Duck family (Disney)
The Duck family is a fictional family of cartoon ducks related to Disney character Donald Duck. The family is related to the Coot and Gander families, as well as the Scottish Clan McDuck. Besides Donald, the best-known members of the Duck family are Huey and Louie, Donald's three nephews. Members of the Duck family appear most extensively in Donald Duck comic stories. In 1993, American comics author Don Rosa published a Duck family tree which established each characters' relationships for purposes of his stories. Rosa created a fictional timeline for when certain characters were born; some other comics authors, both before and after Rosa's family tree, have shown variations in the family. In the early 1950s Carl Barks was in his second decade of creating comic book stories starring Donald Duck and his various relatives, he had created several of the latter, Scrooge McDuck and Gladstone Gander being the most notable among them, but the exact relation between them was still somewhat uncertain. Barks decided to create a personal version of their Family tree.
To better define their relations, he added several unknown relatives. Barks never intended to publish this family tree; the first public attempt at a coherent biography of the ducks was published in 1974. An Informal Biography of Scrooge McDuck by science fiction author Jack Chalker used names and events in the Barks stories to create a life story for McDuck, it provided. By 1978 the Duck family was ingrained sufficiently in popular culture that a character in the movie Corvette Summer quips "Just call me Gladstone Duck" after being lucky. In 1981 Barks was well into his retirement but his stories remained popular and had gained him unexpected fame, he had given several interviews and answered questions about his personal views on the characters and their stories. Among other subjects, Backs described his early version of the family tree. Rough sketches of the tree were published in a number of fanzines. Fans of the characters were pleased for the background. At this point Mark Worden decided to create a drawing of this family tree including portraits of the characters mentioned.
Otherwise Worden made few changes to the tree, most notably adding Daisy Duck as Donald's main love interest. His illustrated version of the tree was published at first in several fanzines and in the Carl Barks Library; the latter was a ten-volume collection of his works in hardcover black-and-white edition. In 1987 Don Rosa, a long-time fan of Carl Barks and personal friend of Mark Worden, started creating his own stories featuring Scrooge McDuck and his various associates, his stories contained numerous references to older stories by Barks as well as several original ideas. After several years he gained a fanbase of his own. In the early 1990s Egmont, the publishing house employing Don Rosa, offered him an ambitious assignment, he was to create a family tree accompanying it. This was supposed to end decades of contradictions between stories which caused confusion to readers; the project was to become The Times of Scrooge McDuck. The family tree accompanying it was first published in Norway on July 3, 1993.
In the process of working on Scrooge's biography, Rosa studied Barks' old stories mentioning his past. He added several ideas of his own. Among them were biographical information for Scrooge's supporting cast. In a way Scrooge's biography was their own biography; the family tree below shows the Goose and Duck portions of Donald's family tree according to Carl Barks. The chart is based on a 1950s sketch made by Barks for personal use, latter illustrated by artist Mark Worden in 1981. In 1993, Don Rosa published his version of the Duck family tree as part of his 12-part comics series The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck; the most significant change was Rosa's expansion of the family tree to include the Coot relatives. Rosa added Goostave Gander as the father of Gladstone, made Luke Goose the father of Gus, rather than his uncle; the chart below is Rosa's tree which shows relationships within the Coot Duck family. Pintail Duck was the first early ancestor to appear in person. Pintail served in the Royal Navy as the boatswain aboard the HMS Falcon Rover.
The Falcon Rover raided Spanish targets in the Caribbean Sea between 1563 and 1564 when the ship was sunk. Pintail was friends with the ship's first mate, Malcolm McDuck, an ancestor of Donald. Pintail appears in the story "Back to Long Ago" in which it is suggested that he was an earlier incarnation of Donald. Humperdink Duck is the earliest known modern Duck family member, he is the husband of Elvira Coot, known as "Grandma Duck", Donald's grandfather. He worked as a farmer in Duckburg, he had three children: Quackmore and Eider. Humperdink Duck had relevant comic appearances in two stories by Don Rosa. "The Invader Of Fort Duckburg", a chapter of the saga The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck, "The Sign Of The Triple Distelfink". He was known as "Pa Duck". Humperdink's life before having a family was never shown in the comics. Don Rosa speculated that the Duck family originated from England, but it is unknown if Humperdink is an immigrant. In the story "The Good Old Daze" by Tony Strobl, Grandpa Duck appears in flashback taking care of little Donald along with Grandma.
He's portrayed as a rigorous grandfather. Grandpa's real name wasn't revealed in
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Donald Duck is a cartoon character created in 1934 at Walt Disney Productions. Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill and feet, he wears a sailor shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald is most famous for his semi-intelligible speech and his mischievous and temperamental personality. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and was included in TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002, he has appeared in more films than any other Disney character, is the most published comic book character in the world outside of the superhero genre. Donald Duck rose to fame with his comedic roles in animated cartoons. Donald's first appearance was in 1934 in The Wise Little Hen, but it was his second appearance in Orphan's Benefit which introduced him as a temperamental comic foil to Mickey Mouse. Throughout the next two decades, Donald appeared in over 150 theatrical films, several of which were recognized at the Academy Awards.
In the 1930s, he appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey and Goofy and was given his own film series in 1937 starting with Don Donald. These films introduced Donald's love interest Daisy Duck and included his three nephews Huey and Louie. After the 1956 film Chips Ahoy, Donald appeared in educational films before returning to theatrical animation in Mickey's Christmas Carol, his most recent appearance in a theatrical film was 1999's Fantasia 2000. Donald has appeared in direct-to-video features such as Mickey, Goofy: The Three Musketeers, television series such as Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, video games such as QuackShot. Beyond animation, Donald is known for his appearances in comics. Donald was most famously drawn by Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, Don Rosa. Barks, in particular, is credited for expanding the "Donald Duck universe", the world in which Donald lives, creating many additional characters such as Donald's rich uncle Scrooge McDuck. Donald has been a popular character in Europe in Nordic countries where his weekly magazine Donald Duck & Co was the most popular comics publication from the 1950s to 2009.
Donald is very popular in Italy, where he is major character in many comics in which his juvenile version Paperino Paperotto and his superhero alter-ego Paperinik were created. The origins of Donald Duck's name may have been inspired by Australian cricket legend Donald Bradman. In 1932 Bradman and the Australian team were touring North America and he made the news after being dismissed for a duck against New York West Indians. Walt Disney was in the process of creating a friend for Mickey Mouse when he read about Bradman's dismissal in the papers and decided to name the new character "Donald Duck". Voice performer Clarence Nash auditioned for Walt Disney Studios when he learned that Disney was looking for people to create animal sounds for his cartoons. Disney was impressed with Nash's duck imitation and chose him to voice the new character. Besides, during that period Mickey Mouse had lost some of his edge since becoming a role model towards children, so Disney wanted to create a character to portray some of the more negative character traits that could no longer be bestowed on Mickey.
Disney came up with Donald's iconic attributes including his sailor suit. While Dick Huemer and Art Babbit were first to animate Donald, Dick Lundy is credited for developing him as a character; the character is noted for his distinctive, only intelligible voice, developed by Donald's original performer, Clarence Nash. The voice actor produces sounds by forcing air through the mouth using the muscles of the cheek, rather than from the lungs as in typical speech. Nash reputedly developed the voice as that of a "nervous baby goat" before Walt Disney interpreted it as sounding like a duck. Donald's two dominant personality traits are his fiery-temper and his upbeat attitude to life. Many Donald shorts start with Donald in a happy mood, without a care in the world until something comes along and spoils his day, his rage is a great cause of suffering in his life. On multiple occasions, it has caused him to lose competitions. There are times when he fights to keep his temper in check, he sometimes succeeds in doing so temporarily, but he always returns to his normal angry self in the end.
Donald's vicious nature has its advantages, however. While at times it is a hindrance, a handicap, it has helped him in times of need; when faced with a threat of some kind, for example, Pete's attempts to intimidate him, he is scared, but his fear is replaced by anger. As a result, instead of running away, he fights—with ghosts, mountain goats, giant kites, the forces of nature. More than not, when he fights, he comes out on top. Donald is something of a prankster, as a result, he can sometimes come across as a bit of a bully in the way he sometimes treats Chip n' Dale and Huey and Louie, his nephews; as the animator Fred Spencer has put it: The Duck gets a big kick out of imposing on other people or annoying them, but he loses his temper when the tables are turned. In other words, he can dish it out. However, with a few exceptions, there is any harm in Donald's pranks, he never intends to hurt anyone, whenever his pranks go too far, he is always apologetic. In Truant Officer Donald, for example, when he is tricked into believing he has accidentally killed Huey and Louie, he shows great regret, blaming himself.
Walt Disney Animation Studios
Walt Disney Animation Studios referred to as Disney Animation, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, is an American animation studio that creates animated feature films, short films and television specials for The Walt Disney Company. Founded on October 16, 1923, it is a division of Walt Disney Studios; the studio has produced 57 feature films, from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to Ralph Breaks the Internet. It was founded as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in 1923 and incorporated as Walt Disney Productions in 1929; the studio was dedicated to producing short films until it expanded into feature production in 1934. In 1983, Walt Disney Productions named its live action film studio Walt Disney Pictures. During a corporate restructuring in 1986, Walt Disney Productions was renamed The Walt Disney Company and the animation division, renamed Walt Disney Feature Animation, became a subsidiary of its film division, The Walt Disney Studios. In 2007, Walt Disney Feature Animation took on its current name, Walt Disney Animation Studios after Pixar was acquired by Disney in the same year.
For much of its existence, the studio was recognized as the premier American animation studio. The studio pioneered the art of storyboarding, now a standard technique used in both animated and live-action filmmaking; the studio's catalog of animated features is among Disney's most notable assets, with the stars of its animated shorts – Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck and Pluto – becoming recognizable figures in popular culture and mascots for The Walt Disney Company as a whole. Walt Disney Animation Studios continues to produce films using both traditional animation and computer-generated imagery. Kansas City, natives Walt Disney and Roy O. Disney founded the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in Los Angeles in 1923 and got their start producing a series of silent Alice Comedies short films featuring a live-action child actress in an animated world; the Alice Comedies were distributed by Margaret J. Winkler's Winkler Pictures, which also distributed a second Disney short subject series, the all-animated Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, through Universal Pictures starting in 1927.
Upon relocating to California, the Disney brothers started working in their uncle Robert Disney's garage at 4406 Kingswell Avenue in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles in October 1923 formally launched their studio in a small office on the rear side of a real estate agency's office at 4651 Kingswell Avenue. In February 1924, the studio moved next door to office space of its own at 4649 Kingswell Avenue. In 1925, Disney put down a deposit on a new location at 2719 Hyperion Avenue in the nearby Silver Lake neighborhood, which came to be known as the Hyperion Studio to distinguish it from the studio's other locations, in January 1926 the studio moved there and took on the name the Walt Disney Studio. Meanwhile, after the first year's worth of Oswalds, Walt Disney attempted to renew his contract with Winkler Pictures, but Charles Mintz, who had taken over Margaret Winkler's business after marrying her, wanted to force Disney to accept a lower advance payment for each Oswald short. Disney refused, as Universal owned the rights to Oswald rather than Disney, Mintz set up his own animation studio to produce Oswald cartoons.
Most of Disney's staff was hired away by Mintz to move over, once Disney's Oswald contract was done in mid-1928. Working in secret while the rest of the staff finished the remaining Oswalds on contract and his head animator Ub Iwerks led a small handful of loyal staffers in producing cartoons starring a new character named Mickey Mouse; the first two Mickey Mouse cartoons, Plane Crazy and The Galloping Gaucho, were previewed in limited engagements during the summer of 1928. For the third Mickey cartoon, Disney produced a soundtrack, collaborating with musician Carl Stalling and businessman Pat Powers, who provided Disney with his bootlegged "Cinephone" sound-on-film process. Subsequently, the third Mickey Mouse cartoon, Steamboat Willie, became Disney's first cartoon with synchronized sound and was a major success upon its November 1928 debut at the West 57th Theatre in New York City; the Mickey Mouse series of sound cartoons, distributed by Powers through Celebrity Productions became the most popular cartoon series in the United States.
A second Disney series of sound cartoons, the Silly Symphonies, debuted in 1929 with The Skeleton Dance. In 1930, disputes over finances between Disney and Powers led to Disney's studio, reincorporated on December 16, 1929, as Walt Disney Productions, signing a new distribution contract with Columbia Pictures. Powers in return signed away Ub Iwerks, who began producing cartoons at his own studio although he would return to Disney in 1940. Columbia distributed Disney's shorts for two years before the Disney studio entered a new distribution deal with United Artists in 1932; the same year, Disney signed a two-year exclusive deal with Technicolor to utilize its new 3-strip color film process, which allowed for fuller-color reproduction where previous color film processors could not. The result was the Silly Symphony Flowers and Trees, the first film commercially released in full Technicolor. Flowers and Trees was a major success, all Silly Symphonies were subsequently produced in Technicolor. By the early 1930s, Walt Disney had realized that the success of animated films depended upon telling gripping stories that would grab the audience and not let go, this realization led him to create a separate "story department" with storyboard artists dedicated to story development.
UPA (animation studio)
United Productions of America, better known as UPA, was an American animation studio active from the 1940s through the 1970s. Beginning with industrial and World War II training films, UPA produced theatrical shorts for Columbia Pictures such as the Mr. Magoo series. In 1956, UPA produced a television series for CBS, The Boing-Boing Show, hosted by Gerald McBoing Boing. In the 1960s, UPA produced syndicated Mr. Magoo and Dick Tracy television series and other series and specials, including Mister Magoo's Christmas Carol. UPA produced two animated features, 1001 Arabian Nights and Gay Purr-ee, distributed Japanese films from Toho Studios in the 1970s and 1980s. Gerald McBoing-Boing is a more recent television series based on UPA's memorable character and licensed and co-produced by Cookie Jar Entertainment and Classic Media, for Cartoon Network. A French-American reboot television series of Mr. Magoo, another one of UPA's memorable characters has been announced by Xilam as their first collaboration with DreamWorks Animation, is set to premiere on France 3 in France and Universal Kids.
UPA Pictures' legacy in the history of animation has been overshadowed by the commercial success and availability of the cartoon libraries of Warner Bros. MGM and Disney. Nonetheless, UPA had a significant impact on animation style and technique, its innovations were recognized and adopted by the other major animation studios and independent filmmakers all over the world. UPA pioneered the technique of limited animation. Although this style of animation came to be used in the 1960s and 1970s as a cost-cutting measure, it was intended as a stylistic alternative to the growing trend of recreating cinematic realism in animated films; the UPA library was purchased by Universal Pictures, after their successful acquisition of DreamWorks Animation. UPA was founded in the wake of the Disney animators' strike of 1941, which resulted in the exodus of a number of long-time Walt Disney staff members. Among them was John Hubley, a layout artist, unhappy with the ultra-realistic style of animation that Disney had been utilising.
Along with a number of his colleagues, Hubley believed that animation did not have to be a painstakingly realistic imitation of real life. Chuck Jones' 1942 cartoon The Dover Boys had demonstrated that animation could experiment with character design and perspective to create a stylized artistic vision appropriate to the subject matter. Hubley, Bobe Cannon, others at UPA, sought to produce animated films with sufficient freedom to express design ideas considered radical by other established studios. In 1943, Zack Schwartz, David Hilberman, Stephen Bosustow formed a studio called first Industrial Film and Poster Service, where they were free to apply their new techniques in film animation. Finding work in the then-booming field of wartime work for the government, the small studio produced a cartoon sponsored by the United Auto Workers in 1944. Hell-Bent for Election was directed by Chuck Jones and was produced for the reelection campaign of FDR; the film was a success, it led to another assignment from the UAW, Brotherhood of Man.
The film, directed by Bobe Cannon, advocated tolerance of all people. The short was innovative not only in its message but in its flat, stylized design, in complete defiance of the Disney approach. With its new-found status, the studio renamed itself UPA Pictures. UPA contracted with the United States government to produce its animation output, but the government contracts began to evaporate as the FBI began investigating Communist activities in Hollywood in the late 1940s. No formal charges were filed against anyone at UPA in the beginnings of McCarthyism, but the government contracts were lost as Washington severed its ties with Hollywood. UPA entered the crowded field of theatrical cartoons to sustain itself and gained a contract with Columbia Pictures. Columbia had been an also-ran in the field of animated shorts, it was not satisfied with the output of its Screen Gems cartoon studio; the UPA animators applied their stylistic concepts and storytelling to Columbia's characters The Fox and the Crow with the shorts Robin Hoodlum and The Magic Fluke, both directed by Hubley.
Both were nominated for Academy Awards, Columbia granted the studio permission to create its own new characters. UPA responded, not with another "funny animal," but a star, a human character, a crotchety, nearsighted old man; the Ragtime Bear, the first appearance of Mr. Magoo, was a box-office hit, UPA's star rose as the 1950s dawned. With a unique, sparse drawing style that contrasted with other cartoons of the day, not to mention the novelty of a human character in a field crowded with talking cats and rabbits, the Mr. Magoo series won accolades for UPA. Two Magoo cartoons won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: When Magoo Flew and Magoo's Puddle Jumper. UPA scored another hit based on a record by Dr. Seuss. Gerald McBoing Boing won UPA the Academy Award in 1951. In December 1950, UPA announced plans for a feature-length film based on the work of cartoonist and humorist James Thurber; the film was to combine live action and animation and was tentatively titled Men and Dogs, but it was never completed.