England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Anthony Grant Bloom is a football club chairman and professional poker player. Bloom has been a sports property investor, nicknamed The Lizard. Bloom appeared in the Late Night Poker television series and has a final table appearance on the World Poker Tour, he made back-to-back final table appearances in the first two Poker Million events. His first major win came in January 2004 when he won the Australasian Poker Championship in Melbourne, collecting a first prize of around A$420,000. Bloom won the £5,000 No Limit Hold'em VC Poker Cup Final in London on 5 August 2005 and won the £200,000 first prize, he had a fourth-place finish in the 2005 World Series of Poker Tournament of Champions. He was a member of the winning British team in the Poker Nations Cup; as of 2008, his total live tournament winnings exceed $1,500,000. Bloom won A$600,000 for his second-place finish in the High Rollers Challenge, event 8 of the Australian Poker Millions tournament held in Melbourne in Jan 2009. Bloom fell short of the million pound grand prize in the Poker Million IX event held in London on 10 December 2010.
He finished second behind Gus Hansen. Since 2009, Bloom has been the chairman of Brighton & Hove Albion, who are a Premier League club, having gained promotion in the 2016–17 season after 34 years out of the top flight of English football, he succeeded Dick Knight after securing a 75% shareholding in the club and investing £93 million in the development of the club's new ground, the American Express Community Stadium at Falmer. Since the stadium has been built, it has received numerous extensions in spectator capacity and has received funding to ensure that it is "Premier League ready" by installing floodlights, amongst other minor features. Upon taking over the club, Bloom declared his love of the game, "I've been a football fan and a gambler since the age of about seven or eight. My interest in both developed at the same time." Bloom is a longtime fan of Brighton and his family has had a long association with the club: his uncle Ray is a director and his grandfather, was vice-chairman during the 1970s.
On becoming chairman, Bloom appointed former Uruguay international Gus Poyet as manager, together they led the team to promotion from Football League One as champions in 2011, the season before Brighton moved into their new home - the Falmer Stadium. Poyet left the club in 2013 after losing in a play-off semi-final to Crystal Palace. In June 2013, Bloom appointed Óscar García as the new head coach of the club; the next manager was former Liverpool player Sami Hyypiä, who only lasted a few months in the managerial role after a poor start to the 2014–15 season left Brighton in the relegation zone. Chris Hughton became manager towards the end of 2014, the club have been successful since. Hughton steered Albion to safety in their 2014–15 campaign, guided the club to an impressive third-place position in the Championship in the following season, narrowly missing out on promotion to Middlesbrough on goal difference; the club would again taste defeat in a play-off semi final, for the third time in four years - this time to Sheffield Wednesday.
Brighton went one step further in the 2016–17 season under Hughton's guidance and Bloom's ownership, finishing second in the Championship and gaining promotion to the Premier League for the first time in the club's history. Bloom backed Hughton in the following transfer window, breaking several record transfer fees to improve the squad, ready for Brighton's first Premier League season. In 2018, Bloom completed the takeover of Belgian second division club Union SG. Bloom is Jewish, has contributed to the development of a synagogue project in Hove, he stepped in with the Brighton and Hove Hebrew Congregation suffering financial problems, the funding for the development will come from his Bloom Foundation, of which he is the chairman. Hendon Mob tournament results World Poker Tour Profile Jewish Chronicle feature
The Goldstone Ground was a football stadium in Hove, East Sussex, the home ground of Brighton & Hove Albion F. C. between 1902 and 1997. The Goldstone Ground stood on Old Shoreham Road, opposite Hove Park in a residential area; the area was part of Goldstone Farm and was first used for a football match by Hove F. C. on 7 September 1901. Albion played there for the first time on 22 February 1902, it became the club's permanent home the next season; the main West Stand was built in 1958 and consisted of seating and terraces. The South Stand was built in 1949 and served family spectators; the North Stand was built in 1984 and consisted of terraces. The East Stand was formed of uncovered terraces. Floodlights were first installed in 1961; the ground hosted football games for the 1948 Olympic Games, one of only two grounds outside London. On 23 September 1992, David Beckham made his professional début at this stadium, coming on as a substitute for Manchester United in a League Cup second round tie; the ground was used as the home venue for both Tottenham Hotspur and Wimbledon for their pre-season 1995 UEFA Intertoto Cup campaigns, where both clubs received season-long bans from European football by UEFA for fielding under-strength teams.
