to downtown Kanata for work. Nepean's policies of operational and capital budgeting prudence contrasted with the budget philosophies of some other municipalities in the area. Nepean instituted a strict'pay-as-you-go' budgeting scheme; the city entered amalgamation with a record of tax restraint. However, most big-ticket municipal infrastructure items were the responsibility of the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton.
It maintained its own library system from 1954 to amalgamation, its own police force from 1964 until it was regionalized in the 1990s. Hydro services were the responsibility of the Hydro-Electric Commission of the City of Nepean. Education in the City of Nepean was provided by the Carleton Board of Education. Prior to amalgamation, Nepean's City Council spent many tax dollars aggressively campaigning against what they referred to as the "megacity" model; the central plank of the strategy was to promote a tri-city model, which would have seen the ten municipalities of the Ottawa region reduced to three: one in the west, one in the east and one in the centre. These efforts were in vain, as the one-city model prevailed. Nepean has a humid continental climate, with cold winters; the summers start in early June and end in late September with an average summer high temperature of 27 °C. In Nepean, summers have about 220 mm of rain. There is a 95 % chance. There is a small chance of cool, average rainy days in the summertime in June.
Nepean is the Ottawa suburb that has the most hours of sunshine, with an average of 2,100 hours each year. In the winter, Nepean gets about 150–200 cm of snow yearly with an average temperature of −5 °C. Spring starts around late March and lasts until late May, with temperatures of about 10–15 °C; the springtime has about 165 mm of rain a year. The average temperature for fall is around 10 °C. Autumn is the driest season in Nepean with only 100 mm of rainfall annually; the gardening zone for this area is 6A. Nepean Township known as Township D, was established in 1792 and included what is now the central area of Ottawa west of the Rideau River. Jehiel Collins, from Vermont, is believed to have been the first person to settle in Nepean Township, on the future site of Bytown. Nepean was incorporated as a city on November 24, 1978; the geographic boundaries of Nepean changed over this time. Nepean's centre moved to the community of Bells Corners. In the 1950 and 1960s, Nepean's urban area began to expand in previous rural areas in such areas as the community of Centrepointe in the east, the community of Barrhaven in the south.
Prior to its amalgamation with 10 other municipalities into the new city of Ottawa in 2001, the population of Nepean was 124,878. The 2006 census population was 138,596. Nepean was named after Sir Evan Nepean, British Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department from 1782 to 1791. A Nepean quarry provided the sandstone blocks that were the principal building material used in the Parliament Buildings in downtown Ottawa. In September 2018, Nepean was one of the regions hit by a powerful storm that spawned six tornados in the Ottawa area, causing widespread damage to the Arlington Woods and Colonnade Road Business Park areas. Prior to amalgamation, the following communities and neighbourhoods were within the city boundaries: According to the Canada 2001 Census: Population: 124,878 % Change: 8.5 Dwellings: 44,685 Area: 217.00 Density: 575.5Nepean is an ethnically diverse area, there is a large Asian population. 1978 Andrew Haydon 1978–97 Ben Franklin 1997–2001 Mary Pitt Anglophone schools in Nepean are administered by the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board and the Ottawa-Carleton Catholic School Board.
Both the OCDSB and OCCSB headquarters are located within Nepean itself. Francophone education is provided by the Conseil des écoles publiques de l'Est de l'Ontario and the Conseil des écoles catholiques du Centre-Est. Schools in Nepean include: Crystal Bay Centre for Special Education Elizabeth Wyn Wood Secondary Alternate Program Graham Park Public School closed 1988 J. S. Woodsworth Secondary School
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
1965 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1965 was held on November 8 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 27th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal Party of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson was re-elected with a larger number of seats in the House. Although the Liberals lost a small share of the popular vote, they were able to win more seats, but fell just short of having a majority; the Liberals campaigned on their record of having kept the promises made in the 1963 campaign, job creation, lowering income taxes, higher wages, higher family allowances and student loans. They promised to implement a national medicare program by 1967, the Canada Pension Plan system of public pensions, they urged voters to give them a majority for "five more years of prosperity". The party campaigned under the slogans, "Good Things Happen When a Government Cares About People", and, "For Continued Prosperity"; the Progressive Conservative Party of John Diefenbaker, campaigning with the slogan, "Policies for People, Policies for Progress", lost a small number of seats.