The bans were overturned on appeal. The final match at The Goldstone Ground was held on 26 April 1997, in which Brighton beat Doncaster Rovers 1-0; the result lifted Brighton off the bottom of Division Three and meant that either a draw or a win in their visit to Hereford United for their final game of that season the following weekend would prevent relegation to the Conference and preserve their Football League status. Brighton went on to draw that game 1-1 and thus secured survival, avoiding becoming the first former members of the top flight or the first major cup finalists to be relegated to the Conference. Between 1902 and 1997 the ground had admitted 22.9 million supporters to 2,174 games. The largest attendance at the Goldstone was 36,747 when the Albion played Fulham on 27 December 1958; the ground was sold by the board, who were trying to clear the club's mounting debts in an attempt to avoid bankruptcy, although no alternative home ground had been lined up, the fans were not consulted.
The then-chairman, Bill Archer, aimed to profit from the sale of the lucrative development land on which the Goldstone stood. A proposed ground-share with Portsmouth never materialised and the club arranged a ground-share with Gillingham at their Priestfield Stadium, over 70 miles from Brighton; the sale of the club's stadium provoked two pitch invasions by angry fans in protest against it. A pitch invasion late in the 1995-96 season, when the Seagulls were relegated to Division Three, resulted in a suspended sentence of three points deducted and a game played behind closed doors for the club. A similar protest on 1 October 1996 in a league game against Lincoln City meant that a Football League hearing on 9 December that year saw them deducted two league points; the club appealed against the points deduction but their appeal was rejected, although they still managed to avoid relegation from the Football League by a narrow margin that year. The Goldstone Ground was sold to property developers and the site was redeveloped as a retail park known as the Goldstone Retail Park.
After returning to the Brighton area in 1999 following two years in Gillingham, Brighton & Hove Albion played at the Withdean Stadium, an athletics stadium about two miles north of the city centre. In 2011, they moved to the purpose built Falmer Stadium, situated in the village of Falmer, about four miles north-east of the city centre
Brighton & Hove Albion F.C.
Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club referred to as Brighton, is a professional football club from Brighton where they play in the edge of the city in Falmer, England. They compete in the top tier of the English football league system. Brighton's home ground is the 30,750-capacity Falmer Stadium. Founded in 1901, nicknamed the "Seagulls" or "Albion", Brighton played their early professional football in the Southern League, before being elected to the Football League in 1920; the club enjoyed greatest prominence between 1979 and 1983 when they played in the First Division and reached the 1983 FA Cup Final, losing to Manchester United after a replay. They were relegated from the First Division in the same season. By the late 1990s, Brighton had slipped to the fourth tier of English football and were in financial trouble. After narrowly avoiding relegation from the Football League to the Conference in 1997, a boardroom takeover saved the club from liquidation. Successive promotions in 2001 and 2002 brought Brighton back to the second tier, in 2011, the club moved into the Falmer Stadium after 14 years without a permanent home ground.
In the 2016–17 season, Brighton finished second in the EFL Championship and were thus promoted to the Premier League, ending a 34-year absence from the top flight. Brighton & Hove Albion F. C. were founded in 1901 and 19 years in 1920, they were elected to the Football League's new Third Division – having been members of the Southern League. In the Southern League they won their only national honour to date, the FA Charity Shield, which at that time was contested by the champions of the Southern League, the Football League, by defeating Football League Champions Aston Villa in 1910. Mike Bamber was the chairman of Brighton from October 1972 until 1983, he famously brought Brian Clough to the club in 1973 and appointed former England player Alan Mullery as manager. Brighton's life as a Football League club had brought little in the way of success and headlines until 1979, under Mullery's management, they were promoted to the First Division as Second Division runners-up; the 1982/83 season saw a wildly inconsistent start for the club, with victories over Arsenal and Manchester United mixed in with heavy defeats.
Manager Mike Bailey lost his job at the start of December 1982. Jimmy Melia took over as manager, but was unable to turn the situation around and Brighton, after four seasons in the top flight, were relegated in 1983, finishing in bottom place. Despite their relegation, that season Brighton reached their first FA Cup final and drew 2–2 with Manchester United in the first match. Brighton's goals were scored by Gary Stevens; this was the final that featured the "miss" by Gordon Smith with the last kick of the game in extra time, prompting the BBC commentator Peter Jones to utter the well known phrase "...and Smith must score". However, Smith's kick was saved by the Manchester United goalkeeper, Gary Bailey. In the replay, Manchester United won 4–0. After four seasons, relegation to Division Three came in 1987, but the Albion bounced back the next season. In 1991 they lost the play-off final at Wembley to Notts County 3–1, only to be relegated the next season to the newly named Division Two. In 1996 further relegation came to Division Three.
The club's financial situation was becoming precarious, the club's directors decided that the Goldstone Ground would have to be sold to pay off some of the club's huge debts. Manager Jimmy Case was sacked after a poor start to the 1996–97 season saw Brighton stuck at the bottom of the league by a considerable margin; the club's directors appointed a relative unknown in Steve Gritt, the former joint manager of Charlton Athletic. Brighton's league form improved under Gritt, although their improving chances of survival were put under further threat by a two-point deduction imposed as punishment for a pitch invasion by fans who were protesting against the sale of the Goldstone ground. A lifelong fan named Dick Knight took control of the club in 1997 having led the fan pressure to oust the previous board following their sale of the club's Goldstone Ground to property developers. By the last day of the season, after being 13 points adrift at one stage, they were off the bottom of the table and had to play the team directly below them, Hereford United – the game was in their hands.
If Brighton won or drew, they would be safe. Brighton defender Kerry Mayo scored an own goal in the first half and it looked as though their 77-year league career was over, but a late goal from Robbie Reinelt ensured that Brighton retained their league status on goals scored, Hereford's 25-year league run was instead over. The sale of the Goldstone Ground went through in 1997, leading to Brighton having to play some 70 miles away at Gillingham's Priestfield stadium for two seasons. Micky Adams was appointed Brighton's manager in 1999. For the start of the 1999–2000 season the Seagulls secured a lease to play home games at Withdean Stadium, a converted athletics track in Brighton owned by the local council. 2000–01 was Brighton's first successful season for 13 years. They were promoted to Division Two. Adams left in October 2001 to work as Dave Bassett's assistant at Leicester, being replaced by former Leicester manager Peter Taylor; the transition proved to be a plus point for Brighton, who maintained their good form and ended the season as Division Two champions – winning a second successive promotion.
Just five years after succumbing to the double threat of losing their Football League status and going out of bus
The Argus (Brighton)
The Argus is a local newspaper based in Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, with editions serving the city of Brighton and Hove and the other parts of both East and West Sussex. Its current editor is Arron Hendy. Founded in 1880, for many years known as the Evening Argus, the newspaper is owned by Newsquest which in 1996 bought the Argus and its sister Westminster Press titles from the provincial papers group's parent, the Pearson Group; the Argus reached a peak circulation of 100,000 in the early 1980s but, like most of its counterparts in the British regional press, has since experienced a considerable decline in sales. In the period December 2010 to June 2011, the paper had an average daily circulation of 24,949 but by the period January to June 2013, average daily sales had dropped to 16,622. For the period July to December 2017 average daily circulation had fallen to 10,581. In October 2012, the Argus's cover price was increased by 45% to 65p on weekdays and 85p on Saturday, taking readership to an all-time low, but attempting to make more money because of the increased cover price.
In February 2018 the Argus was found by the Independent Press Standards Organisation to have breached its Editors' Code of Practice with regard to a story which it had published the previous September. IPSO found that the newspaper had behaved in a discriminatory way in its reporting of a court case by describing the plaintiff as an "amputee" in a headline and referring to his disability in the body of the article, in spite of the fact that the crime of which he was accused was "plainly irrelevant to his physical disability"; the committee found the reportage to be "a serious and unjustified breach of the Code" and was "extremely concerned" by the "serious failure in relation to both staff training and editorial oversight of material published by the newspaper." Further, IPSO was "deeply concerned about the newspaper’s handling of the complaint" and found that "the newspaper’s decision to make its offer to remove the material conditional on the complainant agreeing not to pursue his complaint further, was not a suitable or satisfactory response."
As remediation, the newspaper was ordered to publish IPSO's findings both on its website and in its print edition. In March 2018, the paper was forced to publish an apology after it used the photograph of an unrelated man to illustrate a news story. In October 2018 Newsquest paid "a substantial sum" in compensation and legal costs to a Shoreham businessman whom the Argus had wrongly claimed was connected with the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing and falsely alleged was an "ISIS sympathiser"; the complainant's barrister asserted that he had been caused "very great distress and damage to his reputation". Following the High Court verdict, a Newsquest representative admitted the report was "wholly false" and apologised. In November 2018 the paper was forced to publish an apology after falsely reporting that a man had supplied drugs to Geordie Shore star Aimee Spencer before she fell to her death. List of newspapers in the United Kingdom Official website Argus Headlines Flickr Group
Falmer Stadium, known for sponsorship purposes as the American Express Community Stadium, or colloquially as the Amex, is a football stadium in the village of Falmer, near Brighton and Hove, that serves as the home of Brighton & Hove Albion F. C.. The stadium was handed over from the developers to the club on 31 May 2011; the first competitive game played at the stadium was the 2010–11 season final of the Sussex Senior Cup between Brighton and Eastbourne Borough on 16 July 2011. The first league game was against Doncaster Rovers, who were the opponents in the last game played at Brighton's former stadium, the Goldstone Ground, 14 years earlier. Falmer Stadium hosted Premier League football for the first time in August 2017, following Albion's promotion at the end of the 2016–17 season; the stadium was designed to allow hosting for other events. It hosted; the plans were initiated by Brighton & Hove Albion after the club's previous home, the Goldstone Ground, was sold by the club's former board to developers in 1995 with no new home arranged.
When the club was evicted at the end of the 1996–1997 season, it ground-shared for two seasons at Gillingham's Priestfield Stadium, 50 miles away in Kent. Two years the club returned to Brighton as tenants of Withdean Stadium, upgraded to Football League capacity requirements and expanded when Brighton reached Division One in 2002 following two successive promotions; the site at Falmer was identified during the 1998–99 season and it was hoped that the stadium would be ready in the early to mid-2000s. However, subsequent delays in gaining planning permission meant that the club would have to wait until August 2011 before being able to play their home games there – more than a decade after the stadium was first proposed. Planning permission was given by the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in June 2002, with the intention of the stadium being ready for the 2005–06 season; the plans for the stadium were opposed by neighbouring local residents. While the stadium lies within Brighton and Hove, part of the north-east of the site is in Lewes.
Bennet's Field, as it is known, is now used for parking. Further complications were due to both vacant fields, the campus of the adjacent University of Sussex, being included in the South Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, although outside the National Park; this led to the designation of the stadium plans being the subject of a separate planning inquiry by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. John Prescott Deputy Prime Minister, approved the plans on 28 October 2005. However, Lewes District Council mounted a new legal challenge to the stadium plan. In April 2006, Prescott admitted that he had given his approval based on the misconception that only a small part of the stadium site lay on the Lewes side, withdrew it. Hazel Blears, the Secretary of State responsible for planning, re-affirmed the approval on 25 July 2007, her decision went against the advice of planning inspectors. Lewes District Council, Falmer Parish Council and the South Downs Joint Committee announced shortly afterwards that they would not mount a high court challenge.
On 4 September 2007, the deadline for appealing the new grant of permission expired and the club received full permission to proceed. On 27 November 2008 the Buckingham Group signed the construction contract for the new stadium and began preparation work on the site on 17 December; the stadium is set three storeys down into the ground. 138,000 cubic metres of chalk was excavated during its construction, put on the field on the south side of Village Way. This has been estimated to prevent 22,000 lorry trips taking the chalk to off-site landfill. Construction at the site started on 17 December 2008 and finished in May 2011; the stadium was designed with scope for expansion, plans were put in place to increase the capacity. The stadium was designed by London-based architects, KSS; the stadium capacity has been expanded, with an extra seating tier being installed above the East Stand, which increases the capacity to about 30,000 seats. The deal with American Express Europe and Hove's biggest private-sector employer, confirming the stadium's naming rights was announced on 22 June 2010.
The stadium opened on 30 July 2011, hosting a friendly match against then-Brighton manager Gus Poyet's old club Tottenham Hotspur, the home-side narrowly losing 3–2. The first competitive match was held on 6 August 2011, when Brighton beat Doncaster Rovers 2–1, after being 1–0 down; the stadium set its first record attendance with 21,897 against Liverpool. They were the first away team to win a competitive match at the stadium, beating Brighton 2–1 in a League Cup tie in September 2011; the stadium witnessed its first league defeat in its history when rivals Crystal Palace came from behind to win 3-1. The stadium uses hawks to scare away pigeons; this stops pigeons nesting in the stadium. On 2 January 2012, Brighton & Hove Albion submitted an application to Brighton and Hove City council to increase the stadium capacity by a further 8,000 seats as well as to add additional corporate boxes, new television facilities and a luxury suite; this was granted unanimously by Brighton & Hove City Council's planning committee on 25 April 2012.
The stadium was expanded to 27,250 by the start of the 2012–13 season, 27,750 by December 2012 and stood at 30,750 by the end of the 2012–13 season. A new record attendance was set on 15 December 2012 when 26,684 saw Brighton draw 0–0 with Nottingham Forest; this record attendance was broken on 26 January 2013, whe