Despite losing a second time, Diefenbaker refused to resign as party leader, was forced from the position by a campaign by the party president Dalton Camp. Diefenbaker ran to succeed himself in the party's 1967 leadership convention, but lost to Robert Stanfield. Old age pensions were an important issue in this campaign; the Liberal Party pointed to having increased the pension to $75 per month for persons 70 years of age and older, put in place plans to reduce the eligibility age to 65 by 1970, to add a "Canada Assistance Program" payment for seniors with lower incomes. The PCs promised to increase OAP to $100 per month for all those 70 years over; the New Democratic Party of Tommy Douglas, campaigning under the slogan, "Fed up? Speak up! Vote for the New Democrats!", increased its share of the popular vote by more than four and a half percentage points, but in winning only four extra seats, it continued to fail to make the electoral break-through, hoped for when the party was founded in 1960.
The Social Credit Party of Canada was split in two before this election: Réal Caouette led French-Canadian Socreds out of the party into the new Ralliement créditiste, won more seats than the old party. Robert N. Thompson continued to lead the Social Credit Party in English-speaking Canada, but lost a significant share of the vote; this would be the last time. This was the first election for the Rhinoceros Party of Canada, a satirical party led by Cornelius the First; the party fielded only one candidate. Cornelius, a resident of the Granby zoo, who did not seek election because Canadian election law does not permit rhinoceroses to seek election. In order to govern, the minority Liberals relied on the New Democratic Party, other smaller opposition parties in order to remain in power. Pearson announced his intention to resign as Liberal leader in December 1967, was replaced the following April by Pierre Trudeau. Notably, this election marked the last time that a single conservative party did not win an absolute majority of the vote in Alberta.
Liberal Party: $500 million for medical and dental research over 15 years. Progressive Conservative Party: increase grants to universities. New Democratic Party: implement a national medicare program by July 1, 1967. Social Credit Party: increased federal aid for education. Ralliement des creditistes/Social Credit Rally: in lieu of a medicare program, provide government allowance to individuals to buy private medical insurance. Source: The Globe and Mail newspaper, October 1965. Notes: "% change" refers to change from previous election x - less than 0.005% of the popular vote 1 "Previous" refers to the results of the previous election, not the party standings in the House of Commons prior to dissolution. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 27th Canadian Parliament
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party is a social democratic federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 out of the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with the Canadian Labour Congress; the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party of Canada within the Canadian political spectrum. The current leader of the federal NDP is Jagmeet Singh; the NDP has been Canada's third- or fourth-largest party in Parliament. Following the 1993 federal election the NDP was reduced to fourth place behind the Bloc Québécois, a position it would maintain for the next 18 years. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons, gaining the position of Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history; the NDP lost 59 seats during the 2015 federal election and fell to third place in Parliament, though it is their second best seat count to date. The federal and provincial level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, have shared membership.
In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party, was formed to create a "new" social-democratic political party, with ten members from each group; the NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected its first leader. In 1960, before the NDP was founded, one candidate, Walter Pitman, won a by-election under the New Party banner.
The influence of organized labour on the party is still reflected in the party's conventions as affiliated trade unions send delegates on a formula based on their number of members. Since one-quarter of the convention delegates have been from affiliated labour groups, after the party changed to an one member, one vote method of electing leaders in leadership races, labour delegate votes are scaled to 25% of the total number of ballots cast for leader. At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members; the following year, most of The Waffle formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together they succeeded in passing several progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.
In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis resigned as leader the following year. Under the leadership of Ed Broadbent, the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervor; the party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, forced the election that brought Trudeau's Liberal Party back to power. The result in 1980 created two unexpected results for the party: The first was an offer by Trudeau to form a coalition government to allow for greater Western representation in Cabinet and a "united front" regarding the upcoming Quebec referendum. Broadbent, aware that the NDP would have no ability to hold the balance of power and thus no leverage in the government, declined out of fear the party would be subsumed.
The second was Trudeau's Canada Bill to patriate the Constitution of Canada unilaterally and to bring about what would become the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Broadbent endorsed the initiative, directly opposed by the NDP government of Saskatchewan and many of the party's Western parties and members, creating severe internal tension. Broadbent would act as a moderating influence on Trudeau during the debates, the eventual compromise that brought about the Constitution Act, 1982 was authored by Saskatchewan NDP Attorney General and future premier Roy Romanow. In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes; the NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing free trade to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling government.
In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP. At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B. C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin